blast from the past

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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1991:
Redd Foxx
    Jon Elroy Sanford known professionally as Redd Foxx, was an American comedian and actor, best remembered for his explicit comedy records and his starring role on the 1970s sitcom Sanford and Son.

    Foxx was born in St. Louis, Missouri and raised on Chicago's South Side. His father, Fred Sanford, an electrician and auto mechanic from Hickman, Kentucky, left his family when Foxx was four years old. He was raised by his half-Seminole Indian mother, Mary Hughes from Ellisville, Mississippi, his grandmother and his minister.

    He attended DuSable High School with future Chicago mayor Harold Washington. Foxx had an older brother, Fred G. Sanford Jr., who provided the name for his character on "Sanford and Son."

    Foxx gained notoriety with his raunchy nightclub act during the 1950s, 60s, and 70s. His big break came after singer Dinah Washington insisted that he come to Los Angeles, where Dootsie Williams of Dootone Records caught his act at the Brass Rail nightclub. Foxx was signed to a long-term contract and released a series of comedy albums that quickly became cult favorites.

    Foxx achieved his most widespread fame starring in the television sitcom Sanford and Son, an adaptation of the BBC series Steptoe and Son. The series premiered on the NBC television network on January 14, 1972, and was broadcast for six seasons. The final episode aired on March 25, 1977,

    "It's the big one, I'm coming to join ya honey/Elizabeth" Redd Foxx kept us laughing. He will go down in history as one of the greatest comedians ever.

    Comedians serve a much-needed purpose much like a doctor. They both try their best to make you feel good. Redd Foxx made many feel good. You just had to keep the small kids out of the room some of the time. Thanks Redd for brightening up our day with beautiful laughter, we bestow upon you the 1991 Hamite Award.

    In 2004, Comedy Central Presents: 100 Greatest Stand-ups of All Time ranked Foxx as the 24th best stand-up comedian. Foxx not only influenced many budding funnymen but was often portrayed in popular culture as well, mainly as a result of his famous catchphrases, body language and facial expressions exhibited on Sanford and Son.

    On October 11, 1991, during a break from rehearsals for The Royal Family, Foxx suffered a heart attack on the set. He is dearly missed.

Redd Foxx
Redd Foxx
photo #101-yr-1991





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How were blacks feeling in 1991?
happy mood of blacks


codenamed Operation Desert Shield
The Persian Gulf War is OVER!


Did President Bush make a grave mistake by not taking
Saddam out while he had the chance?

I guess time will tell.


welcome to the 90s



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blacks and basketball

Rickey Henderson
Rickey Henderson
photo #111-yr-1979

Carl Lewis
Carl Lewis
photo #104-yr-1983

George Foreman
George Foreman
photo #111-yr-1973

      Sports in 1991
  • May 1, 1991 - Rickey Henderson stole his 939th base to pass Lou Brock and became the sport's all-time stolen base leader. Trivia:  After Rickey broke Lou Brocks base stealing record he gave a speech that didn't sit well for many people. He modeled his speech after his hero Muhammad Ali calling himself "The Greatest". Folks called him arrogant and selfish for doing this. Henderson said that speech still haunts him to this day. Rickey had went over his speech with Brock himself before he gave it. Brock didn't have a problem with it, and just said that Rickey spoke from his heart.

  • January 8, 1991 - Baseball greats, Ferguson Jenkins Gaylord Perry & Rod Carew elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame. Rod Carew made it on the first try.

  • February 9, 1991 - Puncher Terry Norris defeats Sugar Ray Leonard.

  • April 1, 1991 - Baseball ace Dwight Gooden signs a whopping $5.15 million 3 year contract with the New York Mets.

  • April 19, 1991 - Boxer Evander Holyfield defeats ageless George Foreman in the 12th round for the heavyweight boxing title.

  • May 19, 1991 - Race car driver Willy T. Ribbs becomes the first African American driver to make the Indianapolis 500.

  • September 25, 1991 - Track and Field standout Carl Lewis wins the gold in the 100 meters.

  • November 22, 1991 - Basketball star Patrick Ewing receives a whopping $18.8 million for a 2 year extension.



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THE CIVIL RIGHTS BATTLE HAS BEEN WON!

We are extremely happy and excited for the future!
There are smaller battles ahead, but we will prevail.
It was a horrific journey.
We thought after slavery was outlawed in 1863, everything would be okay.
But instead, it was a big disappointment the next hundred years for blacks.



