Profiles in Courage,
Amazing white brothers & sisters who understood the meaning of America.
white brothers
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in·sight
the ability to understand people and situations in a very clear way

Our journey in America was made a little more bearable by these wonderful and true Americans who had remarkable insight.



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Portraits of James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Micheal Schwerner
photo #109


Mississippi civil rights workers
In June 1964 in Neshoba County, Mississippi, three civil rights workers were abducted and murdered in an act of racial violence. The victims were Andrew Goodman and Michael "Mickey" Schwerner from New York City, and James Chaney from Meridian, Mississippi.

All three were associated with the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) and its member organization the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). They had been working with the "Freedom Summer" campaign by attempting to register African Americans in the southern states to vote. This registration effort was a part of contesting over 70 years of laws and practices that supported a systematic policy of disenfranchisement of potential black voters by several southern states that began in 1890.

The three men had been arrested following a traffic stop in Meridian for speeding, escorted to the local jail and held for a number of hours. As the three left town in their car, they were followed by law enforcement and others. Before leaving Neshoba County their car was pulled over and all three were abducted, driven to another location, and shot at close range. The three men's bodies were then transported to an earthen dam where they were buried.

During the investigation it emerged that members of the local White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the Neshoba County Sheriff's Office and the Philadelphia, Mississippi Police Department were involved in the incident.

Seven were convicted and received relatively minor sentences for their actions. Outrage over the activists' disappearances helped gain passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

Forty-one years after the murders took place, one perpetrator, Edgar Ray Killen, was charged by the state of Mississippi for his part in the crimes. He was convicted of three counts of manslaughter in 2005 and is serving a 60 year sentence. On June 20, 2016, federal and state authorities officially closed the case and dispensed with the possibility of further prosecution.




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James Zwerg
James Zwerg

James Zwerg
is an American former minister who was involved with the Freedom Riders in the early 1960s.

In 1961, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) began to organize Freedom Rides. The first departed from Washington, D.C. and involved 13 black and white riders who rode into the South challenging white only lunch counters and restaurants. When they reached Anniston, Alabama one of the buses was ambushed and attacked.

Meanwhile, at an SNCC meeting in Tennessee, Lewis, Zwerg and 11 other volunteers decided to be reinforcements. Zwerg was the only white male in the group. Although scared for his life, Zwerg never had second thoughts. He recalled, "My faith was never so strong as during that time. I knew I was doing what I should be doing."

The group traveled by bus to Birmingham, where Zwerg was first arrested for not moving to the back of the bus with his black seating companion, Paul Brooks. Three days later, the riders regrouped and headed to Montgomery. At first the terminal there was quiet and eerie, but the scene turned into an ambush, with the riders attacked from all directions. "Mr. Zwerg was hit with his own suitcase in the face. Then he was knocked down and a group pummeled him".

The prostrate activist was beaten into unconsciousness somewhere around the time a man took Zwerg's head between his knees while others took turns pounding and clawing at his face. At one point while Zwerg was unconscious, three men held him up while a woman kicked him in the groin. After it seemed that the worst of the onslaught was over, Zwerg gained semi-consciousness and tried to use the handrails to the loading platform to pull himself to his feet.

As he struggled to get upright, a white man came and threw Zwerg over the rail. He crashed to the ground below, landing on his head. He was only the first to be beaten that day, but the attack on him may have been the most ruthless, Zwerg recalls, "There was nothing particularly heroic in what I did. If you want to talk about heroism, consider the black man who probably saved my life. This man in coveralls, just off of work, happened to walk by as my beating was going on and said 'Stop beating that kid. If you want to beat someone, beat me.' And they did. He was still unconscious when I left the hospital. I don't know if he lived or died."

James Zwerg is a true lover of justice and liberty for all American brothers who went far beyond the call of duty.




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Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
photo#115 -1941

Henry A. Wallace
was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–1945). Wallace was a strong supporter of desegregation. His public feuds with other officials caused significant controversy during his time as Vice President under Franklin Delano Roosevelt and resulted in Democrats dropping him from the ticket in the 1944 election for Senator Harry S Truman.

Wallace was one of those rare white Americans who had sincerely felt all citizens, deserve justice and equality in America. When this site happens upon one of these great individuals it makes up super excited; it's almost like finding refreshing water in a barren desert. Black scientist George Washington Carver was a major influence in the life of Wallace when he was a boy.

