blast from the past

blast from the past
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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1995:
Ron Kirk
    Ron Kirk is an American politician and member of the Democratic Party. Born in Austin, Texas, Kirk is a graduate of Austin's John H. Reagan High School, Austin College, and the University of Texas School of Law.

    From 1994 to 1995, Kirk worked as the Secretary of State of Texas, until he was elected as the Mayor of Dallas winning 62 percent of the total vote. He was the first African-American to hold either of those positions.

    Kirk was nominated by President Barack Obama to serve as U.S. Trade Rep and on March 18, 2009, and was confirmed by the U.S. Senate in a 925 confirmation vote. On January 22, 2013, Kirk announced that he would be stepping down as U.S. Trade Rep.

    During his tenure as mayor, Kirk earned the reputation of being a coalition-builder, managing to keep the always-tumultuous Dallas City Council and Dallas School Board together. Under his leadership, he proposed the "Dallas Plan," a vision for the next 25 years, which included the controversial Trinity River Project, a $246 million plan that called for constructing a network of parks and highways in the floodplain of the Trinity River.

    In 1999, Kirk was re-elected as mayor of Dallas in a landslide with 74 percent of the vote. The only incident in the campaign was a radio campaign ad that used music from Star Trek and described Kirk as the "captain of the Dallas Enterprise," citing the city's bond program, the new sports arena, and new roads. The ad was pulled after Paramount's lawyers sent a cease-and-desist letter.

    In 2001, Kirk resigned as mayor of Dallas to run for the Senate seat vacated by retiring Republican Phil Gramm. Facing then-Texas Attorney General John Cornyn; Kirk lost with 43 percent of the vote to Cornyn's 55 percent.

    Although there was speculation that Kirk would be appointed Secretary of Transportation by President Barack Obama, he was given the position of Trade Representative and was the first person of African American descent to hold the position.

    Much of his work, at least as publicly reported, focuses on issues relating to the development and enforcement of intellectual property law in the United States and abroad, especially as they refer to trade policy. This work includes the controversial Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) and Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) treaties.

    Kirk has repeatedly raised concerns of American businesses that China is not properly enforcing intellectual property rights of American companies doing business there. It has been alleged that the Chinese government takes IT secrets of international companies operating there and passes them on to local businesses to boost their competitiveness.

    It just makes us so proud to view our African American leaders in action. Our focus is not just Civil Rights any longer for blacks, but it has changed to human rights for all Americans. We wonder if blacks have noticed the transformation, and adjusted accordingly.

    Following Ron Kirk's example of leadership should help us to appreciate that fact. Thank you, Ron Kirk, for teaching us to grow with the world that we are part. We honor this great American with the 1995 Hamite Award.

Ron Kirk
Ron Kirk
photo #102-yr-1995



Ron Kirk
President Barack Obama talks with U.S. Trade Representative Ambassador Ron Kirk
before bilateral meetings at the Grand Hyatt Hotel in
Seoul, South Korea, Nov. 11, 2010. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)




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How were blacks feeling in 1995?
happy mood of blacks


oj simpson free verdict



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america' last chance
america' last chance


Liberty, Justice and Freedom For All

It's true at one time in history; America was intended solely for white people, but not all white people. Most of America's founders desired only the fittest and smartest whites to settle here. The Irish, Italians and many more ethnic groups were considered low-life and not worthy to intermingle with the self-proclaimed superior whites, in fact, they were treated as harshly as the black slaves.


But within time they changed their views and allowed lower class whites to have an equal say in the building of America, and of course being similar in color made it easy for these different classes to blend in with one another, and in time you couldn't tell the difference. A luxury that was impossible for blacks to attain.


But on the other hand, Black slaves were considered savage beast without the capabilities to learn and contribute to America, other than with their back-breaking labor.


Why did whites feel this way abouts blacks?


Before their arrival to America as slaves, they were very far behind in development and worldly intelligence. There were great African Kingdoms, but they were no match for the ruthless Europeans. African rulers failed to educate their citizens which would have been a huge undertaking because there were thousands upon thousands of different tribes and clans with their distinct language and customs.


Most Africans didn't know how to read and write and would pass their history down from generation to the next orally. They also believed profoundly in superstition and all sorts of foolish beliefs that didn't help them once the Europeans arrived allowing them to ravage and dominate the African populations completely. Whites were very competitive and chose to proclaim themselves superior to the blacks, instead of sharing their knowledge to help these uneducated Africans.


So from the beginning, the Europeans made this a race issue. Africans were so far behind in human development, whites thought very lowly of them, and since they didn't have examples and scientific techniques we have today to prove otherwise they did as they pleased with little protest from the majority of the white population. In fact, most whites believed blacks were half human/beast only because they didn't know any better.


But in time things would change and there would become many free blacks and also blacks in slavery who would achieve against all the odds of racism. Many whites began to realize that blacks were human beings and if given a chance could be just as intelligent as white people. The movement was started to get blacks equality in America to the dismay of hardcore white supremacist who refused to accept this undeniable evidence that all men are equal in ability.


Scientific discoveries would later determine there was no genetic proof that blacks were inferior to other races which would utterly destroy the superior white theory that had been preached for centuries. All that blacks needed was an education and an opportunity to compete and could do just as well as other races.


