blast from the past in 1998

blast from the past
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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1998:
Stokely Carmichael
    Stokely Carmichael also known as Kwame Turé, was a Trinidadian-American revolutionary active in the 1960s Civil Rights Movement, and later, the global Pan-African movement.

    Growing up in the United States from the age of eleven, he graduated from Howard University. He rose to prominence in the civil rights and Black Power movements, first as a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), later as the "Honorary Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party, and finally as a leader of the All-African Peoples Revolutionary Party.

    Stokely Carmichael moved to Harlem, in New York, New York from Port of Spain in 1952 at the age of eleven, to rejoin his parents. They had emigrated when he was aged two, leaving him with his grandmother and two aunts. He had three sisters. As a boy, Carmichael had attended Tranquility School in Trinidad until his parents were able to send for him.

    While at Howard, Carmichael had joined the Nonviolent Action Group (NAG), the Howard campus affiliate of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Kahn introduced Carmichael and the other SNCC activists to Bayard Rustin, an African-American leader who became an influential adviser to SNCC. Inspired by the sit-ins in the South, during college Carmichael became more active in the Civil Rights Movement.

    In his first year at the University, in 1961, he participated in the Freedom Rides of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to desegregate the bus station restaurants along U.S. Route 40 between Baltimore and Washington, D.C. and was frequently arrested, spending time in jail. He was arrested so many times for his activism that he lost count, sometimes estimating at least 29 or 32.

    Along with eight other riders, on June 4, 1961, Carmichael traveled by train from New Orleans, Louisiana, to Jackson, Mississippi, to integrate the formerly "white" section on the train. Before getting on the train in New Orleans, they encountered white protestors blocking the way.

    Carmichael says: "They were shouting. Throwing cans and lit cigarettes at us. Spitting on us." Eventually, they were able to board the train. When the group arrived in Jackson, Carmichael and the eight other riders entered a "white" cafeteria. They were charged with disturbing the peace, arrested and taken to jail.

    Eventually, Carmichael was transferred to the infamous Parchman Farm in Sunflower County, Mississippi, along with other Freedom Riders. He gained notoriety for being a witty and hard-nosed leader among the prisoners.

    He served 49 days with other activists at the Parchman State Prison Farm. At 19 years of age, Carmichael was the youngest detainee in the summer of 1961. He spent 53 days at Parchman Farm in "a six-by-nine cell. Twice a week to shower. No books, nothing to do. They would isolate us. Maximum security."

    In 1964, Carmichael became a full-time field organizer for SNCC in Mississippi. He worked on the Greenwood voting rights project under Robert Parris Moses. Throughout Freedom Summer, he worked with grassroots African-American activists, including Fannie Lou Hamer, whom Carmichael named as one of his personal heroes. SNCC organizer Joann Gavin wrote that Hamer and Carmichael "understood one another as perhaps no one else could."

    Carmichael became chairman of SNCC in 1966, taking over from John Lewis, who later was elected to the US Congress. A few weeks after Carmichael took office, James Meredith was shot and wounded by a shotgun during his solitary "March Against Fear." Carmichael joined Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Floyd McKissick, Cleveland Sellers and others to continue Meredith's march. He was arrested during the march and, upon his release, he gave his first "Black Power" speech, using the phrase to urge black pride and socio-economic independence:

    “ It is a call for black people in this country to unite, to recognize their heritage, to build a sense of community. It is a call for black people to define their goals, to lead their organizations.

    Toure would go on to fight many more battles too many to mention in this short space for the Negro cause.

    We proudly honor Stokely Carmichael also known as Kwame Turé with the 1998 Hamite Award. These are the type of individuals that blacks needed during the Civil Rights era. Bold, fearless men who stood up for justice. I mean let's face it if America was claiming to be a just country, Kwame Turé felt it his duty to expose her.

    It was not because he hated America, but his goal was to shine the light of justice on the white racist who was ruining our country. I'm sure you will agree he did an excellent job. Now the question is are we honoring this great American by living a just and fruitful life, or did he die for nothing?

    After his diagnosis of prostate cancer in 1996, Toure was treated for a period in Cuba, while receiving some support from the Nation of Islam. Benefit concerts for Toure have held in Denver; New York; Atlanta; and Washington, D.C., to help defray his medical expenses.

    The government of Trinidad and Tobago, where he was born, awarded him a grant of $1,000 a month for the same purpose. He went to New York, where he was treated for two years at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, before returning to Guinea.

    In 1998 Toure died of prostate cancer at the age of 57 in Conakry, Guinea.

Stokely Carmichael
Stokely Carmichael
photo #108-yr-1966





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How were blacks feeling in 1998?
happy mood of blacks


Lewinsky scandal



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blacks and basketball

 Lawrence Eugene Doby
Lawrence Eugene Doby
photo #106-yr-1923

Barry Bonds
Barry Bonds
photo #101-yr-1994

Floyd Mayweather Jr.
Floyd Mayweather Jr.
photo #120-yr-2015

     Sports in 1998
  • August 2, 1998 - San Francisco Giants player Barry Bonds charges the mound after being hit by a pitch causing a bench-clearing slugfest.

  • 1998 - Larry Doby was selected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1998.

  • 1998 - Floyd Mayweather Jr. wins The Ring magazine's Fighter of the Year award.



