blast from the past

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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1993:
Adelaide Louise Hall
    Adelaide Louise Hall was an American-born UK-based jazz singer and entertainer. Her long career spanned more than 70 years from 1921 until her death, and she was a major figure in the Harlem Renaissance.

    Hall entered the Guinness Book of World Records in 2003 as the world's most enduring recording artist having released material over eight consecutive decades.

    She performed with major artists such as Art Tatum, Ethel Waters, Josephine Baker, Louis Armstrong, Lena Horne, Cab Calloway, Fela Sowande, Rudy Vallee, and Jools Holland, and recorded as a jazz singer with Duke Ellington (with whom she made her most famous recording, "Creole Love Call" in 1927) and with Fats Waller.

    Adelaide Hall was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Elizabeth and Arthur William Hall and was taught to sing by her father. She began her stage career in 1921 on Broadway in the chorus line of the Noble Sissle, and Eubie Blake hit musical Shuffle Along and went on to appear in some similar black musical shows.

    In 1928, Hall starred on Broadway with Bill "Bojangles" Robinson in Blackbirds of 1928. The show became the most successful all-black show ever staged on Broadway at that time and made Hall and Bojangles into household names.

    Hall's performance of "Diga Diga Do", created a sensation. Her mother was so incensed when she went to see the show by her daughter performing what she termed 'risqué dance moves', she tried to stop the show during Adelaide's performance and banned her from appearing in any future performances. The ban only remained for one performance, and Adelaide returned the following day.

    It was this musical that not only secured Hall's success in the USA but also in Europe when the production was taken in 1929 to Paris, France, where it ran for four months at the Moulin Rouge. When Adelaide Hall arrived in Paris from America at the Gare Saint-Lazare she was greeted by a reception of fans and reporters that was reported to be as large as the response Charlie Chaplin had received two years earlier when he visited Paris.

    In 1931, Hall embarked on a world concert tour that visited two continents (America and Europe). The tour was estimated to have performed to more than one million people.

    In the fall of 1932, upon her return to New York, Hall, and her husband purchased the lease on an exclusive freehold residential estate in Larchmont in the New York suburb of Westchester County. As news of her arrival in Larchmont leaked into the local media, she began to encounter racist opposition from her white upper-middle-class prejudiced neighbors, who threatened court action to have Hall evicted. After her home was broken into and an attempt was made to set it alight, news of the attack hit national newspaper headlines.

    Show business wasn't the only thing on Adelaide's mind, she would dream of other things she wanted to do after leaving show business.

    Adelaide once commented in an interview:

    "When I retire from public life I shall resume my career as a modiste,' confided Miss Hall. 'As a kid, I longed for a stage career, and my first step towards this was to run away from school to try my luck behind the footlights. I was apprehended and sent back to school to continue my training as a modiste. Today, I am proud that I am more than an actress.

    Adelaide Hall was one of the major entertainers of the Harlem Renaissance. Along with Louis Armstrong, she pioneered scat singing and is widely acknowledged as one of the world's first jazz singers.

    Indeed, Ella Fitzgerald regarded her as such. Hall was the first female vocalist to sing and record with Duke Ellington. She holds the accolade of being the 20th century's most enduring female recording artist, her recording career having spanned eight decades. In 1941, Hall replaced Gracie Fields as Britain's highest paid female entertainer.

    Hall's career was almost an uninterrupted success.

    What an incredible career this woman had. She was the epitome of success, class, and elegance. This lady was the superstar of her day who didn't require sex to sell her persona. She was a true blue bonafide soul sister who remembered what and who she represented, she remembered what was at stake.

    Thank you, Adelaide, for setting such an excellent example for all that were watching you, and we watched you for over eight decades, talking about endurance. We proudly award you with the 1993 Hamite Award which is a token of our promise in never forgetting what you meant to our race of people.

    Superstar in every sense of the word. Amazing!

    Adelaide died on November 7, 1993, at age 92. She will never be forgotten.

    Sample Adelaide's Music

Adelaide Louise Hall
Adelaide Louise Hall
photo #111-yr-1901





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How were blacks feeling in 1993?
happy mood of blacks


welcome to the 90s



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blacks and basketball

Theodore Tiger Flowers
Theodore "Tiger" Flowers
photo #109-yr-1927

Reggie Jackson
Reggie Jackson
photo #100-yr-1993

Riddick Bowe
Riddick Bowe
photo #101-yr-1992

      Sports in 1993
  • Tiger Flowers was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1993.

  • January 5, 1993 - Slugger Reggie Jackson is elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.

  • February 6, 1993 - Riddick Bowe knocks out Michael Dokes in the first round for the heavyweight boxing title.

  • May 29, 1993 - Jose Canseco pitches the 8th inning in a 15-1 losing efort and in the process damages his arm.

  • July 13, 1993 - The All star Most Valuable Player award goes to Kirby Puckett of the Minnesota Twins.

  • October 23, 1993 - Joe Carter of the Toronto Blue Jays hits an amazing World Series winning walk-off home run against the Philadelphia Phillies.

  • November 6, 1993 - Boxer Evander Holyfield defeats Riddick Bowe in the 12th round for the heavyweight boxing title.

  • December 11, 1993 - The 59th Heisman Trophy Award went to Charlie Ward, a Florida State quarterback.



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Bill Clinton plays the saxophone
President Bill Clinton plays the saxophone presented to him by
Russian President Boris Yeltsin at a private dinner hosted
by President Yeltsin at Novoya Ogarova Dacha, Russia

photo #102-yr-1993

blacks and politics

President Bill Clinton
President Bill Clinton
photo #110-yr-1993

President George Bush
President George Bush
photo #110-yr-1989

      Political Scene in 1993
  • January 20, 1993 - Bill Clinton an American Democratic politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001 was inaugurated into office. He previously served as Governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and 1983 to 1992, and as the state's Attorney General from 1977 to 1979.

  • 1993 - George Herbert Walker Bush, an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993. A Republican, he previously served as a congressman, an ambassador, and Director of Central Intelligence.