Although African-Americans were not immigrants but brought here as slaves, they had things in common because they also yearned for liberty, justice, and freedom. In time what made America so great was it realized it was wrong and attempted to change it's view so it could live up to the true meaning of liberty and justice for all.


But this wouldn't be easy because of many white people who refused to change their views and progress to a new era of love and cooperation for all humanity. They choose to live in the past where they enjoyed a comfortable, privileged life without blacks in the loop.


america' last chance


Since the races were compared to an inferior versus superior issue, many centuries ago white superior beliefs may have been a reasonable belief, with the Africans so far behind in human development and Europeans much more advanced. But with the successes of countless black Americans and other dark-skinned people around the world today, racism and hate have become an archaic, unreasonable and ignorant belief.


Is America at the crossroad?

Well if so, it had to happen one day. For generation after generation, whites have either consciously or unconsciously enjoyed special privilege in America. They control the purse strings not only in America but around the world in dictating a perverted version of justice and liberty for all. Other groups at home and abroad are growing weary and are fighting back.


Now the questions become, what will America do next? Will she attempt in becoming a true America of tolerance, justice and liberty for all people or retreat to her lily white past where there is undoubtedly much danger awaiting for all who reside in her? Britain must answer the same questions.


america' last chance


Simply put, for people who say they love America but hate certain ethnic groups who reside in her are lying to themselves. Their hatred is not based on anything factual. They hate America. They're not true Americans and completely fail to understand the real meaning of her and seek to destroy the last great empire in world history with their foolish hate.


america' last chance






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blacks and basketball

Leon Spinks
Leon Spinks (left) defeats Ray Kipping June 19, 1995, St. Louis
photo #101-yr-1953

David Robinson
David Robinson
photo #103-yr-1986

Michael Johnson
Michael Johnson
photo #115-yr-1975

Lenny Wilkens
Coach Lenny Wilkens as
a player in 1968

photo #101-yr-1995

     Sports in 1995
  • 1995 - David Robinson is the NBA Most Valuable Player.

  • January 6, 1995 - Basketball's 'Atlanta Hawks' Lenny Wilkens becomes the National Basketball Association's winningest coach.

  • March 4, 1995 - Boxer George Foreman loses his WBA boxing title for refusing to fight Tony Tucker.

  • March 4, 1995 - Track and Field's Michael Johnson runs a world record 400 meter indoor at a blazing 44.63 seconds.

  • March 25, 1995 - Boxer Mike Tyson is released from prison after serving three years.

  • April 8, 1995 - Boxer Oliver McCall defeats Larry Holmes in 12 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.



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education and hate


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WHO DOES THIS DETESTABLE LOOKING MONSTER REPRESENT?
greed
America began with the noblest of intentions. But she is no match for my voracious appetite of greed! My power to influence is so great it will make folly of man's moral duty on earth and a mockery of what is truly just and righteous.



Hi, my name is Rapacity Prey Sr.

I have been alive since the beginning and will always exist as long as man governs man. There is no shame in my game and proud to admit I've always been a greedy, self-serving bastard with a voracious appetite that cannot be filled. I have many followers who adore me although most don't believe I exist.
Greedy man


I control every aspect of your life without you viewing my beautiful face and hearing words coming from my mouth. For the most part, you obey my every command from my extensive communication networks. These include the printed word, radio, music, television and my favorite form in today's world, the internet.


My only objective in life is to gain wealth and to do this I must have power, which I abundantly possess. I make a huge financial profit from misery, death, and destruction and utilize my communication networks for others to take the blame. I'm a master at setting up smokescreens to do my dirty work. In fact, as mentioned earlier most don't believe I exist. (LOL)


Most people make my work easy because they refuse to peel back the layers of history to expose me. I have created religion against religion, race against race, husband against wife, parents against their children all to my advantage. I don't care one little bit because I'm getting paid in one form or another.


 civil war


Let me tell you about some of my amazing accomplishments you may be familiar. I can't name them all because there are too many. Remember the Civil War that almost tore the country apart? I was behind that. That war was all about me getting paid, even though the majority of people thought it was about preserving the Union and ending slavery. I used man's hate against themselves to grow rich beyond all expectation during the War and Reconstruction period. It was me who got paid; my belly got super fat from that scheme.


During the Gilded Age, I made more wealth than I could count and have to admit was getting sloppy in my dirty work which resulted in the new Progressive Era which sought to clean greed and corruption from government. Well, who do you think it was that put these so-called righteous do-gooders in positions of authority? Come on now, don't be so gullible, at least put up a little fight to make this game more enjoyable.


I put people in charge to make it appear they were cleaning up the corruption and greediness which made them more cunning and cautious in providing me more wealth. I had my newspapers print how great and honorable Americans were and wouldn't put up for greed, and this made people feel great about their country because it made them feel proud and righteous above all others. What a folly! If walls could only speak!


WHO IS THIS MAN?


We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population.
George Frost Kennan


This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia. In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming, and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.

In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism. We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague and for the Far East unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.

Written by Cold War strategist, George Kennan
Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974




WHO IS THIS MAN?


I spent 33 years and four months in active military service and during that period I spent most of my time as a high class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and the bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism.
Smedley Butler


I helped make Mexico and especially Tampico safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street.

I helped purify Nicaragua for the International Banking House of Brown Brothers in 19021912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for the American sugar interests in 1916.