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Tommie Smith  and John Carlos black power salute
Tommie Smith and John Carlos
Three Proud People mural in Newtown photo #109

DID YOU KNOW?
    Ever wonder how the term "African American" came into existence? After the civil rights movement, blacks felt the need for a more accurate term to describe the race than colored or Negro, which was associated with much pain and suffering. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, blacks no longer approved of the term Negro. In its experimental stages the term Afro-American was used for a while but didn't last. Later the Black Power movement made us feel proud using black as the term in describing our race.

    The song, "Say It Loud – I'm Black, and I'm Proud" by James Brown became an unofficial anthem of the Black Power movement. But it wasn't until the 1980s the term African American was advanced on the model of, for example, German-American or Irish-American to give descendants of American slaves and other American blacks who lived through the slavery era a heritage and a cultural base. The term was popularized in black communities around the country via word of mouth and ultimately received mainstream use after Jesse Jackson publicly used the term in front of a national audience. Subsequently, major media outlets adopted its use.

Proud to be African American


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WAR ON BLACKS, OR ALSO KNOWN AS WAR ON DRUGS

Mass Incarceration


law and order
Convicts Leased to Harvest Timber, around 1915, Florida
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Convicts_Leased_to_Harvest_Timber.png
(public domain image)


    The more things change, the more they stay the same


Shortly after slavery, blacks were thrown into prison for petty and minor offenses which resulted in long sentences. It was big business for the penitentiary because they would hire these convicts out for various jobs and keep blacks off the streets at the same time. They killed two birds with one stone.


It was a form of bondage that did not last a lifetime and did not automatically extend from one generation to the next. But it was nonetheless slavery – a system in which armies of free men, guilty of no crimes and entitled by law to freedom, were compelled to labor without compensation, were repeatedly bought and sold, and were forced to do the bidding of white masters through the regular application of extraordinary physical coercion.


This form of slavery was abolished by President Franklin D. Roosevelt December 12, 1941.


Is the criminal justise system much different today?


President Richard Nixon started the modern day Law and Order campaign of the War on Drugs. President Ronald Reagan would continue with the program in his administration, and later President Bill Clinton during his term created tough mandatory sentencing that unfairly affected blacks.

Crack cocaine was associated with poor blacks because it was a cheap drug and in contrast with powder cocaine which was considered a white man's drug because it was more expensive. Neither drug was more deadly than the other, but crack was demonized because it was associated with black people.

While a person found with five grams of crack cocaine faced a five-year mandatory minimum prison sentence, a person holding powder cocaine could receive the same sentence only if he or she held five hundred grams. Similarly, those carrying ten grams of crack cocaine faced a ten-year mandatory sentence, while possession of one thousand grams of powder cocaine was required for the same sentence to be imposed.

Don't get it wrong, these were very well ORGANIZED methods from anti-Americans in control of our country to hold blacks down and is very well documented. It seems these anti-Americans are always reinventing themselves in ways of oppressing black citizens. Perhaps they should show some love for a change instead of acting on their imagined fear.


WHO IS THIS MAN?


John Ehrlichman


John Ehrlichman who was counsel to President Richard Nixon and would later become a criminal himself with his involvement in the Watergate scandal made the following comment about the reason for Nixon's war on drugs:

“The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course, we did.”



Check these statistics out

One of every three black American males born today can expect to go to prison in his lifetime. While black defendants account for roughly 80% of those arrested for crack-related offenses, public health data has found that two-thirds of crack cocaine users are white or Hispanic. The leading cause of incarceration of an African American male is a non-violent drug offense. Most black men in prisons are not monsters but just got caught up in the system for a non-violent mistake they may have made.

These stats are for the years 1970 - 2010



1 in every 106 White males age 18 or older is incarcerated
law and order



1 in every 36 Hispanic males age 18 or older is incarcerated
law and order



1 in every 15 Black males age 18 or older is incarcerated
law and order


    We have to help our black boys because nobody else cares. Wouldn't it be nice if today's blacks possessed the same gumption our African American ancestors had by taking control of our destiny as a race of people? It seems ever since the end of slavery we are always pointing out to the white man how unfair and unjust he has treated us. Don't you think he knows that? What do we expect them to do, start crying and say I'm sorry and start treating us like fellow Americans by sharing freely? Don't hold your breath.


    At this point in history, it's clear we must begin to work on ourselves more than anything else. We've probably gone just about as far as we can go with the protesting/marching strategy which was an excellent choice over the decades, but now it's time for action on our part. MLK would have likely said the same thing.


    A very unpopular message for many blacks who live with the self-pity attitude but the only avenue available for American success. Can you imagine how much it would lift our race if every single black boy possessed a college degree? It's a dream that could become a reality if we believed it.


    Education plays the significant role in American success for blacks and any group of blacks in a position of authority such as sports figures, entertainers, singers, etc. that teaches the opposite by their examples we should run away from them as fast as possible. Sadly, these groups are the ones that many blacks look up to for guidance instead of our black educators.


    When one of us climbs the very challenging and racist ladder of success in the American power structure by using our God-given brain power we will not forget about those we left behind, but instead will help other blacks do the same by extending a hand until we find ourselves in a position of directing instead of always asking and begging.


    Our ancestors knew we could do it and we have to believe it too. We are from some of the strongest and finest stock that is known to humankind and should set the example for all dark skinned people over the entire earth simply because we are in a position to do so and live in the greatest country in the world. Our story is one of the greatest ever told. We are AmazingBlacks.