  • April 1, 1993 - Freeman Robertson Bosley Jr. is the first African American mayor of St. Louis, Missouri.

  • April 25, 1993 - Boris Yeltsin becomes leader of Russia.

  • August 13, 1993 - The United States Court of Appeals rules congress must save all e-mail.



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The Race Factor


racism

Race in 1993

  • January 18, 1993 - For the first time, Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. holiday is observed in all 50 states.

  • April 17, 1993 - Two Los Angeles police officers are convicted in a federal court of violating Rodney King's civil rights.



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slang and memorable quotes
black slang      sLANG tALK in the 1990s
  • Sup - What's up

  • Aiight - Alright, okay

  • All That - Complete package, not lacking

  • All that and a bag a chips - Complete

  • Bangin'/Slammin' - Got it going on

  • Beef - Trouble with someone

  • Beeotch - Bitch

  • Bling-Bling - Jewelry

  • The Bomb - Perfect, out of this world

  • Boo Ya! - In your face sucka

  • Bounce - To leave, go

  • Cha-Ching - Ring it up, gonna cost

  • Cheddar - Money, greenback

  • Chill Out - Relax

  • Chillin' - Relaxing

  • Churrin - Kids, children

  • Crib - The house, pad

  • Damn Skippy - You got that right!

  • Dawg - Friend, term of endearment

  • Dis - Disrepect

  • Dope - Super cool, badd

  • Down With That - In agreement

  • Fine - The best

  • Finna - About to do something

  • Fly - Cool, something good

  • Fresh - Brand new, cool, great

  • Hella - Emphasis

  • Hoochie - Fast, easy girl

  • Hood - Your neighborhood

  • It's all good - Everything is OK, under control

  • Jack You Up - Hurt you badly

  • Jet - Leave quickly

  • Let's Role - Leave

  • Math - Phone number

  • My Bad - My mistake, I'm sorry

  • O.G. - Original Ganster

  • Oh Snaps! - Oh yeah that's right!

  • Old School - Old way of doing things

  • Paper - Money

  • Phat - Cool

  • Pimpin - Correctly done

  • Po-po - Police

  • Scrub - A guy that's lacking

  • Straight - Telling the whole truth

  • Throw Down - Fight

  • Trippin - Worried about something

  • Vibe - Feeling

  • Wack - Terrible, not good

  • Wangsta - A fake ganster

  • Word - In agreement

  • Yayo - Money

  • Yo - Hello, short for "your"



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black Movies in America

Ellen Cleghorne
Ellen Cleghorne
photo #100-yr-1991

Mae Jemison
Mae Jemison
photo #103-yr-1993

     Television in 1993
    Television:
  • Ellen Cleghorne is an American actress and comedian, best known for being a cast member of Saturday Night Live from 1991 to 1995.

  • Lena Horne - A Different World ("A Rock, a River, a Lena" as herself, July 1993)

  • February 10, 1993 - Oprah Winfrey interviews Michael Jackson with an amazing 90 million people tuning in.

  • May 24, 1993 - "Second Chances" is a Star Trek episode starring African American Mae Jemison as the first real life astronaut to appear on the show.



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black school teacher

The year 1877 was the worst year for American Blacks

A good foundation means everything when attempting to build and the newly freed Negro just didn't have one. When slaves first tasted freedom in the emancipation, they wanted to assimilate into American culture very badly. They wanted to build and live their lives in harmony with their white American brothers.


There were over four million former slaves who were uneducated and illiterate without any life skills whatsoever. During slavery it was illegal and a felony for anyone caught teaching them to read and write. They were not independent like you and me, but depended on others to provide the necessities of life.


The United States government wanted to help the former slaves and assisted by providing Reconstruction aid which meant education, medical, housing, etc. Imagine the joy in these former slaves heart. The schools were consistently packed with Negroes trying to better themselves. Happiness was all around! Finally! Thank you America, we will prove we can do it! YEAH! This was the general attitude of the Negro.


Sadly, this joy was very short lived because the United States government stopped aid after a few short years because of pressure by racist whites. This totally uncaring and un-American decision was called the 1877 Compromise, with many Negroes calling it the 1877 Grand Betrayal.


Although the Negro was now free, he would have to make do the best way he knew how, without any help whatsoever from the government who put him in slavery in the first place. These people became downtrodden, uneducated nomads living in a hateful white racist world, and because of future laws (Jim Crow) further restricting their rights would remain this way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement.


A good foundation was not laid with blacks assimilation into American culture. Many blacks were understandably demoralized, angry and defeated for many years. The weaker ones continue to be so until this day and still hold a grudge that hurts themselves more than anybody else.


Now ones like Mr. Lewis who is pictured above understood his fantastic African American heritage, and the many examples of black success stories he went on to model his life after. This helped him because he had a good foundation to build on. Study your incredible history that's included in this website and grow because it really is a thing of extraordinary beauty.



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happy birthday

Keke Palmer
Keke Palmer
photo #104-yr-1993

     Famous Birthdays in 1993
  • February 3, 1993 - Mishon Ratliff  an American singer, dancer and actor.

  • March 4, 1993 - Bobbi Kristina Brown   was an American reality television and media personality, singer, and actress. She was the daughter of singers Bobby Brown and Whitney Houston, and her parents' fame kept Bobbi Kristina in the public eye, including her appearances on the reality show Being Bobby Brown.

  • March 20, 1993 - Sloane Stephens   an American professional tennis player.

  • May 21, 1993 - Joseph A. Ross an American professional baseball pitcher.

  • July 7, 1993 - Capital Steez was an African-American hip hop recording artist from Brooklyn, New York City, New York.

  • July 21, 1993 - Aaron Durley  a former Little League World Series baseball player known for his exceptional size.

  • August 1, 1993 - Leon G. Thomas III  an American actor, record producer, songwriter and singer who is signed to Columbia Records/Rostrum Records.

  • August 26, 1993 - Keke Palmer  an American actress, television presenter, singer, and songwriter.

  • September 20, 1993 - Taylor Parks  an American actress and singer-songwriter. She is best known for her role as Little Inez in the 2007 film Hairspray.