Since emancipation blacks have been murdered by lynch mobs, tortured, raped, assaulted, disrespected, demoralized, discouraged and made to feel less than human, and a search of history would reveal blacks seldom retaliated but always longed for peace and justice. But after the victorious civil rights battle, many are in terrible shape mentally, but we will keep on pushing. We've come too far to quit now.

cool black americans photo#104-yr-2015


Most white Americans along with our United States government actively participated in atrocities that bordered on genocide against blacks either by their silence or direct involvement, but there were also many good white American brothers who understood the true meaning of democracy for all.

We couldn't have been victorious without them. Our Civil Rights leaders have been excellent moral examples for us since freedom from slavery. It was a collective effort. They unselfishly lead blacks and did an outstanding job.

They were the only hope of a race of people without a voice in a privileged white society who had kidnapped our U.S. Constitution to their own selfish advantage.

We would like to take this opportunity to give recognition to ones who have helped our American struggle. This is not a complete listing by any means. There were many more shining examples of Americans, both black and white.

But now since we are victorious with our Civil Rights and ready to travel the next phase of our journey, we need strong black leaders who will teach us the critical importance of education. So an important question needs to be answered.

We need to know...
who speaks for the negro

Our fearless Civil Rights leaders have victoriously completed their task and have proudly passed the baton to all African American Mothers and Fathers to continue the struggle by raising our children with high moral standards encouraging them to achieve and soar like the eagles.

who speaks for the negro
The new black leaders of our community,
Aren't they beautiful?
They would make our ancestors very proud!
I think I feel a tear coming




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WAR ON BLACKS, OR ALSO KNOWN AS WAR ON DRUGS

Mass Incarceration


law and order
Convicts Leased to Harvest Timber, around 1915, Florida
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Convicts_Leased_to_Harvest_Timber.png
(public domain image)


    The more things change, the more they stay the same


Shortly after slavery, blacks were thrown into prison for petty and minor offenses which resulted in long sentences. It was big business for the penitentiary because they would hire these convicts out for various jobs and keep blacks off the streets at the same time. They killed two birds with one stone.


It was a form of bondage that did not last a lifetime and did not automatically extend from one generation to the next. But it was nonetheless slavery – a system in which armies of free men, guilty of no crimes and entitled by law to freedom, were compelled to labor without compensation, were repeatedly bought and sold, and were forced to do the bidding of white masters through the regular application of extraordinary physical coercion.


This form of slavery was abolished by President Franklin D. Roosevelt December 12, 1941.


Is the criminal justise system much different today?


President Richard Nixon started the modern day Law and Order campaign of the War on Drugs. President Ronald Reagan would continue with the program in his administration, and later President Bill Clinton during his term created tough mandatory sentencing that unfairly affected blacks.

Crack cocaine was associated with poor blacks because it was a cheap drug and in contrast with powder cocaine which was considered a white man's drug because it was more expensive. Neither drug was more deadly than the other, but crack was demonized because it was associated with black people.

While a person found with five grams of crack cocaine faced a five-year mandatory minimum prison sentence, a person holding powder cocaine could receive the same sentence only if he or she held five hundred grams. Similarly, those carrying ten grams of crack cocaine faced a ten-year mandatory sentence, while possession of one thousand grams of powder cocaine was required for the same sentence to be imposed.

Don't get it wrong, these were very well ORGANIZED methods from anti-Americans in control of our country to hold blacks down and is very well documented. It seems these anti-Americans are always reinventing themselves in ways of oppressing black citizens. Perhaps they should show some love for a change instead of acting on their imagined fear.


WHO IS THIS MAN?


John Ehrlichman


John Ehrlichman who was counsel to President Richard Nixon and would later become a criminal himself with his involvement in the Watergate scandal made the following comment about the reason for Nixon's war on drugs:

“The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course, we did.”



Check these statistics out

One of every three black American males born today can expect to go to prison in his lifetime. While black defendants account for roughly 80% of those arrested for crack-related offenses, public health data has found that two-thirds of crack cocaine users are white or Hispanic. The leading cause of incarceration of an African American male is a non-violent drug offense. Most black men in prisons are not monsters but just got caught up in the system for a non-violent mistake they may have made.