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blacks and politics

President Bill Clinton
President Bill Clinton
photo #110-yr-1993

Monica  Lewinsky
Monica Lewinsky
photo #102-yr-1998

     Political Scene in 1998
  • 1998 - Bill Clinton an American Democratic politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001 was inaugurated into office. He previously served as Governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and 1983 to 1992, and as the state's Attorney General from 1977 to 1979.

  • January 17, 1998 - President Bill Clinton faces sexual harassment charges from former Arkansas state employee Paula Jones. Analysis:  Looks like our president likes the ladies, only one problem, well maybe two problems, he's married and he has a moral obligation to the nation. Hey, But I know how tough it can be, American women are beautiful.

  • 1998 - Dr. Carolyn Jefferson-Jenkins’ was a two-term President of the League of Women Voters of the United States and Chair of the League of Women Voters Education Fund.

  • January 26, 1998 - President Bill Clinton says to the people of the United States, "I want to say one thing to the American people; I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky".

  • November 19, 1998 - Monica Lewinsky scandal: The United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee begins impeachment hearings against U.S. President Bill Clinton.



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black leaders ashamed of our progress


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america' last chance
america' last chance


Liberty, Justice and Freedom For All

It's true at one time in history; America was intended solely for white people, but not all white people. Most of America's founders desired only the fittest and smartest whites to settle here. The Irish, Italians and many more ethnic groups were considered low-life and not worthy to intermingle with the self-proclaimed superior whites, in fact, they were treated as harshly as the black slaves.


But within the time they changed their views and allowed lower class whites to have an equal say in the building of America, and of course being similar in color made it easy for these people to blend in with one another, and in time you couldn't tell the difference. A luxury that was impossible for blacks to attain.


But on the other hand, Black slaves were considered savage beast without the capabilities to learn and contribute to America, other than with their back-breaking labor.


Why did whites feel this way abouts blacks?


Before their arrival to America as slaves, they were very far behind in development and intelligence. There were great African Kingdoms, but they were no match for the ruthless Europeans. African rulers failed to educate their citizens which would have been a huge undertaking because there were thousands upon thousands of different tribes and clans with their distinct language and customs.


Most Africans didn't know how to read and write and would pass their history down from generation to the next orally. They also believed profoundly in superstition and all sorts of foolish beliefs that didn't help them once the Europeans arrived allowing them to ravage and dominate the African populations completely. Whites were very competitive and chose to proclaim themselves superior to the blacks, instead of sharing their knowledge to help these uneducated Africans.


So from the beginning, the Europeans made this a race issue. Africans were so far behind in human development, whites thought very lowly of them, and since they didn't have examples and scientific techniques we have today to prove otherwise they did as they pleased with little protest from the majority of the white population. In fact, most whites believed blacks were half human/beast only because they didn't know any better.


But in time things would change, and there would become many free blacks and also blacks in slavery who would achieve against all the odds of racism. Many whites began to realize that blacks were human beings and if given a chance could be just as intelligent as white people. The movement was started to get blacks equality in America to the dismay of hardcore white supremacist who refused to accept this undeniable evidence that all men are equal in ability.


Scientific discoveries would later determine there was no genetic proof that blacks were inferior to other races which would utterly destroy the superior white theory that had been preached for centuries. All that blacks needed was an education and an opportunity to compete and could do just as well as other races.


Although African-Americans were not immigrants but brought here as slaves, they had things in common because they also yearned for liberty, justice, and freedom. In time what made America so great was it realized it was wrong and attempted to change it's view so it could live up to the true meaning of liberty and justice for all.


But this wouldn't be easy because of many white people who refused to change their views and progress to a new era of love and cooperation for all humanity. They choose to live in the past where they enjoyed a comfortable, privileged life without blacks in the loop.


america' last chance


Since the races were compared to an inferior versus superior issue, many centuries ago white superior beliefs may have been a reasonable belief, with the Africans so far behind in human development and Europeans much more advanced. But with the successes of countless black Americans and other dark-skinned people around the world today, racism and hate have become an archaic, unreasonable and ignorant belief.


Is America at the crossroad?

Well if so, it had to happen one day. For generation after generation, whites have either consciously or unconsciously enjoyed special privilege in America. They control the purse strings not only in America but around the world in dictating a perverted version of justice and liberty for all. Other groups at home and abroad are growing weary and are fighting back.


Now the questions become, what will America do next? Will she attempt in becoming a true America of tolerance, justice, and liberty for all people or retreat to her lily white past where there is undoubtedly much danger awaiting for all who reside in her? Britain must answer the same questions.


america' last chance


Simply put, for people who say they love America but hate certain ethnic groups who reside in her are lying to themselves. Their hatred is not based on anything factual. They hate America. They're not true Americans and ultimately fail to understand the real meaning of her and seek to destroy the last great empire in world history with their foolish hate.


america' last chance






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racism

     Race in 1998
  • June 7, 1998 - Three men, of whom at least two were white supremacists, in Jasper, Texas dragged African American James Byrd, Jr. for three miles behind a pick-up truck along an asphalt road. Byrd, who remained conscious throughout most of the ordeal, was killed when his body hit the edge of a culvert, severing his right arm and head. Analysis:  This website has done a year by year study starting in 1863 of the American Negroes' journey. There were tons of race riots, lynch mobs, etc. throughout history where blacks would get the worst of the deal 99% of the time. Blacks very seldom retaliated or participated in violence against whites and that's a fact. Countless blacks were murdered, raped, tortured without one single white person going to trial, being found guilty and punished, well at least from my studies, I didn't find any. Whites completely intimidated blacks this way for decades. They knew they could commit these terrible crimes and not be prosecuted. Law enforcement and all others in a position of authority were in cahoots with one another. The Civil Rights movement of the 60s started to slowly changed all of that. Whites now understand they will be punished for crimes against humanity. That's why it was refreshing to see that these white supremacists were given the death penalty, something that never would have happened a few decades ago. America is changing, and it's about time.