  • December 18, 1993 - Byron Keiron Buxton  an American professional baseball player. An outfielder, he currently plays in minor league baseball within the Minnesota.



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african americans and death

Claudia McNeil
Claudia McNeil
photo #104-yr-1917

Roy Campanella
Roy Campanella
photo #106-yr-1921

Adelaide Louise Hall
Adelaide Louise Hall
photo #111-yr-1901

 jazz musician and trumpeter Erskine Hawkins
Jazz musician and trumpeter Erskine Hawkins
photo #110-yr-1945

     Famous Deaths in 1993
  • January 2, 1993 - Valerie Wellington   was an African-American Chicago blues and electric blues singer and actress.

  • January 6, 1993 - Dizzy Gillespie was an African-American jazz trumpeter, bandleader, composer and occasional singer.

  • January 19, 1993 - Reginald F. Lewis  was an American businessman. He was the richest African-American man in the 1980s.

  • January 23, 1993 - Thomas Andrew Dorsey was known as "the father of black gospel music" and was at one time so closely associated with the field that songs written in the new style were sometimes known as "dorseys."

  • March 8, 1993 - Billy Eckstine was an American singer and a bandleader of the swing era.

  • May 11, 1993 - Minnie Gentry  was an American actress.

  • June 26, 1993 - Roy Campanella , nicknamed "Campy", was an American baseball player, primarily as a catcher. The Philadelphia native played for the Negro leagues and Mexican League for several seasons before moving into the minor leagues in 1946.

  • July 18, 1993 - Davis Roberts  was an American character actor whose career spanned six decades, from the late 1940s until his death in 1993.

  • November 7, 1993 - Adelaide Louise Hall was an American-born UK-based jazz singer and entertainer. Her long career spanned more than 70 years from 1921 until her death and she was a major figure in the Harlem Renaissance.

  • November 11, 1993 - Erskine Ramsay Hawkins was an American trumpet player and big band leader from Birmingham, Alabama, dubbed "The 20th Century Gabriel".

  • November 25, 1993 - Claudia McNeil was an American actress known for premiering the role of matriarch Lena Younger in both the stage and screen productions of A Raisin in the Sun.

  • December 16, 1993 - Moses Gunn  was an American actor. An Obie Award-winning stage player, he co-founded the Negro Ensemble Company in the 1960s.

  • December 18, 1993 - Steve James  was an American actor, stuntman and martial artist.

  • December 30, 1993 - Thomas Edison Alston   was a Major League Baseball first baseman who played for the St. Louis Cardinals from 1954 to 1957.



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green door to success

Did you know you came from an amazing race of people who cared for you? It's true. The amazing accomplishments of our ancestors are recorded on this website. Years ago as slaves it was illegal for slaves to read and write, and a felony for anyone caught teaching them.

The slavemaster wanted to keep them ignorant so they wouldn't organize and rebel against their authority. He was able to dominate blacks in this way. The slavemaster understood the power of education.

Sadly today too many of our own have not learned how truly important it is to learn. Some may look at education as a white thing and to pick up a book as a sellout. Has any ignorant person ever made you feel that way? If so, you should run away as fast as you can from a person like this. You will meet him in a few years while he's pushing a shopping cart around town.

Education and learning are not white; it's a gift for all humanity. Read at all cost; it will add a new dimension to your life, bringing a whole new world you never knew existed. Your ancestors made it all possible for you.

green door to success




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 american standards
 american standards

"all men are created equal"
The cornerstone of American Principles
But is it true, or just empty words?



Well, once again we have to go back in history to get the likely answer.

Just imagine in your mind what America was going through in it's beginning. Poor European immigrants from around the world braved the mighty oceans traveling to the "New World" for a better life. Anything was better than where they were leaving.

The church had dominated the thinking of Europeans for many years but with the invention of the printing press and sharing of information they slowly began forming their ideas and belief systems independent of the church. One of these beliefs was in social science which taught the Negro was an inferior ape-like creature with no prospect for advancement and whites were superior to them.

Sounds silly I know, but Europeans believed it (and some still do today). They brought these beliefs with them to America. This is the reason whites didn't want anything whatsoever to do with blacks because in their superior way of thinking it would be a step backward to intermingle and share America with people of African descent whom they considered beast like.


the negro is a beast
https://archive.org/stream/thenegrobeastori00carrrich/


Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than Africans. Africans were a tribal people lost in time practicing all sorts of superstitious traditions. Leaders didn't teach their citizens to read or write, and much of African history was lost forever because of this failure. Africans would pass their culture down to the next generation orally.


The Sahara Desert kept these Sub Saharan Africans landlocked away from the rest of the world and because of this fact were not able to share in the worlds new love for education and science. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15735/15735-h/15735-h.htm


When Africans finally collided with the Europeans through the slave trade, they were shocked at the degree of hate these people had against them. Europeans loved science because it excused them from a moral conscience they had been burdened with in their practice of religion. So when they raped, pillaged, and murdered they did so in the name of science or white superiority which made it perfectly O.K. with their hearts.


After the Africans made it to America and were forced to work as slaves, it took many years until white people began to feel they were wrong about the mistreatment of blacks and started movements to free them. After slavery was finally abolished in 1863, another form of hate and discrimination would appear on the scene named Jim Crow.


After Abraham Lincoln had died, every single U.S. President up unto Lyndon Baines Johnson would ignore the Declaration of Independence principle that "All men are created equal" and violated the law of the land by disobeying our U.S. Constitution that guaranteed Negroes first class citizenship with Jim Crow laws. They just refused to accept blacks as equals. Throughout history this was referred to as the "Negro Problem"


It would remain this way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement.

Some of the early Americans who penned the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution which was essentially a moral roadmap for all Americans to live by were honest to true goodness Americans who understood the vision for the United States.


But on the other hand, this true vision of America was too lofty for most whites to follow. They sought only to take from our country for their selfish gains. They considered themselves privileged ones.


But not all were anti-American.


Great men such as Wiliam Whipple who was a signer of the Declaration of Independence was a true American.