I helped make Honduras right for the American fruit companies in 1903. In China in 1927 I helped see to it that Standard Oil went on its way unmolested. Looking back on it, I might have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate his racket in three districts. I operated on three continents.

Quoted by former U.S. Marine Corps major general, Smedley Butler
Smedley Butler became widely known for his outspoken lectures against war profiteering





I have to admit there were some great men who put up a fight. President Roosevelt and his New Deal was a hard nut to crack. He belived he could defeat me and make America the respectable place it boasted. He even did something I hated very much in proposing a United Nations organization to prevent future wars. Now come on, you know I disliked that.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt


I had made much money from World WarII. Over 60 million people died in that war, and I didn't lose one-night sleep. I had most Americans believing the war was a fight against the threat of losing democracy and had intelligent people digging out their backyards to create bunkers, that was hilarious to me.


I even had my propaganda machine fool self-righteous Americans into believing they won the war, but in actuality it was the Soviet Union who provided victory, defeating the Germans and Japan. My communications network was at the height of its glory. That war was about one thing, me getting paid.


It's sorrowful that around the world and especially Americans are so gullible and believe the lie that they are righteous above others and especially the white ones who I influenced to think they were somewhat better or superior to other races of people. I persuaded my servant Hitler to also believe he was better and superior to others and looked what happened to him. A straightforward and honest search of history would expose so much more about me, but most people are followers who jump on my propaganda bandwagon to believe what may appear to be true. But that's okay; I get paid.


The Vietnam War was one of my greatest achievements. Once again I used my communications in tricking people into believing the Communist were coming and would invade our good and precious land of America. I demanded war but that fool John Kennedy stood in my way and began to back track. Just about every one of my military leaders was livid with him because they knew war is how I get paid. We all know the outcome of John Kennedy. War = money.


I created the entire American culture for my purposes in persuading them to believe they are winners and hate losing at war. The Revoulunary war that I aided in victory went to their heads. That's why I loved LBJ when he succeeded Kennedy. He was a man after my heart. He bombed those poor people to smithereens, even secretly. He was intent on showing the world America was a winner. He made my greedy soul very glad, as did President Nixon after him, two of my greatest workers and excellent examples for all people.


Through my communications networks I had people believe the reason Martin Luther King died was because of racism. Poppycock! If King would have kept his mouth closed and kept his attention to the race issues I created, instead of speaking out against the war he would have probably lived a long and prosperous life.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.


There were too many blacks joining the white anti-war movement in protest and it created a dilemma I had to deal with. He was messing with my money, and I didn't take kindly to that. It's that simple.


In time, Robert Kennedy was attempting to become the next President and since he was in the same mold as his war hating brother I couldn't allow that and quickly made a choice.


Well as you can tell I love war and also make much profit from covert activities by installing regimes in other countries that are beneficial for me. I've been doing this for years, as a simple search in history would show. But that's not the extent of my capabilities; I also have a huge domestic interest in my beloved country.


greedy doctors
I also operate a very lucrative and legal drug business created with the assistance of science. The doctors who work for me send me their clients and I make them pay dearly. I could care less if a person suffers or die from an illness my drugs could have prevented. The truth of the matter is the top priority of scientific research was not intended to help people; its primary purpose is to fill my fat belly. Silly people!


Just put it this way. In just about every place where money can be made, I reside. I vacation on Wall Street regularly. I love the atmosphere there. I'm a master at the art of persuasion and thrive on disaster and turmoil which frightened and agitates American people but will make me more money in one form or another. Do I feel guilty? No, I don't, I don't feed a silly conscience. I only feed my fat belly. Long live America!, Or is it really America? (LOL)


John Adams




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blacks and politics

President Bill Clinton
President Bill Clinton
photo #110-yr-1993

Ron Kirk
Ron Kirk
photo #102-yr-1995

     Political Scene in 1995
  • 1995 - Bill Clinton an American Democratic politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001 was inaugurated into office. He previously served as Governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and 1983 to 1992, and as the state's Attorney General from 1977 to 1979.

  • 1995 - Ron Kirk worked as the Secretary of State of Texas in 1994, until he was elected as the Mayor of Dallas, where he served from 1995 to 2002 and was the first African-American to hold either of those positions.



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Acts of Goodness is Colorblind


The only way to get the full impact of this viewpoint is by watching this quick episode of the old Andy Griffith show in its entirety (only 8 minutes). The show was shot in the old Confederate town of Mayberry, but try to look past that for the sake of this perspective. Andy was the type of father all kids wanted, and all men aspired to be. In various episodes, he would spend quality time and teach his son Opie the meaning of life in a way that would bring tears to the eyes. Sadly, blacks were invisible on the television in those days through no fault of their own.

The Andy Griffith show is one small example how powerful the media has been throughout American history and helped shaped our communities and behaviors today. Andy taught Opie the importance of being honest, reliable, friendly, unselfish and much more life skills that were needed for him to prosper. Shows like Andy Griffith were typical in displaying acts of goodness by whites.


Andy, Opie, and Horatio



What were black citizens doing during the Andy Griffith era?

Well, you would think that the millions of blacks in America didn't exist. They were rarely shown on television and if so were displayed negatively as dishonest, crooks, cheats, servants, janitors, etc. So the downfall of shows like the Andy Griffith show was whites would beam with pride and confidence and blacks watching the show which I'm sure they loved would feel left out, lacking as human beings and inferior.