  • February 18, 1998 - The FBI has arrested two men, including a self-professed white separatist, on charges of developing and stockpiling a biological agent, suspected of being deadly anthrax, and conspiring to use it as a weapon. The pair were accused of plotting a biological attack on New York City subways.



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slang and memorable quotes
black slang      sLANG tALK in the 1990s
  • Sup - What's up

  • Aiight - Alright, okay

  • All That - Complete package, not lacking

  • All that and a bag a chips - Complete

  • Bangin'/Slammin' - Got it going on

  • Beef - Trouble with someone

  • Beeotch - Bitch

  • Bling-Bling - Jewelry

  • The Bomb - Perfect, out of this world

  • Boo Ya! - In your face sucka

  • Bounce - To leave, go

  • Cha-Ching - Ring it up, gonna cost

  • Cheddar - Money, greenback

  • Chill Out - Relax

  • Chillin' - Relaxing

  • Churrin - Kids, children

  • Crib - The house, pad

  • Damn Skippy - You got that right!

  • Dawg - Friend, term of endearment

  • Dis - Disrepect

  • Dope - Super cool, badd

  • Down With That - In agreement

  • Fine - The best

  • Finna - About to do something

  • Fly - Cool, something good

  • Fresh - Brand new, cool, great

  • Hella - Emphasis

  • Hoochie - Fast, easy girl

  • Hood - Your neighborhood

  • It's all good - Everything is OK, under control

  • Jack You Up - Hurt you badly

  • Jet - Leave quickly

  • Let's Role - Leave

  • Math - Phone number

  • My Bad - My mistake, I'm sorry

  • O.G. - Original Ganster

  • Oh Snaps! - Oh yeah that's right!

  • Old School - Old way of doing things

  • Paper - Money

  • Phat - Cool

  • Pimpin - Correctly done

  • Po-po - Police

  • Scrub - A guy that's lacking

  • Straight - Telling the whole truth

  • Throw Down - Fight

  • Trippin - Worried about something

  • Vibe - Feeling

  • Wack - Terrible, not good

  • Wangsta - A fake ganster

  • Word - In agreement

  • Yayo - Money

  • Yo - Hello, short for "your"



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black Movies in America

     Broadway / Movies in 1998
    Broadway:
  • January 13, 1998 - Singer "Patti LaBelle On Broadway" opens at the St James Theaterin New York City.



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black feminist movement


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happy birthday

     Famous Birthdays in 1998
  • July 8, 1998 - Jaden Smith is an African American actor and rapper. He is the son of actors Will Smith and Jada Pinkett Smith.

  • July 15, 1998 - Spencir Todd Bridges  is an African American child actor, best known for his role in Daddy Day Camp as Ben Hinton (previously played by Khamani Griffin).



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african americans and death

The Flip Wilson Show
The Flip Wilson Show
photo #117-yr-1970

Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
photo #101

Todd Duncan
Todd Duncan
photo #106-yr-1903

Stokely Carmichael
Stokely Carmichael
photo #108-yr-1966

     Famous Deaths in 1998
  • February 28, 1998 - Todd Duncan  was an American baritone opera singer and actor.

  • May 1, 1998 - Eldridge Cleaver  was a writer, political activist, and early leader of the Black Panther Party.

  • May 14, 1998 - Frank Sinatra was an American singer, actor, and filmmaker. Beginning his musical career in the swing era as a boy singer with Harry James and Tommy Dorsey. Above that he was a powerful and fair man who didn't see color.
  • Trivia about Frank Sinatra:
    Long before it was politically correct, Sinatra treated blacks with dignity and respect. Here is a quote by ole blue eyes.

    "We've got a hell of a long way to go in this racial situation. As long as most white men think of a Negro first and a man second, we're in trouble. I don't know why we can't grow up."


  • July 16, 1998 - Stokely Carmichael   was a Trinidadian-American activist active in the 1960s Civil Rights Movement.

  • August 16, 1998 - Dorothy West  was a novelist and short story writer during the time of the Harlem Renaissance. She is best known for her novel The Living Is Easy, as well as many other short stories and essays, about the life of an upper-class black family.

  • September 29, 1998 - Tom Bradley  was the 38th Mayor of Los Angeles, serving from 1973 to 1993.

  • November 25, 1998 - Flip Wilson was an African-American comedian and actor. In the early 1970s, Wilson hosted his own weekly variety series, The Flip Wilson Show. The series earned Wilson a Golden Globe and two Emmy Awards.

  • November 30, 1998 - Margaret Walker  was an African American poet and writer. She was part of the African-American literary movement in Chicago.



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famous african american quotes      Famous African American Quotes
    Dorothy West -  novelist and short story writer during the time of the Harlem Renaissance.

    When asked what she wanted her legacy to be, she responded with

    "That I hung in there. That I didn't say I can't."


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starting fresh in life


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deceased hip-hop artist
  • Patrick Lamark Hawkins (December 4, 1970 – February 3, 1998), better known by his stage name Fat Pat (also known as Mr. Fat Pat), was an American rapper from Houston, Texas. On February 29, 1998, Hawkins was fatally shot.