During the Revolutionary War period Whipple wrote as follows to Josiah Bartlett, “The last accounts from South Carolina were favorable. A recommendation is gone thither for raising some regiments of blacks. This, I suppose, will lay a foundation for the emancipation of those wretches in that country. I hope it will be the means of dispensing the blessings of Freedom to all the human race in America.”  William Whipple


Even though these true Americans like William Whipple didn't particularly like blacks, they were special people because they put their personal feelings on the back burner and American ideals and principles first. William Whipple could not sign the Declaration of Independence and own slaves at the same time, so what did he do? He set his slave free. Many other true early Americans did the same thing.


william whipple
William Whipple, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and a true American
photo#105-yr-2015

But most American leaders chose to ignore American ideals and principles for their advantage and held on to their slaves, and after slavery was outlawed created illegal laws that made a joke of the U.S. Constitution, and trashed the Declaration of Independence which was anything but being true American and this is the way it remained until the 1960s Civil Rights movement.


Not much has changed. We still have a strong racist element in America and will continue to do so until this dark period in America's history is talked about and hashed out between the races. Many white Americans will probably never change their negative view of blacks which was initiated by erring scientist years ago and continue to pass their hate down from generation to generation.


So what does this have to do with American standards?


America in its infancy was slowly creating a standard that would become admired over the world. Although quickly fading from practice in our day the American standard consisted of honesty in business dealings, promoting fairness, practicing proper relationships, justice, civility, right dress, speech, eating, and anything positive that enriched the community as a whole. Yes, even racist anti-Americans understood and lived by these standards when it didn't conflict with their hate.


Now here's the problem.


With blacks finally attaining enforcement of their civil rights in the 1960s, many didn't quite know which standard to live. Many wondered to themselves, "Should we live under the American standard where many were unkind to us and made us feel unwelcome or continue living under the old Negro standard that was adopted during and after slavery?"


In the following movie, great black filmmaker Oscar Micheaux created a film entitled "Birthright" which was about a well spoken black man named (Peter) who left his Southern roots to go to Harvard and obtain his education. He returned to the south with the hopes of opening up schools to teach the young black kids. He met a beautiful woman (Sissy), and both shared a mutual love interest, and while at a house he was living they had a conversation where she mentioned that since he had an education, he now lived under a different code or (standard) than the other black people in the Southern town. Sissy tells him that since he changed his code (standard) and returned to judge the residents, it wasn't fair. Blacks in the city still lived by the old Negro code or standard. This movie can be found in its entirety on Netflix under (Pioneers of African-American Cinema) There are still many blacks today who live by this old Negro code or standard.



What's a Negro standard?


Many blacks took pride in being different from white America, even down to this day. So during slavery we created our special language to communicate with each other (AAVE), our flashy style of dress, our own and unique way we dealt with one another, it's a standard white people just wouldn't understand, and we loved it because it belonged to us. It's how we survived for decades.


 american standards

Did blacks hold onto the old Negro standard
after the Civil Rights movement?


After the 60s, it wasn't easy trying to blend in and assimilate into the American way of doing things, especially when you know there are ones that hate you. It could be very discouraging. It was especially hard on our black men. But happily many blacks made the smart choice of choosing the American standard, even though they knew they would be called Uncle Toms or sellouts by members of our race for trying to act white or like the enemy as they saw it.


These people were wise because they understood just like the slaves of old what this country was founded on and this gave them strength to live as true Americans. They could care less about racist whites and their hate for us or the foolish blacks who would say bad things about them. They remembered true American brothers like William Whipple and made their mind to follow the American standard of living.


Now if these blacks had stayed in the old Negro standard, they would have been left behind. You cannot blend the American standard with the old Negro standard. It would never work, and that goes for others such as Mexicans, Chinese, Middle Eastern, etc. We all must live by one standard way of doing things in America, even if we may hate one another.


So, if one from the old Negro standard wants to achieve it would be a mistake to look at it as trying to be white. No, we are working to be better Americans, true Americans. Browse through this website and learn about the countless number of blacks who died so that we could attempt this.


After the Civil Rights movement when whites were finally able to have contact with blacks through the event of integration many came to the realization that blacks were not much different than themselves. We're all humans, not like those crazy racist scientists preached as fact years ago to ruin America. They have much blood on their hands.


We must achieve and become victorious even under the bad hand of white racist which without a doubt we will encounter on our American journey. The only difference is today; it's not out in the open like it once was.


But on the other hand, we will also encounter the William Whipple's of the world. How do you think we elected a black President? It couldn't have been accomplished without white people. That in a sense was William voting for our first black president. So when issues arise, don't hate America, if you must hate at all hate the actions of the anti-American racist who reside in her.


 american standards


We can't let anyone hold us back from achieving our dreams which wouldn't make any sense believing "I'm gonna waste my life away with selfish pleasure seeking because of the white man, and also my homies will call me a sellout if I attempt to better myself." which is the thinking from the old Negro standard.


We must all strive to be sharp, smart, successful and proud African Americans living under American standards because it's the best in the world and many of our ancestors died for the opportunity we have today.


So to answer the above question, are all men created equal? It depends on who point of view you take. If you look through the eyes of racist anti-American people, then we are not created equal, but if you look at it through the eyes of true Americans, yes without a doubt we are all created equal and share mutually in achieving in America which is the greatest country in the world.


I think I'll look at it through the eyes of true America, like our friend and American brother William Whipple.


images:
https://pixabay.com/en/businessman-male-business-avatar-310819/
https://pixabay.com/en/man-avatar-blue-people-black-297303/
https://pixabay.com/en/stick-figures-family-people-146965/
https://pixabay.com/en/person-sales-man-tie-avatar-312160/
https://pixabay.com/en/justice-scales-fairness-impartial-683942/



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deceased hip-hop artist
  • DJ Subroc (1973–1993) was an English born American hip hop artist and a member of KMD, Constipated Monkey, and Monsta Island Czars. DJ SubRoc died in 1993 after being hit by a car while attempting to cross the Long Island Expressway.