These stats are for the years 1970 - 2010



1 in every 106 White males age 18 or older is incarcerated
law and order



1 in every 36 Hispanic males age 18 or older is incarcerated
law and order



1 in every 15 Black males age 18 or older is incarcerated
law and order


    We have to help our black boys because nobody else cares. Wouldn't it be nice if today's blacks possessed the same gumption our African American ancestors had by taking control of our destiny as a race of people? It seems ever since the end of slavery we are always pointing out to the white man how unfair and unjust he has treated us. Don't you think he knows that? What do we expect them to do, start crying and say I'm sorry and start treating us like fellow Americans by sharing freely? Don't hold your breath.


    At this point in history, it's clear we must begin to work on ourselves more than anything else. We've probably gone just about as far as we can go with the protesting/marching strategy which was an excellent choice over the decades, but now it's time for action on our part. MLK would have likely said the same thing.


    A very unpopular message for many blacks who live with the self-pity attitude but the only avenue available for American success. Can you imagine how much it would lift our race if every single black boy possessed a college degree? It's a dream that could become a reality if we believed it.


    Education plays the significant role in American success for blacks and any group of blacks in a position of authority such as sports figures, entertainers, singers, etc. that teaches the opposite by their examples we should run away from them as fast as possible. Sadly, these groups are the ones that many blacks look up to for guidance instead of our black educators.


    When one of us climbs the very challenging and racist ladder of success in the American power structure by using our God-given brain power we will not forget about those we left behind, but instead will help other blacks do the same by extending a hand until we find ourselves in a position of directing instead of always asking and begging.


    Our ancestors knew we could do it and we have to believe it too. We are from some of the strongest and finest stock that is known to humankind and should set the example for all dark skinned people over the entire earth simply because we are in a position to do so and live in the greatest country in the world. Our story is one of the greatest ever told. We are AmazingBlacks.



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blacks and politics

President George Bush
President George Bush
photo #110-yr-1989

 Senator Roland Burris
Senator Roland Burris
photo #102-yr-1991

 Emanuel Cleaver
Emanuel Cleaver
photo #103-yr-1991

      Political Scene in 1991
  • 1991 - George Herbert Walker Bush, an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993. A Republican, he previously served as a congressman, an ambassador, and Director of Central Intelligence.

  • October 3, 1991 - Memphis elected its first African-American mayor, Dr. Willie Herenton.

  • October 23, 1991 - Federal Judge Clarence Thomas is confirmed by the U.S. Senate and takes his seat on the United States Supreme Court.

  • 1991 - Senator Roland Burris is elected as Illinois Attorney General.

  • 1991 - Emanuel Cleaver was elected Mayor of Kansas City, serving from 1991 to 1999.

  • 1991 - Wellington Webb was elected the first African American mayor of Denver, Colorado.

  • February 28, 1991 - The Gulf War codenamed Operation Desert Shield is over. After liberating Kuwait, and upon entering Iraq territory, one hundred hours after the ground campaign started, on February 28, 1991 President Bush declared a ceasefire, and he also declared that Kuwait had been liberated.



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america' last chance
america' last chance


Liberty, Justice and Freedom For All

It's true at one time in history; America was intended solely for white people, but not all white people. Most of America's founders desired only the fittest and smartest whites to settle here. The Irish, Italians and many more ethnic groups were considered low-life and not worthy to intermingle with the self-proclaimed superior whites, in fact, they were treated as harshly as the black slaves.


But within the time they changed their views and allowed lower class whites to have an equal say in the building of America, and of course being similar in color made it easy for these people to blend in with one another, and in time you couldn't tell the difference. A luxury that was impossible for blacks to attain.


But on the other hand, Black slaves were considered savage beast without the capabilities to learn and contribute to America, other than with their back-breaking labor.


Why did whites feel this way abouts blacks?


Before their arrival to America as slaves, they were very far behind in development and intelligence. There were great African Kingdoms, but they were no match for the ruthless Europeans. African rulers failed to educate their citizens which would have been a huge undertaking because there were thousands upon thousands of different tribes and clans with their distinct language and customs.


Most Africans didn't know how to read and write and would pass their history down from generation to the next orally. They also believed profoundly in superstition and all sorts of foolish beliefs that didn't help them once the Europeans arrived allowing them to ravage and dominate the African populations completely. Whites were very competitive and chose to proclaim themselves superior to the blacks, instead of sharing their knowledge to help these uneducated Africans.