The racist white media did a horrible disservice to the American community by ignoring its black citizens. It helped to drive a wedge between the races even further. It had the powers to unite but chose not to.

 black fathers


So in a sense, this biased media was a hater of democracy and opted to provide its viewers with a single story of white goodness and ignore the positive achievements of black citizens which would have made our common American stories more accurate and complete.

It's important to believe that acts of wisdom, knowledge, and kindness do not belong solely to Andy Taylor. There were black fathers doing the same for their kids; we just didn't hear about them. But because of a racist media, Andy was in a privileged position to uplift his race of people with these acts and because white people were the only one's viewed on television, on the radio, in the magazines, newspapers in a positive light. It became common in associating goodness as being solely white, and especially among white people, just ask them.

So, even to this day, there are too many blacks, and especially the young that associate being good, smart, educated with white people, and don't believe these gifts also belong to them. But the truth of the matter is there is no race that has the market on doing what's right which means every single person in America can be just as good as the next if they choose to be.



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The Race Factor


racism

     Race in 1995
  • January 13, 1995 - Malcolm X's daughter Qubilah Shabazz arrested for plotting to murder Louis Farrakhan.

  • October 17, 1995 - The Million Man March organized by Minister Louis Farrakhan and other political activists is held in Washington, D.C.



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African American culture going downhill

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slang and memorable quotes
black slang      sLANG tALK in the 1990s
  • Sup - What's up

  • Aiight - Alright, okay

  • All That - Complete package, not lacking

  • All that and a bag a chips - Complete

  • Bangin'/Slammin' - Got it going on

  • Beef - Trouble with someone

  • Beeotch - Bitch

  • Bling-Bling - Jewelry

  • The Bomb - Perfect, out of this world

  • Boo Ya! - In your face sucka

  • Bounce - To leave, go

  • Cha-Ching - Ring it up, gonna cost

  • Cheddar - Money, greenback

  • Chill Out - Relax

  • Chillin' - Relaxing

  • Churrin - Kids, children

  • Crib - The house, pad

  • Damn Skippy - You got that right!

  • Dawg - Friend, term of endearment

  • Dis - Disrepect

  • Dope - Super cool, badd

  • Down With That - In agreement

  • Fine - The best

  • Finna - About to do something

  • Fly - Cool, something good

  • Fresh - Brand new, cool, great

  • Hella - Emphasis

  • Hoochie - Fast, easy girl

  • Hood - Your neighborhood

  • It's all good - Everything is OK, under control

  • Jack You Up - Hurt you badly

  • Jet - Leave quickly

  • Let's Role - Leave

  • Math - Phone number

  • My Bad - My mistake, I'm sorry

  • O.G. - Original Ganster

  • Oh Snaps! - Oh yeah that's right!

  • Old School - Old way of doing things

  • Paper - Money

  • Phat - Cool

  • Pimpin - Correctly done

  • Po-po - Police

  • Scrub - A guy that's lacking

  • Straight - Telling the whole truth

  • Throw Down - Fight

  • Trippin - Worried about something

  • Vibe - Feeling

  • Wack - Terrible, not good

  • Wangsta - A fake ganster

  • Word - In agreement

  • Yayo - Money

  • Yo - Hello, short for "your"



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black Movies in America

Ellen Cleghorne
Ellen Cleghorne
photo #100-yr-1991

     Television / Movies in 1995
    Television:
  • Ellen Cleghorne is an American actress and comedian, best known for being a cast member of Saturday Night Live from 1991 to 1995.



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happy birthday

     Famous Birthdays in 1995
  • March 21, 1995 - Diggy Simmons is an American rapper and singer and the fourth child of Joseph "Rev. Run" Simmons of Run DMC.



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african americans and death

Rosalind Cash
Rosalind Cash in trailer for "The Omega Man" (1971)
photo #100-yr-1995

Roxie  Roker
Roxie Roker
photo #104-yr-1929

Thelma  McQueen
Thelma "Butterfly" McQueen
photo #102-yr-1911

     Famous Deaths in 1995
  • February 18, 1995 - Walter Samuel McAfee was in physics and was awarded his doctorate by Cornell in February 1949. In 1953 he became Head of the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Section.

  • June 30, 1995 - Phyllis Hyman  was an American singer-songwriter and actress. She is best known for her singles from the late 1970s to the early 1990s: "You Know How to Love Me", "Living All Alone" and "Don't Wanna Change the World".

  • July 22, 1995 - Floyd McDaniel was an African American blues singer and musician.

  • October 19, 1995 - Donald Eugene Cherry was an African American jazz trumpeter. He is well known for his long association with saxophonist Ornette Coleman.

  • October 31, 1995 - Rosalind Cash was an African American singer and actress.

  • December 2, 1995 - Roxie Albertha Roker  was an American actress, best known for her role as Helen Willis on the CBS sitcom The Jeffersons (197585), half of the first interracial couple to be shown on regular prime time television.

  • December 17, 1995 - Dorothy Louise Porter Wesley was an African-American librarian, bibliographer and curator, who built the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center at Howard University into a world-class research collection.

  • December 17, 1995 - Lexie Darnell Bigham, Jr. was an African American film and television actor.

  • December 22, 1911 - Thelma "Butterfly" McQueen  was an American actress. Originally a dancer, McQueen first appeared as Prissy, Scarlett O'Hara's maid in the 1939 film Gone with the Wind.