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why do others dislike black people

"It is worthy of emphasis, that the antiquity of the Negro race is beyond dispute. His brightest days were when history was an infant; and, since he early turned from God, he has found the cold face of hate and the hurtful hand of the Caucasian against him."   George Washington Williams


How did it begin?

It's a worldwide negative perception of blacks.

But why?

Well, a quick and straightforward trip back in history will get the likely answer. The Arab trade of Zanj (Bantu) slaves in Southeast Africa predated the European transatlantic slave trade by 700 years but it wasn't until the Portuguese sailed to West Africa in search of gold and discovered something much more valuable, (slaves) and shared with the world what they encountered that aided in the bad rap on blacks.


good black americans
During the transatlantic slave trade the African empires of Benin, Dahomey, and Yoruba were very powerful. From these kingdoms, more than from any other part of Africa were the people sold into American slavery.


These kingdoms had many districts with different tribes and clans who always fought against each other. These tribes were illiterate without a written form, passing their history to the next generation orally. They were blissfully ignorant of the world around them. As with all people of a tribal nature, they lived within the limits and respect of the land and were very content in doing so.


Europeans considered the Africans pagans because most tribes were involved with witchcraft, idol worship, cannibalism, superstition, female genital mutilation, and human sacrifices just to name a few of their foolish practices. Europeans thought of themselves as being illuminators to the world made in the image of God which in their minds was white and holy.


Before Christianity took place in Europe, whites believed in a different form of worship which was called mythology, but in time came to their senses with the help of a man named Thales who would later become known as the father of science. Thales was the first person in human history to dispel mythology and would usher in a new way of thinking which was based on facts which in its beginning was called Natural philosophy, and later would be called science. Science would eventually take mythology's place in the way white people believed. Goodbye Jupiter and Neptune.


Thales studied, recorded and compared facts laying the foundation for science. In time, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle would go on to perfect the methods of science. Over the centuries with this wealth of new knowledge discoveries with the aid of science, you can probably imagine how this had to elevate the Europeans ego and self-worth in themselves.


good black americans


Before long they would claim white superiority, and many began even to doubt the existence of a God. So by the time the Portuguese made their arrival to Africa, they were smarter and better educated than blacks and of course dominated as they pleased.


Africans were still living in the past in a fast changing world and were no match for the very greedy and violent Europeans. Africans had seen the last of their glory days. It's a documented fact the Africans were the beginning of human innovation. Other races would go on to copy and perfect their existing creations, scientifically.


If you study ancient history and technological achievements which were in many ways the equal of, or superior of, much that we have today, were founded and carried to a high technological proficiency by Hamitic (African) people. This is the role in history given by God to the descendants of Ham. The Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Mayans, the Aztecs, all were Hamitic people. They were the great inventors of mankind. http://www.ldolphin.org/ntable.html


Why were the African people a no-show in technological discoveries other nations around the world were experiencing?


It wasn't because Africans weren't capable of learning. Type the key phrase into Google "African immigrants in college" you will discover the same lineage of Sub-Saharan Africans today out-perform all races in America's colleges academically. Skin color doesn't matter when it comes to learning; it was because of conditions beyond their control.


Africans couldn't share and contribute information with other nations during this period because of one humongous roadblock. The Sahara Desert. The entire continental United States would fit inside the Sahara Desert with plenty of room to spare. This desert spanned from west to east of Northern Africa and continued to grow, making it very dangerous and challenging for travel.


Sub Saharan Africans were landlocked, lost in time away from all other humanity. The Sahara Desert wasn't always a desert, but slowly grew to be that way. Cave drawings have been discovered in parts of the Sahara that actually depict the flora as green and thriving.  http://self.gutenberg.org/articles/history_of_west_africa


good black americans

So with Portuguese arriving in Africa with their advanced knowledge they encountered a people lost in time and because of their tribal culture and erroneous Pre-Adamic belief the Portuguese had about black people, these people were labeled ignorant wild beast, incapable of learning and the world agreed.


The Africans had a reputation as a peaceful and lovable people and were considered easy pickings by ruthless and brilliant Europeans who extended no mercy.


science and african americans

With their love for science, whites would constantly compare themselves with blacks. They collectively studied the Negro from the kinks in his hair, size of his brain to the jam in his toenails and declared themselves superior to this lowly ape-like creature.


They believed Africans were the descendants of pre-Adamism races and that the White race was made in the image and likeness of God and that Adam gave birth to the White race only.


They also believed and taught that blacks are not human beings but pre-Adamite beasts and could not possibly have been made in God's image and likeness because they are beastlike, immoral and ugly. Whites also claimed that the pre-Adamite races such as blacks didn't have souls. The world would be satisfied with their scientific theory they learned with the help of a blatant and racist media. Whites accepted these lies as truth and raised their kids to do the same.


Science, pre-Adamite beliefs, and the media would go on to replace common sense. According to whites, it was the destiny of these black beast to serve whites, and they believed they had God's backing. Some of the things they wrote as fact about the Negro would go on to cause many innocent deaths.


Typical American Newspaper Article Of Yesteryear

racist media

The above article was an editorial reply to another editor that was published in the Cayton's weekly., January 25, 1919, (Seattle, Wash.) http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87093353/1919-01-25/ed-1/seq-1/


More than anything else science, pre-adamite beliefs and the racist media played an enormous role which perpetuated the negative image of blacks all over the world. The saddest part was when many blacks would believe these false teachings and felt unworthy, ugly and completely worthless as human beings and lived their lives in a useless way and the process was reinforcing these negative views.