  • Charles Hicks (July 6, 1973 – December 16, 1993) also known by his stage name Charizma was an MC from Milpitas, California. He is most known for his work with Peanut Butter Wolf; the two of them formed a duo together, but their music was cut short when Charizma was murdered in late 1993.



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Mariah Carey
Mariah Carey
photo #115-yr-1990

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african americans and weddings

Randall Cunningham
Randall Cunningham
photo #105-yr-1993

     Famous Weddings in 1993
  • June 5, 1993 - Mariah Carey  and Tommy Mottola were married.

  • June 26, 1993 - Ronald Isley and Angela Winbush were married.

  • June 26, 1993 - Marcus Allen and Kathryn Eickstaedt were married.

  • December 30, 1993 - Deni Hines and Kirk Pengilly were married.

  • 1993 - Dennis Rodman and Annie Banks were married.

  • 1993 - John Salley and Natasha Duffy were married.

  • 1993 - Vanessa Williams and Andre Wiseman were married.

  • 1993 - Sugar Ray Leonard and Bernadette Robi were married.

  • 1993 - Randall Cunningham and Felicity De Jager were married.

  • 1993 - Darryl Strawberry and Charisse Strawberry were married.



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famous african american divorces

     Famous Divorces in 1993
  • April 1993 - Lenny Kravitz and Lisa Bonet were divorced.

  • August 9, 1993 - Lionel Richie and Brenda Harvey-Richie were divorced.

  • 1993 - Gayle King and William Bumpus were divorced.

  • 1993 - Dennis Rodman and Annie Banks were divorced.

  • 1993 - Nell Carter and Roger Larocque were divorced.



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soul train
Soul Train ran from 1971-2006
photo #109-yr-1971

Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
photo #101-yr-1958

Charley Pride
Charley Pride
photo #114-yr-1977

James Brown
James Brown
photo #103-yr-1933

Whitney Houston
Whitney Houston
photo #101-yr-1985

Janet Jackson
Janet Jackson
photo #104-yr-1994

Mariah Carey
Mariah Carey
photo #115-yr-1990

 Natalie Cole
Natalie Cole
photo #110-yr-1975

Rufus and Chaka
Rufus and Chaka
photo #115-yr-1979

     Music in 1993

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • "I Will Always Love You" Whitney Houston

  • "Hip Hop Hooray" Naughty By Nature

  • "Nuthin' But a 'G' Thang" Dr. Dre

  • "Freak Me" Silk

  • "That's the Way Love Goes" Janet Jackson

  • "Knockin' Da Boots" H-Town

  • "Weak" SWV

  • "Whoomp! (There It Is)" Tag Team

  • "Lately" Jodeci

  • "Check Yo Self" Ice Cube featuring Das EFX

  • "Right Here/Human Nature" SWV

  • "Just Kickin' It" Xscape

  • "Gangsta Lean" DRS

  • "Can We Talk" Tevin Campbell



  Popular Soul Dances:
  • The Hammer

  • Electric Slide

  • The Carlton

  • The Jiggy

  • Tootsee Roll

  • Rump Shaker

  • Da Dip

  • The Butterfly

  • The Funky Charleston

  • Macrena

  • The Humpy Dance



  Musical Happenings in 1993:
  • Kirk Franklin's "Why We Sing", from the album Kirk Franklin & the Family, becomes a popular music phenemonen.

  • Shaquille O'Neal, a well-known basketball player, begins his music career. He will be the most commercially successful athlete to have a long-term musical career.

  • James Brown received a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 4th annual Rhythm & Blues Foundation Pioneer Awards.

  • May 1, 1993 - Charley Pride accepted an invitation to join the Grand Ole Opry, in the process becoming the first black Opry regular in the show's more than 70-year history.

  • June 22, 1993 - Soul singer Wilson Pickett plead guilty to drunk driving and assault.

  • October 31, 1993 - Popular rapper Tupac Shakur is charged with aggravated assault.



 Blues Hall of Fame for 1993:
    The Blues Hall of Fame is a music museum located in Memphis, Tennessee. Until recently, the "Blues Hall of Fame" was not a physical building, but a listing of people who have significantly contributed to blues music. Started in 1980 by the Blues Foundation, it honors those who have performed, recorded, or documented blues. The actual building for the hall opened to the public on May 8, 2015

  • Champion Jack Dupree
  • Lowell Fulson


 American Music Awards winners in: 1993
    The 20th Annual American Music Awards were held on January 25, 1993. It was hosted by Bobby Brown, Gloria Estefan and Wynonna Judd. Since Michael Jackson was the first artist awarded with the International Artist Award, Eddie Murphy announced that it will be called as the Michael Jackson International Artist Award.

    Favorite Pop/Rock Male Artist
  • Michael Jackson

  • Favorite Pop/Rock Female Artist
  • Mariah Carey

  • Favorite Pop/Rock Single
  • "End of the Road" - Boyz II Men

  • Favorite Pop/Rock Album
  • Dangerous - Michael Jackson

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Male Artist
  • Michael Jackson

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Female Artist
  • Patti LaBelle

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Band, Duo, or Group
  • Boyz II Men

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Album
  • Funky Divas - En Vogue

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Single
  • "Remember the Time" - Michael Jackson

  • Favorite Soul/R&B New Artist
  • Kris Kross

  • Favorite Rap/Hip-Hop Artist
  • Sir Mix-A-Lot

  • Favorite Rap/Hip-Hop New Artist
  • Kriss Kross

  • Favorite Adult Contemporary Album
  • Unplugged - Mariah Carey



 Grammy winners in 1993:
    The 35th Annual Grammy Awards were held in 1993. They recognized accomplishments by musicians from the previous year.