  • 1995 - Henry Ransom Cecil McBay was an African American chemist and a teacher.

  last words
  Phyllis  Hyman


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deceased hip-hop artist
  • Eric Lynn Wright (September 7, 1963 March 26, 1995), better known by his stage name Eazy-E, was an American rapper who performed solo and in the hip hop group N.W.A. Eric died due to "complications from AIDS" one month after his diagnosis.

  • X Clan is a hip hop group from Brooklyn, New York. In 1995, long-time group member Sugar Shaft died from complications of AIDS.

  • Randy Walker (April 8, 1968 November 30, 1995), better known by his stage name Stretch, was an American rapper and producer. Walker was killed after being chased and shot four times in the back.

  • Darren Robinson (June 10, 1967 December 10, 1995), also known as Buffy, The Human Beat Box, and DJ Doctor Nice, was a member of the 1980s rap group The Fat Boys. Robinson died of a heart attack, weighing 450 lb at the time.



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IF NOT, WHY SO DIFFICULT TO FIND FOR MANY?


National issues have always been compounded for black males and females in America. The feminist movement of the 70s ushered in a division between men and women relationships both black and white. It taught the woman to be self-reliant, strong and independent from the male, and we must all admit she has down an outstanding job.

black relationships
photo#117-yr-2015


But in regards to relationships, black women had another issue to add to this because the black male in America has historically been a target of hate and fear and will probably continue to be so. After the 60s, the face of racism and exclusion changed its ugly image from overt to covert for the most part which can be just as damaging.

Let's be totally honest. Black men are simply not well liked or spoken of kindly in America. Just about every article we read in the papers or internet is something negative when editors just as easily could have chosen a positive story of black male kindness. People tolerate black men, but don't want any part of us, or to get to know us as human beings or fellow Americans.

After slavery whites instituted illegal laws that were 100% against our Constitution which enabled them to build an enormous and exclusive white power structure that still stands today.

Even today many black men are intimidated by this power structure and refuse to challenge it in an intelligent way, like picking up a book and using their God-given brain power. This is why our distant ancestors in Africa who come to America as immigrants to enroll in American colleges don't want anything to do with black Americans.

They think we're foolish for wasting this incredible opportunity in gaining success. They know it's not because black American males can't do it, it's because we don't want to do it. To prove this point, Google "African immigrants in college" and discover that African/Asian immigrants out-perform all races academically in higher learning.


No one would deny that African-Americans and Africans are from the same stock of humanity. So why is it black immigrants can achieve on such a high level in America and we don't?


It's because we start out the gate with a disadvantage created by this humongous power structure against us and even more sad is our own people, AKA black role models who sell their damaging and harmful products which teaches our young males an entirely different approach to American success while they pad their already fat pocketbooks.

These people fail to uplift our race and are always portraying negative images and imply that something is owed to us and we should feel sorry for ourselves, so why even try? What they rap/sing/act about doesn't include books and education but glorifies a life of having fun each and every day. For the most part, good black parents struggle to compete with these very powerful enemies and lose their sons to the streets.

Before the movement, there were more blacks who were married than whites. But that would later change. When the opportunity presented itself, these aggressive and amazing black women took off to achieve and soar like the eagles, leaving the intimidated black male in the dust with his foolish boy-like games. Many black women would go on to raise families without the intimidated and targeted black man in the children's life.

No one better than her understood what the black male was going through facing everyday life, and she would have supported him if he would have put up some intelligent fight, but many struggling black men didn't and chose a foolish life of running game, and backwards living that's opposite of what it takes for American success.

In today's world, black women probably encounter these same struggling black men much more than the successful ones in their quest for love, but judge them as all the same.

Many extraordinary black men have figured out the white power structure game and became successful at it, and continues to do so. There are tons of black fellas who are intelligent, honorable, stable, gainfully employed, and faithful who just desires a smart, sexy, girly black woman who understands how to relax in her femininity and allow the man to rest in his masculinity for the well-being of the relationship.

These extraordinary single black men sincerely wonder if they stand an ounce of a chance with the characteristic traits of a typical Black American woman.

Who are today's black women? We all know they are amazing human beings to accomplish what they have, but have they out-smarted themselves in regards to male-female relationships?

black men love black women

How would you answer?

Letisha is a 30-year-old college educated black woman who has worked hard as a lawyer to achieve the lifestyle she adores which includes a lovely home, luxury cars, plenty of cash in the bank and much food in the refrigerator. In a good year, Letisha will make $150,000. Letisha doesn't want for anything except for meeting a nice man, falling in love and getting married.

Lamont is a blue collar worker earning just enough to get by. He is self-taught in everything he does and is quite smart. He owns a junk yard that was left to him by his long-deceased dad, Fred. Lamont prefers his profession to be recognized as dealing in commodities. He loves his work. He just doesn't make much money from it. In a good year, Lamont will make $35,000.

Letisha decides to treat herself to a month long vacation in Hawaii staying at the best hotel. Lamont who plays the lottery every week finally hit a little jackpot decided to do the same. Fate would have these two young black people meeting and discovering an instant attraction and love connection, and happy they have a whole month to nurture it along.

Lamont and Letisha are inseparable the entire vacation. Letisha explains to Lamont that she's a lawyer and Lamont explains to her he's a dealer in commodities. They are so connected; they never run out of words to say, and even finish each other's sentences. Well, needless to say, they eventually make mad passionate love with Letisha shedding one tear which was always her gauge of a real lover.