Once in America the following comment gives insight into how whites viewed the Negro in the 1700s during colonial days.


Speaking on the duties of missionaries in converting the Negro to Christianity in 1784, Bishop Porteus published an extensive plan for the most effectual conversion of the slaves contending that

"despicable as they are in the eyes of man they are, nevertheless, the creatures of God."


When slaves first arrived in America, it wasn't quite agreed what their social status would be because it was supposed to be only temporary until white immigrants could come from other countries to take their place, but it didn't happen that way. This is when slavery slowly became associated with dark skin. Everybody jumped on the bandwagon against the lowly Negro who was considered inhuman and a savage beast.


But because it was later discovered that blacks were capable of learning, it made some bright whites change their negative view, except for white slavemasters who had a financial interest in keeping the Negro uneducated and made it a felony for anyone caught teaching them.


Real Americans soon began to realize blacks were human beings just as they were and started movements to free them from the bondage of slavery.


Writers of that day cite desirable characteristics of blacks, saying they were deeply religious, cheerful, imaginative, patient, courageous, had high physical endurance, affectionate and without vindictiveness, even though living under a brutal slavery system. They hated slavery, but always kept hope alive, waiting for their Judgement Day.


When their Judgement day arrived, how did slaves act once freed?

Imagine if you spent your entire existence depending and working from dawn to dusk for someone else and suddenly set free.


How would you do? 


Who would teach you to read and write, the importance of family, morality, open a bank account, manage your money, how to distinguish between necessity and want, how to keep your house maintained, the importance of honesty in personal and business dealings, how to think big and become self-reliant with confidence and the many more life skills that's needed in society? All would agree that these are crucial life skills to master that the Negro didn't have during slavery.


classy black women


Well, needless to say, many former slaves didn't measure up after freedom, wasting their lives with pleasure seeking and absolutely no ambition at all. These people gave the whole race a bad rap and continued to do so until this day.


But most wanted to learn these life skills and progress. That's why the Reconstruction schools of the 1870s were so important; it was like a halfway or transition house for the blacks into American culture. But of course we know that the U.S. government did away with Reconstruction in 1877 because of pressure from white southerners who didn't want educated blacks in America.


Our achievements have been many since then, so why does the negative image of blacks persist?


It's simple. The negative image of blacks persists around the world because of a lack of compassion and love mainly from non-black people. Even though erroneous beliefs of science and pre-Adamic theories happened centuries ago, hard habits are hard to break. It's entrenched in the hearts of many.


That's really sad, but as American citizens today, how are blacks doing?


Well under the circumstances blacks are doing a fantastic job, and it's a wonder we are still around. We as African-Americans are honing our life skills with increasing precision without the same network or support groups that other races enjoy. We are a unique type of people that don't have a reference point but must learn as we go.


Quite frankly, we are true Americans who continue to accomplish our goals non-violently and completely understand what the U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence stands for. Would other races been able to do the same? We are love, always have been and always will be.


violent people


Historically, after being raped, tortured, lynched and murdered with perpetrators enjoying total impunity, the usual reply of blacks were these words, "I forgive you." Even though made out to be the violent savage beast, blacks seldom retaliated. It's true, check your history books. We live for today and as Americans realizing we have this excellent opportunity to excel and soar like the eagles, and we will!



Resources:

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a white officer in the Union army had the task of training colored soldiers in the Civil War. He kept a diary for our enjoyment today. (click here)

George W. Williams - History of the Negro Race in America From 1619 to 1880. (click here)

Europeans Come to Western Africa - (click here)

The Characteristics of the Negro People - (click here)



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african americans and weddings

Barry Bonds
Barry Bonds
photo #101-yr-1994

Vivica Fox
Vivica Fox
photo #108-yr-1964

     Famous Weddings in 1998
  • July 11, 1998 - Thandie Newton  and Ol Parker were wed.

  • July 18, 1998 - Nelson Mandela and Graca Machel were wed.

  • August 22, 1998 - Jasmine Guy  and Terrence Duckette were wed.

  • September 13, 1998 - Melanie Brown and Jimmy Gulzar were wed.

  • October 3, 1998 - Marion Jones and C. J. Hunter were wed.

  • November 14, 1998 - Carmen Electra and Dennis Rodman were wed.

  • December 20, 1998 - Kimora Lee Simmons and Russell Simmons were wed.

  • 1998 - Faith Evans and Todd Russaw were wed.

  • 1998 - Vivica Fox and Christopher Harvest were wed.

  • 1998 - Idris Elba and Kim Elba were wed.

  • 1998 - Derek Luke and Sophia Cannon were wed.

  • 1998 - Yaphet Kotto and Tessie Sinahon were wed.

  • 1998 - Keyshawn Johnson and Shikiri Hightower were wed.

  • 1998 - Warren Sapp and Jamiko Vaughn were wed.

  • 1998 - Traci Bingham and Robb Vallier were wed.

  • 1998 - Barry Bonds and Liz Watson  were wed.



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famous african american divorces

Deion Sanders
Deion Sanders
photo #103-yr-1998

     Famous Divorces in 1998
  • May 5, 1998 - Mariah Carey and Tommy Mottola were divorced.

  • September 23, 1998 - Robin Givens and Svetozar Marinkovic were divorced.

  • 1998 - Macy Gray and Tracy Hinds were divorced.

  • 1998 - Wanda Sykes and David Hall were divorced.