    Best New Artist
  • Arrested Development


  • Best Instrumental Composition
  • Benny Carter (composer) for Harlem Renaissance Suite


  • Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or Television
  • for Beauty and the Beast performed by Peabo Bryson & Céline Dion


  • Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocal(s)
  • Johnny Mandel (arranger) for Here's to Life performed by Shirley Horn


  • Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album
  • Shirley Caesar for He's Working It Out For You


  • Best Contemporary Soul Gospel Album
  • Mervyn E. Warren (producer) for Handel's Messiah - A Soulful Celebration performed by various artists


  • Best Gospel Album by a Choir or Chorus
  • Edwin Hawkins


  • Best Historical Album
  • for The Complete Capitol Recordings of The Nat "King" Cole Trio


  • Best Jazz Instrumental Solo
  • Joe Henderson for Lush Life


  • Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Individual or Group
  • Branford Marsalis for I Heard You Twice the First Time


  • Best Large Jazz Ensemble Performance
  • McCoy Tyner for The Turning Point


  • Best Jazz Vocal Performance
  • Bobby McFerrin for 'Round Midnight


  • Best Album Package
  • Compact performed by Paula Abdul


  • Best Album Notes
  • The Atlantic Recordings performed by Aretha Franklin


  • Producer of the Year (Non-Classical)
  • Babyface & L.A. Reid


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Female
  • Chaka Khan for The Woman I Am


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male
  • Al Jarreau for Heaven and Earth


  • Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal
  • Boyz II Men for 'End of the Road'


  • Best R&B Instrumental Performance
  • Miles Davis for Doo-Bop


  • Best Rhythm & Blues Song
  • Babyface, L.A. Reid & Daryl Simmons (songwriters) for 'End of the Road' performed by Boyz II Men


  • Best Rap Solo Performance
  • Sir Mix-a-Lot for Baby Got Back


  • Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group
  • Arrested Development for Tennessee


  • Best Reggae Album
  • Shabba Ranks for X-tra Naked


  • Best Spoken Word or Non-musical Album
  • Earvin "Magic" Johnson & Robert O'Keefe for What You Can Do to Avoid AIDS


  • MusiCares Person of the Year
  • Natalie Cole




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why do others dislike black people

"It is worthy of emphasis, that the antiquity of the Negro race is beyond dispute. His brightest days were when history was an infant; and, since he early turned from God, he has found the cold face of hate and the hurtful hand of the Caucasian against him."   George Washington Williams


How did it begin?

It's a worldwide negative perception of blacks.

But why?

Well, a quick and straightforward trip back in history will get the likely answer. The Arab trade of Zanj (Bantu) slaves in Southeast Africa predated the European transatlantic slave trade by 700 years but it wasn't until the Portuguese sailed to West Africa in search of gold and discovered something much more valuable, (slaves) and shared with the world what they encountered that aided in the bad rap on blacks.


good black americans
During the transatlantic slave trade the African empires of Benin, Dahomey, and Yoruba were very powerful. From these kingdoms, more than from any other part of Africa were the people sold into American slavery.


These kingdoms had many districts with different tribes and clans who always fought against each other. These tribes were illiterate without a written form, passing their history to the next generation orally. They were blissfully ignorant of the world around them. As with all people of a common nature, they lived within the limits and respect of the land and were very content in doing so.


Europeans considered the Africans pagans because most tribes were involved with witchcraft, idol worship, cannibalism, superstition, female genital mutilation, and human sacrifices just to name a few of their foolish practices. Europeans thought of themselves as being illuminators to the world made in the image of God which in their minds was white and holy.


Before Christianity took place in Europe, whites believed in a different form of worship which was called mythology, but in time came to their senses with the help of a man named Thales who would later become known as the father of science. Thales was the first person in human history to dispel mythology and would usher in a new way of thinking which was based on facts which in its beginning was called Natural philosophy, and later would be called science. Science would eventually take mythology's place in the way white people believed. Goodbye Jupiter and Neptune.


Thales studied, recorded and compared facts laying the foundation for science. In time, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle would go on to perfect the methods of science. Over the centuries with this wealth of new knowledge discoveries with the aid of science, you can probably imagine how this had to elevate the Europeans ego and self-worth in themselves.


good black americans


Before long they would claim white superiority, and many began even to doubt the existence of a God. So by the time the Portuguese made their arrival to Africa, they were only smarter and better educated than the blacks and of course dominated as they pleased.


Africans were still living in the past in a fast changing world and were no match for the very greedy and violent Europeans. Africans had seen the last of their glory days. It's a documented fact the Africans were the beginning of human innovation. Other races would go on to copy and perfect their existing creations, scientifically.


If you study ancient history and technological achievements which were in many ways the equal of, or superior of, much that we have today, were founded and carried to a high technological proficiency by Hamitic (African) people. This is the role in history given by God to the descendants of Ham. The Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Mayans, the Aztecs, all were Hamitic people. They were the great inventors of mankind. http://www.ldolphin.org/ntable.html


Why were the African people a no-show in technological discoveries other nations around the world were experiencing?


It wasn't because Africans weren't capable of learning. Type the key phrase into Google "African immigrants in college" you will discover the same lineage of Sub-Saharan Africans today out-perform all races in America's colleges academically. Skin color doesn't matter when it comes to learning; it was because of conditions beyond their control.


Africans couldn't share and contribute information with other nations during this period because of one humongous roadblock. The Sahara Desert. The entire continental United States would fit inside the Sahara Desert with plenty of room to spare. This desert spanned from west to east of Northern Africa and continued to grow, making it very dangerous and challenging for travel.


Sub Saharan Africans were landlocked, lost in time away from all other humanity. The Sahara Desert wasn't always a desert, but slowly grew to be that way. Cave drawings have been discovered in parts of the Sahara that actually depict the flora as green and thriving.  http://self.gutenberg.org/articles/history_of_west_africa


good black americans

So with Portuguese arriving in Africa with their advanced knowledge they encountered a people lost in time and because of their tribal culture and erroneous Pre-Adamic belief the Portuguese had about black people, these people were labeled ignorant wild beast, incapable of learning and the world agreed.


The Africans had a reputation as a peaceful and lovable people and were considered easy pickings by ruthless and brilliant Europeans who extended no mercy.


science and african americans

With their love for science, whites would constantly compare themselves with blacks. They collectively studied the Negro from the kinks in his hair, size of his brain to the jam in his toenails and declared themselves superior to this lowly ape-like creature.