Carver was acquainted with Henry's dad who was a president of Iowa State College. The father invited Carver to the family home, and Carver would go on walks with the boy throughout the property and helped him to identify species of plants and plant parts. In the greenhouse, he taught Young Henry about plant breeding. They would experiment with diseased plants and crop breeding. As he grew older, Henry Wallace would denounce the foolish white superiority theory. He stated that all are created equal and can achieve if given the opportunity, something that blacks were denied.

In 1948 Wallace would make an unsuccessful run as the Progressive Party's presidential candidate in the presidential election. His platform advocated universal government health insurance, full voting rights for black Americans, and an end to segregation. His campaign included African American candidates campaigning alongside white candidates in the segregated South, and he also refused to appear before segregated audiences or to eat or stay in segregated establishments.

Time magazine, which opposed the Wallace candidacy, described Wallace as "ostentatiously" riding through the towns and cities of the segregated South "with his Negro secretary beside him." A barrage of eggs and tomatoes were hurled at Wallace and struck him and his campaign members during the tour.



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Judge John Marshall Harlan
Judge John Marshall Harlan

Judge John Marshall Harlan
Harlan started his life supporting slavery and was against emancipation for blacks but in time changed his views. He became an American lawyer and politician from Kentucky who served as an Associate Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court during the famous Plessy v. Ferguson case (1896). White people didn't want to live with blacks and illegally passed laws to keep the races separate.

Judge Harlan was the only Justice on the bench who voted against separation. He understood what real American equality meant as opposed to hypocrisy the rest of white America were practicing. It was easy for whites from the Presidents on down to preach justice and liberty for all citizens, but it was an entirely different thing to put it into practice, but not for this great man who was the lone dissenter and went against popular opinion not only in this case but others as well. During his career he would become known as "The Great Dissenter"

Harlan quote:
"But given the constitution, in the eye of the law, there is in this country no superior, dominant, ruling class of citizens. There is no caste here. Our constitution is color-blind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens. We boast of the freedom enjoyed by our people above all other peoples. But it 's hard to reconcile that boast with a state of the law which, practically, puts the brand of servitude and degradation upon a large class of our fellow-citizens, our equals before the law."

Every African American should know this man's name and what he stood for. He did it for democracy and for you.




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Charles Sumner
Charles Sumner
photo#105

Charles Sumner
(January 6, 1811 – March 11, 1874) was an American politician and senator from Massachusetts. As an academic lawyer and a powerful orator, Sumner was the leader of the antislavery forces in Massachusetts and a leader of the Radical Republicans in the United States Senate during the American Civil War working to destroy the Confederacy, free all the slaves and keep on good terms with Europe.

During Reconstruction, he fought to minimize the power of the ex-Confederates and guarantee equal rights to the Freedmen. Throughout the civil war, Sumner had been an individual champion of blacks, being the most vigorous advocate of emancipation, of enlisting blacks in the Union Army, and of the establishment of the Freedmen's Bureau.

As one of the Radical Republican leaders in the post-war Senate, Sumner fought to provide equal civil and voting rights for the freedmen on the grounds that "consent of the governed" was a basic principle of American republicanism and in order to keep ex-Confederates from gaining political offices and undoing the North's victory in the Civil War.




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Thaddeus Stevens
Thaddeus Stevens

Thaddeus Stevens
(April 4, 1792 – August 11, 1868) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and one of the leaders of the Radical Republican faction of the Republican Party during the 1860s.

A fierce opponent of slavery and discrimination against African-Americans, Stevens sought to secure their rights during Reconstruction, in opposition to President Andrew Johnson.

As chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee during the American Civil War, he played a major part in the war's financing.

Stevens came to believe that not only should slavery be abolished, but that African-Americans should be given a stake in the South's future through the confiscation of land from planters to be distributed to the freedmen. His plans went too far for the Moderate Republicans, and were not enacted.




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George W. Ashburn
George W. Ashburn
photo#108-1868

George W. Ashburn
An excellent example of true brotherly love. Men like George W. Ashburn made it possible for blacks to thrive and succeed. He believed in us as fellow human beings when most beleived we were half beast/human.

George W. Ashburn who was white and a staunch Radical Republican, assassinated by the Ku Klux Klan in Columbus, Georgia for his pro-African-American sentiments. He was the first murder victim of the Klan in Georgia.