  • 1998 - Deion Sanders and Carolyn Chambers were divorced. Trivia:  During the 1989 season, Deion Sanders hit a major league home run and scored a touchdown in the NFL in the same week, the only player ever to do so. Sanders is also the only man to play in both a Super Bowl and a World Series.



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soul train
Soul Train ran from 1971-2006
photo #109-yr-1971

 Mariah Carey
Mariah Carey
photo #101

Aretha Franklin
Aretha Franklin
photo #100-yr-1971

Janet Jackson
Janet Jackson
photo #104-yr-1994

R. Kelly
R. Kelly
photo #104-yr-1998

Ethel Waters
Ethel Waters
photo #105-yr-1883

Johnny Mathis
Johnny Mathis
photo #105-yr-1998

Allen Toussaint
Allen Toussaint
photo #116-yr-2015

     Music in 1998

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • "A Song for Mama" Boyz II Men

  • "My Body" LSG

  • "Nice and Slow" Usher

  • "No, No, No" Destiny's Child

  • "Let's Ride" Montell Jordan featuring Master P and Silkk the Shocker

  • "All My Life" K-Ci & JoJo

  • "Too Close" Next

  • "I Get Lonely" Janet and Blackstreet

  • "The Boy Is Mine" Brandy and Monica

  • "Friend of Mine" Kelly Price

  • "The First Night" Monica

  • "How Deep Is Your Love" Dru Hill featuring Redman

  • "Nobody's Supposed to Be Here" Deborah Cox




  Popular Soul Dances:
  • The Hammer

  • Electric Slide

  • The Carlton

  • The Jiggy

  • Tootsee Roll

  • Rump Shaker

  • Da Dip

  • The Butterfly

  • The Funky Charleston

  • Macrena

  • The Humpy Dance



  Musical Happenings in 1998:
  • Lauryn Hill's The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill and Missy Elliott's Supa Dupa Fly are popular releases, and are pivotal recordings for women in hip hop.

  • R. L. Burnside's Come on In is a landmark recording that uses elements of hip hop, such as scratching, in a rural blues style.

  • Usher referred to Bob Dylan as Bill Dylan by accident, when presenting the nominees for Album of the Year.

  • Wu-Tang Clan member Ol' Dirty Bastard interrupts Shawn Colvin's Song of the Year acceptance speech to protest the Clan's loss in the Best Rap Album category at the Grammys Awards show.

  • Grammy awards winner Paula Cole gives the finger during her performance of "Where Have All the Cowboys Gone?"

  • Aretha Franklin performs the aria "Nessun Dorma" after standing in for Luciano Pavarotti at the last minute.

  • Musician, songwriter/composer, record producer Allen Toussaint was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.




 Blues Hall of Fame for 1998:
    The Blues Hall of Fame is a music museum located in Memphis, Tennessee. Until recently, the "Blues Hall of Fame" was not a physical building, but a listing of people who have significantly contributed to blues music. Started in 1980 by the Blues Foundation, it honors those who have performed, recorded, or documented blues. The actual building for the hall opened to the public on May 8, 2015

  • Luther Allison
  • Junior Wells


 Grammy winners in 1998:
    The 40th Annual Grammy Awards were held on February 25, 1998 at Radio City Music Hall, New York City. They recognized accomplishments by musicians from the previous year.

    Best Traditional Blues Album
  • John Lee Hooker for Don't Look Back


  • Best Contemporary Blues Album
  • Taj Mahal for Señor Blues


  • Best Instrumental Composition
  • performed by Herbie Hancock & Wayne Shorter


  • Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or for Television
  • R. Kelly (songwriter) for "I Believe I Can Fly" (from Space Jam)


  • Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocal(s)
  • Slide Hampton (arranger) for "Cotton Tail" performed by Dee Dee Bridgewater


  • Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album
  • The Fairfield Four for I Couldn't Hear Nobody Pray


  • Best Contemporary Soul Gospel Album
  • Take 6 for Brothers


  • Best Gospel Choir or Chorus Album
  • for God's Property From Kirk Franklin's Nu Nation performed by God's Property


  • Best Jazz Instrumental Solo
  • Doc Cheatham & Nicholas Payton for "Stardust"


  • Best Large Jazz Ensemble Performance
  • Joe Henderson for Joe Henderson Big Band performed by the Joe Henderson Big Band


  • Best Jazz Vocal Performance
  • Dee Dee Bridgewater for Dear Ella


  • Best Short Form Music Video
  • Janet Jackson for "Got 'Till It's Gone


  • Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals
  • "Don't Look Back"-John Lee Hooker & Van Morrison


  • Best Dance Recording
  • Donna Summer for "Carry On"


  • Best Female R&B Vocal Performance
  • On & On-Erykah Badu


  • Best Male R&B Vocal Performance
  • I Believe I Can Fly-R.Kelly


  • Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal
  • No Diggity-Blackstreet


  • Best Rhythm & Blues Song
  • I Believe I Can Fly-R.Kelly


  • Best R&B Album
  • Baduizm-Erykah Badu


  • Best Rap Solo Performance
  • "Men in Black"-Will Smith


  • Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group
  • "I'll Be Missing You"-Puff Daddy, Faith Evans & 112