They believed Africans were the descendants of pre-Adamism races and that the White race was made in the image and likeness of God and that Adam gave birth to the White race only.


They also believed and taught that blacks are not human beings but pre-Adamite beasts and could not possibly have been made in God's image and likeness because they are beastlike, immoral and ugly. Whites also claimed that the pre-Adamite races such as blacks didn't have souls. The world would be satisfied with their scientific theory they learned with the help of a blatant and racist media. Whites accepted these lies as truth and raised their kids to do the same.


Science, pre-Adamite beliefs, and the media would go on to replace common sense. According to whites, it was the destiny of these black beast to serve whites, and they believed they had God's backing. Some of the things they wrote as fact about the Negro would go on to cause many innocent deaths.


Typical American Newspaper Article Of Yesteryear

racist media

The above article was an editorial reply to another editor that was published in the Cayton's weekly., January 25, 1919, (Seattle, Wash.) http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87093353/1919-01-25/ed-1/seq-1/


More than anything else science, pre-adamite beliefs and the racist media played an enormous role which perpetuated the negative image of blacks all over the world. The saddest part was when many blacks would believe these false teachings and felt unworthy, ugly and completely worthless as human beings and lived their lives in a useless way and the process was reinforcing these negative views.


Once in America the following comment gives insight into how whites viewed the Negro in the 1700s during colonial days.


Speaking on the duties of missionaries in converting the Negro to Christianity in 1784, Bishop Porteus published an extensive plan for the most effectual conversion of the slaves contending that

"despicable as they are in the eyes of man they are, nevertheless, the creatures of God."


When slaves first arrived in America, it wasn't quite agreed what their social status would be because it was supposed to be only temporary until white immigrants could come from other countries to take their place, but it didn't happen that way. This is when slavery slowly became associated with dark skin. Everybody jumped on the bandwagon against the lowly Negro who was considered inhuman and a savage beast.


But because it was later discovered that blacks were capable of learning, it made some bright whites change their negative view, except for white slavemasters who had a financial interest in keeping the Negro uneducated and made it a felony for anyone caught teaching them.


Real Americans soon began to realize blacks were human beings just as they were and started movements to free them from the bondage of slavery.


Writers of that day cite desirable characteristics of blacks, saying they were deeply religious, cheerful, imaginative, patient, courageous, had high physical endurance, affectionate and without vindictiveness, even though living under a brutal slavery system. They hated slavery, but always kept hope alive, waiting for their Judgement Day.


When their Judgement day arrived, how did slaves act once freed?

Imagine if you spent your entire existence depending and working from dusk to dawn for someone else and suddenly set free.


How would you do? 


Who would teach you to read and write, the importance of family, morality, open a bank account, manage your money, how to distinguish between necessity and want, how to keep your house maintained, the importance of honesty in personal and business dealings, how to think big and become self-reliant with confidence and the many more life skills that's needed in society? All would agree that these are crucial life skills to master that the Negro didn't have during slavery.


classy black women


Well, needless to say, many former slaves didn't measure up after freedom, wasting their lives with pleasure seeking and absolutely no ambition at all. These people gave the whole race a bad rap and continued to do so until this day.


But most wanted to learn these life skills and progress. That's why the Reconstruction schools of the 1870s were so important; it was like a halfway or transition house for the blacks into American culture. But of course we know that the U.S. government did away with Reconstruction in 1877 because of pressure from white southerners who didn't want educated blacks in America.


Our achievements have been many since then, so why does the negative image of blacks persist?


It's simple. The negative image of blacks persists around the world because of a lack of compassion and love mainly from non-black people. Even though erroneous beliefs of science and pre-Adamic theories happened centuries ago, hard habits are hard to break. It's entrenched in the hearts of many.


That's really sad, but as American citizens today, how are blacks doing?


Well under the circumstances blacks are doing a fantastic job, and it's a wonder we are still around. We as African-Americans are honing our life skills with increasing precision without the same network or support groups that other races enjoy. We are a unique type of people that don't have a reference point but must learn as we go.


Quite frankly, we are true Americans who continue to accomplish our goals non-violently and completely understand what the U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence stands for. Would other races been able to do the same? We are love, always have been and always will be.


violent people


Historically, after being raped, tortured, lynched and murdered with perpetrators enjoying total impunity, the usual reply of blacks were these words, "I forgive you." Even though made out to be the violent savage beast, blacks seldom retaliated. It's true, check your history books. We live for today and as Americans realizing we have this excellent opportunity to excel and soar like the eagles, and we will!



Resources:

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a white officer in the Union army had the task of training colored soldiers in the Civil War. He kept a diary for our enjoyment today. (click here)

George W. Williams - History of the Negro Race in America From 1619 to 1880. (click here)

Europeans Come to Western Africa - (click here)

The Characteristics of the Negro People - (click here)



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womens fashion
Young woman wearing a spaghetti strap top, a silver necklace, and straight-leg jeans
photo #111-yr-1990

mens fashion
Double breasted power suit with large shoulder pads
photo #112-yr-1990

 Converse All-Stars
A classic dark blue pair of Converse All-Stars resting on the Black & White Ed. Shoebox
photo #109-yr-1990

 Slap bracelets
Slap bracelets
photo #110-yr-1990

hairstyles in the 1980s
Jheri curl hairstyle worn in the 80s and 90s.
photo #108-yr-1980


A medium-length hi-top fade haircut
photo #100-yr-1985

     Fashions and Styles in 1993

  Popular Fashions:

    Women:
    The early 1990s saw a continuation of late 1980s fashion: women wore denim button down shirts, leggings, drainpipe jeans, colored tights, bike shorts, black leather jackets with shoulder pads, and skater dresses. Popular accessories included court shoes, cowboy boots, headscarves, leggings, slouch socks, Keds, ballet flats, and penny loafers. Leotards worn as tops with jeans were popular with young girls, teens, college girls, young women and women. A common outfit was to wear a skirt, dress shorts, babydoll or minidress with black opaque tights, white slouch socks and white sneakers especially Keds. Women's fashion in the mid 1990s became more feminine and form-fitting. Women tended to dress differently for each occasion. Both long and short skirts were favored, and loungewear generally consisted of leggings, large T-shirts, and baggy sweaters while at home or relaxing during the weekends.The most common look among young women was the short black slip dress worn over a tight, undersized white T-shirt. Among other fashion trends included lean pants, hot pants, black Lycra leggings, belted trench coats, and leather. Popular shoes and accessories during the mid-1990s included Wonderbra, Loafers, Mary Janes, suede sneakers, mules, clogs, knee high boots, jelly shoes, Go-go boots, black shoes, silver jewelry, dainty earrings and necklaces, conch shell necklaces,Slap bracelets, berets, straw hats, floppy hats, gold jewelry, and hipster belts. Navel piercings had started to gain popularity around this time.