Letisha and Lamont were very excited about what the future held for them. Possible marriage was even discussed. On the last day of vacation, they exchanged addresses. Letisha was so excited she expressed to Lamont she couldn't wait to visit him. Two weeks later and upon arriving at Lamont's junkyard business she couldn't believe the huge sign that read "Top Commodities Dealer, Lamont." Letisha made a quick u-turn and never called Lamont again. Lamont felt hurt and wondered if another type of woman would have stayed.

Which woman do you more associate with?

(1) The woman that stayed and continued with her relationship with Lamont is a level headed woman and hasn't let money cloud her view of real life and potential happiness with an otherwise good black man who had proven to stimulate both her mind and body.

(2) The woman that made the quick u-turn is the frustrated one, and always complaining about there not being any good black men because she equates money with happiness, when quite the contrary joy and love is very straightforward and easy. Being unreasonable she makes everything difficult.

Analysis:  Independent black women have accomplished so much since the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, and have our wonderful African American ancestors to thank for the opportunity. Money should only be used as a tool for the benefit of the relationship between a man and woman not a gauge of another person's character or worth. Real men for decades found pride in bringing home the bacon to their wives who didn't work and those relationships worked just fine, only because money was not the primary factor, love and respect was.



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african americans and weddings

     Famous Weddings in 1995
  • January 7, 1995 - Martin Lawrence and Patricia Southall are joined in marriage.

  • March 18, 1995 - Jermaine Jackson  and Alejandra Genevieve Oiaza are joined in marriage.

  • March 26, 1995 - Vanity and Anthony Smith are joined in marriage.

  • April 29, 1995 - Tupac Shakur and Keisha Morris  are joined in marriage.

  • June 10, 1995 -   Actress Holly Robinson ("21 Jump Street," "Hangin' With Mr. Cooper") and football quarterback Rodney Peete said "I do" on the grounds of TV executive Les Moonves' Brentwood estate in Los Angeles, California.

  • August 7, 1995 - LL Cool J  and Simone Johnson are joined in marriage.

  • August 29, 1995 - Gladys Knight and Les Brown are joined in marriage.

  • December 21, 1995 - Lionel Richie and Diana Alexander are joined in marriage.

  • December 29, 1995 - Randy Jackson and Erika Riker are joined in marriage.

  • 1995 - Cuba Gooding, Sr. and Shirley Temple-gooding are joined in marriage.

  • 1995 - Morris Chestnut and Pam Byse are joined in marriage.

  • 1995 - Anthony Anderson and Alvina Stewart are joined in marriage.

  • 1995 - Eric Eazy E Wright and Tomica Wright are joined in marriage.

  • 1995 - Karrine Steffans and Kool g. Rap are joined in marriage.

  • 1995 - Tamara Tunie and Gregory Generet are joined in marriage.

  • 1995 - Sheryl Swoopes and Eric Jackson are joined in marriage.

  • 1995 - Vondie Curtis-Hall and Kasi Lemmons are joined in marriage.



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famous african american divorces

 Natalie Cole
Natalie Cole
photo #110-yr-1975

     Famous Divorces in 1995
  • February 7, 1995 - R. Kelly and Aaliyah were divorced.

  • December 10, 1995 - Will Smith and Sheree Smith were divorced.

  • December 1995 - Corey A. Jackson and Shar Jackson were divorced.

  • 1995 - Pebbles and L.a. Reid were divorced.

  • 1995 - Jody Watley and Andre Cymone were divorced.

  • 1995 - Jennifer Holliday and Andre Woods were divorced.

  • 1995 - Natalie Cole and Andre Fischer were divorced.

  • 1995 - Deni Hines and Kirk Pengilly were divorced.



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soul train
Soul Train ran from 1971-2006
photo #109-yr-1971

Toni Braxton
Grammy winner Toni Braxton
photo #104-yr-1967

Mariah Carey
Mariah Carey
photo #115-yr-1990

Whitney Houston
Whitney Houston
photo #101-yr-1985

Mary Jane Blige
Mary J. Blige
photo #106-yr-1971

Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
photo #100-yr-1959

Benny Carter
Benny Carter
photo #103-yr-1995

Paul Leroy Robeson
Paul Robeson
photo #111-yr-1898

Curtis Mayfield
Curtis Mayfield
photo #118-yr-1942

     Music in 1995

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • "Creep" TLC

  • "Baby" Brandy

  • "Candy Rain" Soul for Real

  • "This Is How We Do It" Montell Jordan

  • "I'll Be There For You / You're All I Need to Get By" Method Man featuring Mary J. Blige

  • "Don't Take It Personal (Just One of Dem Days)" Monica

  • "One More Chance / Stay with Me" The Notorious B.I.G.

  • "Boombastic / In the Summertime" Shaggy

  • "You Are Not Alone Michael Jackson

  • "Fantasy" Mariah Carey

  • "Who Can I Run To" Xscape

  • "You Remind Me of Something" R. Kelly

  • "Exhale (Shoop Shoop)" Whitney Houston



  Popular Soul Dances:
  • The Hammer

  • Electric Slide

  • The Carlton

  • The Jiggy

  • Tootsee Roll

  • Rump Shaker

  • Da Dip

  • The Butterfly

  • The Funky Charleston

  • Macrena

  • The Humpy Dance



  Musical Happenings:
  • September 28, 1995 - Soul singer Bobby Brown's future brother-in-law, Steven Sealy, was killed by a lone, bald gunslinger who emptied one pistol and continued firing with another. Trivia:  The gunman proceeded to rip the gold chain from Sealy's neck and ran into the housing project. Brown was at the scene. Sealy died at the hospital with Brown holding a vigil for him. A witness reported Brown stomped around after the shooting, punching walls and shouting: "They got my boy!"