  • Best Rap Album
  • "No Way Out"-Puff Daddy & the Family


  • Best Reggae Album
  • "Fallen is Babylon"-Ziggy Marley & the Melody Makers


  • Best Spoken Comedy Album
  • Chris Rock for Roll With the New


  • Hall of Fame Award
  • "Dinah"- Ethel Waters


  • Hall of Fame Award
  • Art Blakey


  • Hall of Fame Award
  • "Cross Road Blues" Robert Johnson


  • Hall of Fame Award
  • "Dance to the Music" Sly and the Family Stone


  • Hall of Fame Award
  • "Chances Are" Johnny Mathis


  • Hall of Fame Award
  • "Bo Diddley" Bo Diddley


  • Hall of Fame Award
  • "Caldonia Boogie" Louis Jordan & His Tympany Five


  • Hall of Fame Award
  • "Dust My Broom" Elmore James




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soul music orgin


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womens fashion
Young woman wearing a spaghetti strap top, a silver necklace, and straight-leg jeans
photo #111-yr-1990

mens fashion
Double breasted power suit with large shoulder pads
photo #112-yr-1990

 Converse All-Stars
A classic dark blue pair of Converse All-Stars resting on the Black & White Ed. Shoebox
photo #109-yr-1990

 Slap bracelets
Slap bracelets
photo #110-yr-1990

hairstyles in the 1980s
Jheri curl hairstyle worn in the 80s and 90s.
photo #108-yr-1980

     Fashions and Styles in 1998

  Popular Fashions:

    Women:
    The early 1990s saw a continuation of late 1980s fashion: women wore denim button down shirts, leggings, drainpipe jeans, colored tights, bike shorts, black leather jackets with shoulder pads, and skater dresses. Popular accessories included court shoes, cowboy boots, headscarves, leggings, slouch socks, Keds, ballet flats, and penny loafers. Leotards worn as tops with jeans were popular with young girls, teens, college girls, young women and women. A common outfit was to wear a skirt, dress shorts, babydoll or minidress with black opaque tights, white slouch socks and white sneakers especially Keds. Women's fashion in the mid 1990s became more feminine and form-fitting. Women tended to dress differently for each occasion. Both long and short skirts were favored, and loungewear generally consisted of leggings, large T-shirts, and baggy sweaters while at home or relaxing during the weekends.The most common look among young women was the short black slip dress worn over a tight, undersized white T-shirt. Among other fashion trends included lean pants, hot pants, black Lycra leggings, belted trench coats, and leather. Popular shoes and accessories during the mid-1990s included Wonderbra, Loafers, Mary Janes, suede sneakers, mules, clogs, knee high boots, jelly shoes, Go-go boots, black shoes, silver jewelry, dainty earrings and necklaces, conch shell necklaces,Slap bracelets, berets, straw hats, floppy hats, gold jewelry, and hipster belts. Navel piercings had started to gain popularity around this time.


    Men:
    Continuing on from the late 1980s, many young men wore tapered high waisted jeans with matching denim jackets, Stone Island or Ralph Lauren polo shirts with contrasting collars, short Harrington jackets, brightly colored windcheaters, Hush Puppies shoes, V neck sweaters, soccer shorts, pastel colored three button sportcoats, graphic print T shirts, tracksuit tops with a vertical contrasting stripe down the sleeve, sweatpants, shiny red or blue rayon monkey jackets, grey or tan leather jackets with shoulder pads, and wool baseball jackets with contrasting sleeves. Short shorts were popular in the early years of the decade, but were replaced with looser and baggier basketball shorts after 1993 when hip-hop fashion went mainstream. Hip-hop fashion went mainstream in 1995, with oversized baseball jackets, baggy jeans, bomber jackets, Baja Jackets, and tracksuits popular among young men as casual wear. Simultaneously, industrial and military styles crept into mainstream fashion, with machinery pieces becoming accessories. Baseball caps started being worn forwards again. Southern hip hop provided a platform for Fashion designers and musical artists to collaborate forming an influential subculture of anti fashion and alternative fashion designs, especially the popular recycled clothing worn by Arrested Development and Goodie Mob. Black leather reefer jackets and trenchcoats were also fashionable in the late 1990s.


    Hairstyles:
    The Jheri curl often spelled Jerry curl or Jeri Curl is a permed hairstyle that was common and popular among African American, Black Canadian, and Black British, especially during the 1980s and the 1990s. Invented by the hairdresser Jheri Redding, the Jheri curl gave the wearer a glossy, loosely curled look. It was touted as a "wash and wear" style that was easier to care for than the other popular chemical treatment of the day, the relaxer. For African-American men, the cornrows (popularized by former NBA player Allen Iverson) and buzz cut were a popular trend that continued into the early 2000s.



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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1990s

Richard Pryor
Richard Pryor
photo #114-yr-1973

Our Community in 1998

Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • October 20, 1998 - Funny man Richard Pryor is awarded the first Mark Twain Prize for American Humor.

  • 1990s - The United States Population is 248,709,878 with a total of 29,986,060 being African Americans.




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RESOURCES:


Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License


#100 -   Public Domain image - William P. Gottlieb [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#101 -   Public Domain image - Mariah Carey at Edwards Air Force Base in Dec. 1998. This image or file is a work of a U.S. Air Force Airman or employee, taken or made as part of that person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image or file is in the public domain.

===================== #102 -   Public Domain image Helene C. Stikkel [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

  Public Domain image By Bob McNeely, The White House [1] [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

https://pixabay.com/en/gender-sex-symbol-male-female-312411/

================================

#103 -   Public Domain image By Florida Memory [ No restrictions or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#104 -   Public Domain image By Allgamenab at English Wikipedia [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#105 -   Public Domain image By MCA-Music Corporation of America (management) (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


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