During the American Civil War, he was commissioned a Colonel in the Union army. After President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in April 1865, Ashburn wrote a letter to Andrew Johnson stating "the hand of God" assassination because Lincoln was not properly prepared to punish ex-Confederates for their deeds which without a doubt was ignored by racist President Johnson.

Considered a scalawag by his white Columbus neighbors, he worked with the Freedmen's Bureau and alongside African American leaders such as Henry McNeal Turner. His actions quickly created several enemies across the South which meant imminent death for him.

Assassination
On the night of March 30, 1868, Ashburn participated at a huge gathering of blacks and Republicans at Temperance Hall in Columbus, Georgia. One of the featured speakers was Henry McNeal Turner. Just after midnight, Ashburn was murdered at a house on the corner of 13th Avenue and 1st Street by a group of five well-dressed men wearing masks.

How many of us would sacrifice our lives for a person of another race, and especially a race considered to be the scum of the earth? George W. Ashburn will not be forgotten for what he did in the Negroes behalf. A great and genuine American brother. RIP




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Frank Sinatra
photo#101-yr-1915
Frank Sinatra

Long before it was politically correct, Sinatra treated blacks with dignity and respect. Here is a quote by ole blue eyes himself.

"We've got a hell of a long way to go in this racial situation. As long as most white men think of a Negro first and a man second, we're in trouble. I don't know why we can't grow up."



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Alan Freed - Moondog
Alan Freed
photo#100

Alan Freed
(December 15, 1921 – January 20, 1965), also known as Moondog, was an American disc jockey. He became internationally known for promoting the mix of blues, country and rhythm and blues music on the radio in the United States and Europe under the name of rock and roll.

Soon after World War II, Freed landed broadcasting jobs at smaller radio stations, where in 1945, he became a local favorite for playing hot jazz and pop recordings. Freed enjoyed listening to these new styles because he liked the rhythms and tunes. Freed used an African-American accent and with a Rhythm and Blues record called "Moondog" as his theme song, broadcast R&B hits into the night.

Freed is commonly referred to as the "father of rock'n'roll" due to his promotion of the style of music, and his introduction of the phrase "rock and roll", in reference to the musical genre, on mainstream radio in the early 1950s. He helped bridge the gap of segregation among young teenage Americans, presenting music by African-American artists (rather than cover versions by white artists) on his radio program, and arranging live concerts attended by racially mixed audiences.




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Ed Sullivan
Ed Sullivan
photo#101

Ed Sullivan
(September 28, 1901 – October 13, 1974) was a television personality, sports and entertainment reporter, and longtime syndicated columnist for the New York Daily News. He is principally remembered as the creator and host of the television variety program The Ed Sullivan Show. Broadcast for 23 years from 1948 to 1971, it set a record as the longest-running variety show in US broadcast history.

Sullivan appreciated African American talent. According to biographer Gerald Nachman, "Most TV variety shows welcomed 'acceptable' black superstars like Louis Armstrong, Pearl Bailey and Sammy Davis, Jr. ... but in the early 1950s, long before it was fashionable, Sullivan was presenting the much more obscure black entertainers he had enjoyed in Harlem on his uptown rounds — legends like Peg Leg Bates, Pigmeat Markham and Tim Moore ... strangers to white America.

He defied pressure to exclude African American entertainers and to avoid interacting with them when they did appear. "Sullivan had to fend off his hard-won sponsor, Ford's Lincoln dealers, after kissing Pearl Bailey on the cheek and daring to shake Nat King Cole's hand," Nachman wrote. According to biographer Jerry Bowles, "Sullivan once had a Ford executive thrown out of the theater when he suggested that Sullivan stop booking so many black acts. And a dealer in Cleveland told him 'We realize that you got to have niggers on your show. But do you have to put your arm around Bill 'Bojangles' Robinson at the end of his dance?' Sullivan had to be physically restrained from beating the man to a pulp." He later raised money to help pay for Robinson's funeral.

In an era when few opportunities existed for African American performers on national television, Sullivan was a champion of black talent. He launched the careers of many artists by presenting them to a nationwide TV audience and ignored the criticism. In an NEA interview, Sullivan commented:

" The most important thing is that we've put on everything but bigotry. When the show first started in '48, I had a meeting with the sponsors. There were some Southern dealers present, and they asked if I intended to put on Negroes. I said yes. They said I shouldn't, but I convinced them I wasn't going to change my mind. And you know something? We've gone over very well in the South. Never had a bit of trouble."