  • December 20, 1995 - Paul Roebson opens at the Longacre Theater in New York City for 14 performances.




 Blues Hall of Fame for 1995:
    The Blues Hall of Fame is a music museum located in Memphis, Tennessee. Until recently, the "Blues Hall of Fame" was not a physical building, but a listing of people who have significantly contributed to blues music. Started in 1980 by the Blues Foundation, it honors those who have performed, recorded, or documented blues. The actual building for the hall opened to the public on May 8, 2015

  • Jimmy Rogers


 Grammy winners in 1995:
    The 37th Annual Grammy Awards were presented on March 1, 1995 at Shrine Auditorium, Los Angeles. They recognized accomplishments by musicians from the previous year.

    Best Country Vocal Collaboration
  • Aaron Neville & Trisha Yearwood for "I Fall to Pieces"


  • Best Pop/Contemporary Gospel Album
  • Andrae Crouch for Mercy


  • Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album
  • Albertina Walker for Songs of the Church - Live in Memphis


  • Best Contemporary Soul Gospel Album
  • Take 6 for Join the Band


  • Best Gospel Album by a Choir or Chorus
  • Milton Brunson (choir director) for Through God's Eyes performed by the Thompson Community Singers Hezekiah Walker (choir director) for Live in Atlanta at Morehouse College performed by the Love Fellowship Crusade Choir


  • Best Historical Album
  • Michael Lang (producer) for The Complete Ella Fitzgerald Song Books on Verve


  • Best Jazz Instrumental Solo
  • Benny Carter for "Prelude to a Kiss"


  • Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Individual or Group
  • Ron Carter, Herbie Hancock, Wallace Roney, Wayne Shorter & Tony Williams for A Tribute to Miles


  • Best Large Jazz Ensemble Performance
  • McCoy Tyner for "Journey"


  • Best Jazz Vocal Performance
  • Etta James for Mystery Lady - Songs of Billie Holiday


  • Best Recording Package - Boxed
  • Chris Thompson, for The Complete Ella Fitzgerald Songbooks performed by Ella Fitzgerald


  • Best Album Notes
  • Dan Morgenstern & Loren Schoenberg - performed by Louis Armstrong


  • Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals
  • All-4-One for "I Swear"


  • Best Pop Vocal Collaboration
  • Al Green & Lyle Lovett for "Funny How Time Slips Away"


  • Best Pop Instrumental Performance
  • Booker T. & the M.G.'s for "Cruisin'"


  • Best Female R&B Vocal Performance
  • Toni Braxton for "Breathe Again"


  • Best Male R&B Vocal Performance
  • Babyface for "When Can I See You"


  • Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal
  • Boyz II Men for "I'll Make Love to You"


  • Best Rhythm & Blues Song
  • Babyface (songwriter) for "I'll Make Love to You" performed by Boyz II Men


  • Best R&B Album
  • Boyz II Men for II


  • Best Rap Solo Performance
  • Queen Latifah for "U.N.I.T.Y."


  • Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group
  • Salt-N-Pepa for "None of Your Business"


  • Best Reggae Album
  • Bunny Wailer for Crucial! Roots Classics


  • Best Spoken Word or Non-Musical Album
  • Henry Rollins for Get In The Van - On The Road With Black Flag


  • Best World Music Album
  • Ry Cooder & Ali Farka Toure for Talking Timbuktu


  • Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award
  • Curtis Mayfield




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african americans and religion


How did religion begin for the American Negro?

Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.

What is fetishism you may ask?


 Traditional  Benin Voodoo Dance
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance

Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.

But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.

In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.


Religion definition:
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.



Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.

But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.

Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.

This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.

Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.

During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.

But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.


The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:


Pentacostal -
 Pentacostal Movement
    William Seymour
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015

Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.

Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.

So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.




The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
 The Church Of God in Christ baptism
Church Of God in Christ Baptism
photo#112-yr-2015

The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (18651949) and Charles Harrison Mason (18661961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.



A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.



Baptists -
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.



Islam -
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.

But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.

Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.

So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.




Science -
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.


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womens fashion
Young woman wearing a spaghetti strap top, a silver necklace, and straight-leg jeans
photo #111-yr-1990

mens fashion
Double breasted power suit with large shoulder pads
photo #112-yr-1990

 Converse All-Stars
A classic dark blue pair of Converse All-Stars resting on the Black & White Ed. Shoebox
photo #109-yr-1990

 Slap bracelets
Slap bracelets
photo #110-yr-1990

hairstyles in the 1980s
Jheri curl hairstyle worn in the 80s and 90s.
photo #108-yr-1980

     Fashions and Styles in 1995

  Popular Fashions:

    Women:
    The early 1990s saw a continuation of late 1980s fashion: women wore denim button down shirts, leggings, drainpipe jeans, colored tights, bike shorts, black leather jackets with shoulder pads, and skater dresses. Popular accessories included court shoes, cowboy boots, headscarves, leggings, slouch socks, Keds, ballet flats, and penny loafers. Leotards worn as tops with jeans were popular with young girls, teens, college girls, young women and women. A common outfit was to wear a skirt, dress shorts, babydoll or minidress with black opaque tights, white slouch socks and white sneakers especially Keds. Women's fashion in the mid 1990s became more feminine and form-fitting. Women tended to dress differently for each occasion. Both long and short skirts were favored, and loungewear generally consisted of leggings, large T-shirts, and baggy sweaters while at home or relaxing during the weekends.The most common look among young women was the short black slip dress worn over a tight, undersized white T-shirt. Among other fashion trends included lean pants, hot pants, black Lycra leggings, belted trench coats, and leather. Popular shoes and accessories during the mid-1990s included Wonderbra, Loafers, Mary Janes, suede sneakers, mules, clogs, knee high boots, jelly shoes, Go-go boots, black shoes, silver jewelry, dainty earrings and necklaces, conch shell necklaces,Slap bracelets, berets, straw hats, floppy hats, gold jewelry, and hipster belts. Navel piercings had started to gain popularity around this time.


    Men:
    Continuing on from the late 1980s, many young men wore tapered high waisted jeans with matching denim jackets, Stone Island or Ralph Lauren polo shirts with contrasting collars, short Harrington jackets, brightly colored windcheaters, Hush Puppies shoes, V neck sweaters, soccer shorts, pastel colored three button sportcoats, graphic print T shirts, tracksuit tops with a vertical contrasting stripe down the sleeve, sweatpants, shiny red or blue rayon monkey jackets, grey or tan leather jackets with shoulder pads, and wool baseball jackets with contrasting sleeves. Short shorts were popular in the early years of the decade, but were replaced with looser and baggier basketball shorts after 1993 when hip-hop fashion went mainstream. Hip-hop fashion went mainstream in 1995, with oversized baseball jackets, baggy jeans, bomber jackets, Baja Jackets, and tracksuits popular among young men as casual wear. Simultaneously, industrial and military styles crept into mainstream fashion, with machinery pieces becoming accessories. Baseball caps started being worn forwards again. Southern hip hop provided a platform for Fashion designers and musical artists to collaborate forming an influential subculture of anti fashion and alternative fashion designs, especially the popular recycled clothing worn by Arrested Development and Goodie Mob. Black leather reefer jackets and trenchcoats were also fashionable in the late 1990s.


    Hairstyles:
    The Jheri curl often spelled Jerry curl or Jeri Curl is a permed hairstyle that was common and popular among African American, Black Canadian, and Black British, especially during the 1980s and the 1990s. Invented by the hairdresser Jheri Redding, the Jheri curl gave the wearer a glossy, loosely curled look. It was touted as a "wash and wear" style that was easier to care for than the other popular chemical treatment of the day, the relaxer. For African-American men, the cornrows (popularized by former NBA player Allen Iverson) and buzz cut were a popular trend that continued into the early 2000s.



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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1990s

Bessie Coleman
Bessie Coleman
photo #104-yr-1892

James P. Johnson
James P. Johnson
photo #109-yr-1955

Our Community in 1995
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • January 8, 1995 - The 15th United Negro College Fund was a total success by raiseing $12,200,000 dollars.

  • February 6, 1995 - Rapper Tupac Shakur is convicted on a sexual assault charge and sentenced up to 4 1/2 years in prison.

  • February 17, 1995 - a Federal judge allows lawsuit claiming US tobacco makers knew nicotine was addictive and manipulated its levels to keep customers hooked.

  • April 21, 1995 - The FBI arrested Timothy McVeigh and charged him with the Oklahoma City bombing.

  • September 16, 1995 - The U.S. Postal Service issued a 32-cent commemorative postage stamp honoring James P. Johnson.

  • October 3, 1995 - Former football player OJ Simpson is found not guilty in the murder of his former wife Nicole Simpson & Ron Goldman.

  • October 16, 1995 - The Million Man March was held in Washington, D.C. with over 830,000 African American men attending.

  • 1995 - Lonnie Bristow becomes is the first African American president of the American Medical Association.

  • 1995 - Dr. Helene Doris Gayle becomes not only the first woman but the first African American Director of the National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control.

  • The U.S. Postal Service issued a 32-cent stamp honoring Bessie Coleman in 1995. The Bessie Coleman Commemorative is the 18th in the U.S. Postal Service Black Heritage series.

  • 1990s - The United States Population is 248,709,878 with a total of 29,986,060 being African Americans.




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RESOURCES:


Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License


#100 -   Public Domain image - By Trailer for "The Omega Man" (1971) (Trailer for "The Omega Man" (1971)) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#101 -   Public Domain image
By Malcolm Emmons (The Sporting News Archives) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#102 -   Public Domain image
By Samantha Appleton (White House photographer) (Obtained from USTR OPA.) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#103 -   Public Domain image
By William Gottlieb.Edsu at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons

#104 -   Public Domain image
By derivative work: Everyme (talk)O.J._Simpson_1990__DN-ST-91-03444.JPEG: Gerald Johnson (O.J._Simpson_1990__DN-ST-91-03444.JPEG) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

https://pixabay.com/en/bird-birdie-nature-tropical-birds-877313/

#105 -   Public Domain image
By The White House from Washington, DC (Cropped from P111110PS-0798) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


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