    Men:
    Continuing on from the late 1980s, many young men wore tapered high waisted jeans with matching denim jackets, Stone Island or Ralph Lauren polo shirts with contrasting collars, short Harrington jackets, brightly colored windcheaters, Hush Puppies shoes, V neck sweaters, soccer shorts, pastel colored three button sportcoats, graphic print T shirts, tracksuit tops with a vertical contrasting stripe down the sleeve, sweatpants, shiny red or blue rayon monkey jackets, grey or tan leather jackets with shoulder pads, and wool baseball jackets with contrasting sleeves. Short shorts were popular in the early years of the decade, but were replaced with looser and baggier basketball shorts after 1993 when hip-hop fashion went mainstream. Hip-hop fashion went mainstream in 1995, with oversized baseball jackets, baggy jeans, bomber jackets, Baja Jackets, and tracksuits popular among young men as casual wear. Simultaneously, industrial and military styles crept into mainstream fashion, with machinery pieces becoming accessories. Baseball caps started being worn forwards again. Southern hip hop provided a platform for Fashion designers and musical artists to collaborate forming an influential subculture of anti fashion and alternative fashion designs, especially the popular recycled clothing worn by Arrested Development and Goodie Mob. Black leather reefer jackets and trenchcoats were also fashionable in the late 1990s.


    Hairstyles:
    The Jheri curl often spelled Jerry curl or Jeri Curl is a permed hairstyle that was common and popular among African American, Black Canadian, and Black British, especially during the 1980s and the 1990s. Invented by the hairdresser Jheri Redding, the Jheri curl gave the wearer a glossy, loosely curled look. It was touted as a "wash and wear" style that was easier to care for than the other popular chemical treatment of the day, the relaxer. A hi-top fade is a style of haircut where hair on the sides is cut off or kept very short while hair on the top of the head is very long (in contrast, a low fade is a style where hair on the top is kept shorter). It was common among young black people between 1985 and 1993. For African-American men, the cornrows (popularized by former NBA player Allen Iverson) and buzz cut were a popular trend that continued into the early 2000s.



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crack in the black communtiy



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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1990s

Joe Louis
Joe Louis
photo #107-yr-1914

Timmie Rogers
Comedian Timmie Rogers
photo #105-yr-1948

Dorothy Irene Height
Dorothy Height
photo #108-yr-1957

Clyde McPhatter
Clyde McPhatter
photo #111-yr-1932

Our Community in 1993
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • February 23, 1993 - Gary Coleman wins a $1,280,000 lawsuit against his own parents for mismanagement.

  • February 19, 1993 - Black beauty Kenya Moore of Michigan is crowned the 42nd Miss USA

  • September 7, 1993, Joycelyn M. Elders becomes the first African-American and the first woman to be named United States Surgeon General. Trivia:  Elders drew fire - and censure from the Clinton administration - when she suggested that legalizing drugs might help reduce crime and that the idea should be studied. Around one week after making these comments, charges were filed against her son Kevin, for selling cocaine in an incident involving undercover officers, four months prior. Elders believes the incident was a frame-up and the timing of the charges was designed to embarrass her and the president. Kevin Elders was convicted, and he was sentenced to 10 years in prison. He appealed his conviction to the Arkansas Supreme Court, and that court reaffirmed the conviction. The court held that Mr. Elders failed to show that he was entrapped into making the narcotics sale. There was no further appeal.

  • October 7, 1993 - Toni Morrison becomes the first African American to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.

  • 1993 - Fighter Joe Lewis became the first boxer to be honored on a postage stamp issued by the U.S. Postal Service.

  • 1993 - The United States Postal Service issued a stamp in rhythm-and-blues, soul and rock-and-roll singer Clyde McPhatter's honor.

  • 1993 - Dorothy Height wins Franklin Delano Roosevelt Freedom From Want Award.

  • 1993 - Dorothy Height inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame.

  • 1993 - Dorothy Height wins Spingarn Medal from the NAACP.

  • 1993 - Comedian Timmie Rogers whose humor was clean, topical, and political was inducted into the National Comedy Hall of Fame in 1993.

  • 1990s - The United States Population is 248,709,878 with a total of 29,986,060 being African Americans.




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african americans and religion


How did religion begin for the American Negro?

Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.

What is fetishism you may ask?


 Traditional  Benin Voodoo Dance
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance

Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.

But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.

In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.


Religion definition:
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.



Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.

But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.

Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.

This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.

Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.

During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.

But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.


The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:


Pentacostal -
 Pentacostal Movement
    William Seymour
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015

Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.

Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.

So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.




The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
 The Church Of God in Christ baptism
Church Of God in Christ Baptism
photo#112-yr-2015

The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.



A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.



Baptists -
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.



Islam -
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.

But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.

Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.

So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.




Science -
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.


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RESOURCES:


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#100 -   Public Domain image -
By MLB and the New York Yankees [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#101 -   Public Domain image -
By Bob McNeely, The White House [1] [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#102 -   Public Domain image -
By Bob McNeely, January 13, 1994 - Courtesy of the White House [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#103 -   Public Domain image -
By National Aeronautics and Space Administration ([1][2]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#104 -   Public Domain image -
By Cropped from U.S. Air Force photo by Dave Bowers [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#105 -   Public Domain image -
By Justvikings (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


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