On November 20, 1955, African-American guitarist Bo Diddley appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show, only to infuriate Sullivan ("I did two songs, and he got mad"). Diddley had been asked to sing Tennessee Ernie Ford's hit "Sixteen Tons". But when he appeared on stage, he sang his #1 R&B hit "Bo Diddley". Diddley later recalls, "Ed Sullivan says to me in plain words: 'You are the first black boy—quote—that ever double-crossed me!' I was ready to fight because I was a young little dude off the streets of Chicago, an' him callin' me 'black' in them days was as bad as sayin' 'nigger.' My manager says to me 'That's Mr. Sullivan!' I said: 'I don’t give a shit about Mr. Sullivan, he don't talk to me like that!' An' so he told me, he says, 'I'll see that you never work no more in show business. You'll never get another TV show in your life!'" Indeed, Diddley seems to have been banned from further appearances, as "the guitarist never did appear on The Ed Sullivan Show again.




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Teena Marie
Teena Marie
photo#102

Teena Marie
(March 5, 1956 – December 26, 2010), better known by her stage name Teena Marie, was an American singer, songwriter, and producer. She was known by her childhood nickname Tina before taking the stage name Teena Marie; she later acquired the nickname of Lady Tee (sometimes spelled Lady T), given to her by collaborator and friend, Rick James.

She was known for her distinctive soulful vocals, which initially caused many listeners to believe she was black. Her success in R&B and soul and loyalty to these genres would earn her the title Ivory Queen of Soul. She played rhythm guitar, keyboards, and congas. She also wrote, produced, sang, and arranged virtually all of her songs since her 1980 release, Irons in the Fire, which she later said was her favorite album.

Teena Marie never married. She gave birth to a daughter named Alia Rose in 1991. As of 2009, Alia Rose sings under the name Rose LeBeau. Throughout her career, Teena Marie lived in Inglewood, California and Encino before settling in Pasadena in the mid-1980s. Teena Marie was godmother to actress and comedian Maya Rudolph and to Marvin Gaye's daughter Nona Gaye. She also cared for Rick James' son, Rick, Jr. and family friend Jeremiah O'Neal. Lenny Kravitz posted a video in which he said that Teena Marie had taken him into her home and helped him when he was struggling early in his career.




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Barbara Dane
Barbara Dane
photo#104

Barbara Dane
Barbara Dane (born May 12, 1927) is an American folk, blues, and jazz singer. "Bessie Smith in stereo," wrote jazz critic Leonard Feather in the late 1950s. Time said of Dane: "The voice is pure, rich ... rare as a 20 karat diamond" and quoted Louis Armstrong's exclamation upon hearing her at the Pasadena Jazz Festival: "Did you get that chick? She's a gasser!"

Barbara Dane's parents arrived in Detroit from Arkansas in the 1920s. Out of high school, Dane began to sing regularly at demonstrations for racial equality and economic justice. While still in her teens, she sat in with bands around town and won the interest of local music promoters. She got an offer to tour with Alvino Rey's band, but she turned it down for singing at factory gates and in union halls.

To Ebony magazine, she seemed "startlingly blonde, especially when that powerful dusky alto voice begins to moan of trouble, two-timing men, and freedom ... with stubborn determination, enthusiasm and an essential love for the underdog, [she is] making a name for herself ... aided and abetted by some of the oldest names in jazz who helped give birth to the blues." The seven-page Ebony article was filled with photos of Dane working with Memphis Slim, Willie Dixon, Muddy Waters, Clara Ward, Mama Yancey, Little Brother Montgomery and others.




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Rod Serling
Rod Serling
photo#106

Rod Serling
Rodman Edward "Rod" Serling (December 25, 1924 – June 28, 1975) was an American screenwriter, playwright, television producer, and narrator known for his live television dramas of the 1950s and his science fiction anthology TV series, The Twilight Zone. Serling was active in politics, both on and off the screen, and helped form television industry standards. He was known as the "angry young man" of Hollywood, clashing with television executives and sponsors over a wide range of issues including censorship, racism, and war.

Serling drew on his experience for many episodes, frequently about boxing, military life, and airplane pilots. The Twilight Zone incorporated his social views on racial relations, somewhat veiled in the science fiction and fantasy elements of the shows. Occasionally, the point was quite blunt, such as in the episode "I Am the Night—Color Me Black," in which racism and hatred cause a dark cloud to form in the American South, before spreading across the world. Many Twilight Zone stories reflected his views on gender roles, featuring quick-thinking, resilient women as well as shrewish, nagging wives.




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Julius Rosenwald
Julius Rosenwald
photo #109-yr-1912

Julius Rosenwald
was an American businessman and philanthropist. He is best known as a part-owner and leader of Sears, Roebuck, and Company, and for establishing the Rosenwald Fund, which donated millions in matching funds to support the education of African-American children in the rural South, as well as other philanthropic causes in the first half of the 20th century.

Booker T. Washington encouraged Rosenwald to address the poor state of African-American education in the US, which suffered from small buildings and books. Rosenwald provided funds to build six small schools in rural Alabama, which were constructed and opened in 1913 and 1914 and overseen by Tuskegee. As the projects have been constructed by and for African Americans, they showed Rosenwald's intention to remain behind the scenes in this effort.

Over the course of his life, Rosenwald and his fund donated over $70 million to public schools, colleges and universities, museums, Jewish charities and black institutions. The rural school building program was one of the largest programs administered by the Rosenwald Fund. It contributed more than $4 million in matching funds to the construction of more than 5,000 schools, shops, and teachers' homes in the South. These schools became informally known as "Rosenwald Schools."




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Laura Spelman Rockefeller
Laura Spelman Rockefeller
photo #107

Laura Spelman Rockefeller
Laura Celestia "Cettie" Spelman Rockefeller (September 9, 1839 – March 12, 1915) was an American abolitionist, philanthropist, schoolteacher, and prominent member of the Rockefeller family. Her husband was Standard Oil co-founder John D. Rockefeller. She is the namesake of Spelman College, founded to educate black women in the South, and the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial.

Throughout their lives, the Rockefeller family continued to donate ten percent of their income to charity, including substantial donations to Spelman College. Cettie died on March 12, 1915 at age 75 of a heart attack, at the family estate Kykuit in Pocantico Hills, New York.




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Anthony Bourdain
Anthony Bourdain
photo #108

Anthony Bourdain
Anthony Michael Bourdain is an American chef, author, and television personality. Bourdain has a public persona that has been characterized as a "culinary bad boy." Because of his liberal use of profanity and sexual references in his television show No Reservations, the network has placed viewer discretion advisories on each segment of each episode.

This man is a real American showing genuine love wherever he visits. A real inspiration to the forgotten of the earth. He truly loves people and can see beyond the bull. He's a people person and a true American. He once declared that the unwashed warthog rectum he ate in Namibia and the fermented shark he ate in Iceland are among "the worst meals of [his] life.", now be honest, which one of us would even attempt this?

Bourdain is a former drug addict and frankly describes his former addiction, including how he once resorted to selling his record collection on the street to raise enough money to purchase drugs.

On many of his shows, he constantly talks about how greedy people in the world have destroyed entire cultures of the innocent. We love you Anthony, and wish there were more like you.

Bourdain is an advocate for communicating the value and tastiness of traditional or "peasant" foods, including specifically all of the varietal bits and unused animal parts not usually eaten by affluent, 21st-century U.S. citizens. Bourdain has also consistently noted and championed the high quality and deliciousness of freshly prepared street food in other countries — especially developing countries — as compared to fast food chains in the U.S. A real American brother who is welcome in our home anytime.




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#100 -   Public Domain image - By TGC-Topps Gum Cards (eBay frontback) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#101 -  By Maurice Carnes LaClaire [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#102 -   By william Morgan2010 [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#103 -   By Bain News Service, publisher [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#104 -   By Associated Students, University of California, Los Angeles [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#105 -   By Southworth & Hawes (Metropolitan Museum of Art) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#106 -   By CBS Television via the Bureau of Industrial Service. During the 1950s and 1960s, television networks, program sponsors and studios often used either advertising or public relations agencies to distribute publicity materials. The Bureau was a division of ad agency Young & Rubicam. (eBay item photo frontpress release from back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#107 -   By Bain News Service (publisher) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#108 -   By Peabody Awards (Anthony Bourdain and Charlie Rose) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#109 -   By Federal Bureau of Investigation Workers (Federal Bureau of Investigation) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons



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