So from the beginning, the Europeans made this a race issue. Africans were so far behind in human development, whites thought very lowly of them, and since they didn't have examples and scientific techniques we have today to prove otherwise they did as they pleased with little protest from the majority of the white population. In fact, most whites believed blacks were half human/beast only because they didn't know any better.


But in time things would change, and there would become many free blacks and also blacks in slavery who would achieve against all the odds of racism. Many whites began to realize that blacks were human beings and if given a chance could be just as intelligent as white people. The movement was started to get blacks equality in America to the dismay of hardcore white supremacist who refused to accept this undeniable evidence that all men are equal in ability.


Scientific discoveries would later determine there was no genetic proof that blacks were inferior to other races which would utterly destroy the superior white theory that had been preached for centuries. All that blacks needed was an education and an opportunity to compete and could do just as well as other races.


Although African-Americans were not immigrants but brought here as slaves, they had things in common because they also yearned for liberty, justice, and freedom. In time what made America so great was it realized it was wrong and attempted to change it's view so it could live up to the true meaning of liberty and justice for all.


But this wouldn't be easy because of many white people who refused to change their views and progress to a new era of love and cooperation for all humanity. They choose to live in the past where they enjoyed a comfortable, privileged life without blacks in the loop.


america' last chance


Since the races were compared to an inferior versus superior issue, many centuries ago white superior beliefs may have been a reasonable belief, with the Africans so far behind in human development and Europeans much more advanced. But with the successes of countless black Americans and other dark-skinned people around the world today, racism and hate have become an archaic, unreasonable and ignorant belief.


Is America at the crossroad?

Well if so, it had to happen one day. For generation after generation, whites have either consciously or unconsciously enjoyed special privilege in America. They control the purse strings not only in America but around the world in dictating a perverted version of justice and liberty for all. Other groups at home and abroad are growing weary and are fighting back.


Now the questions become, what will America do next? Will she attempt in becoming a true America of tolerance, justice, and liberty for all people or retreat to her lily white past where there is undoubtedly much danger awaiting for all who reside in her? Britain must answer the same questions.


america' last chance


Simply put, for people who say they love America but hate certain ethnic groups who reside in her are lying to themselves. Their hatred is not based on anything factual. They hate America. They're not true Americans and ultimately fail to understand the real meaning of her and seek to destroy the last great empire in world history with their foolish hate.


america' last chance






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HOW LONG WILL WHITE-AMERICANS
SIT ON THE FENCE?




whites sitting on fence

The purpose of this feature is to arrive at an honest and reliable answer how white Americans feel about black citizens. What better way to accomplish this than to examine its past leaders who represented the communities they served. The three greatest Presidents in American history are revisited for their treatment of black people. Their actions or inactions will without a doubt give us a clue.


GEORGE WASHINGTON

George Washington is considered the Father of our country. His contemporaries which included men such as John Adams, John Dickinson, and Willam Whipple just to name a few disliked slavery. Whipple, who was a signer of the Declaration couldn't bring himself to sign the document without first freeing his slave and Dickinson did the same. These men, among others, sincerely believed in the principle that all men are created equal and have the right to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness.


Another of Washington's contemporaries was British author Thomas Day who made the following comment about America's founders:

"If there be an object truly ridiculous in nature, it is an American patriot, signing resolutions of independency with the one hand, and with the other brandishing a whip over his affrighted slaves."


While the Declaration was being created and debated most founders were content in sweeping the slave issue under the rug by leaving out much mention of black slaves because many of them were slaveholders themselves and figured this would make them look like hypocrites.


During the war, the colonist and British actively sought and recruited black slaves to fight and promised freedom after the victory. It's well recorded that slaves fought with courage and valor that ensured American success. George Washington himself remarked in writing:

Washington wrote a letter to Colonel Henry Lee III stating that success in the war would come to whatever side could arm the blacks the fastest.


whites sitting on fence

But after victory, America didn't keep its promises, and most blacks were forced back into slavery. Of course, George Washington had to know about this but did nothing. Washington had many slaves himself and didn't want to free them and damage his financial stake. History shows he put money interests ahead of principle. Washington was a brilliant soldier but failed as an upholder of truth and justice. As a leader, Washington's inaction would set the tone for future race relations in our country.


Washington had trivialized the principle of human rights for black people, the very complaint the Patriots had against England and the reason the war was fought. It's sad to say, but Washington didn't stay in the truth, but at least the British kept their promise by shipping the many blacks who fought on their side to Sierra Leone Africa and Nova Scotia for a new life.



ABRAHAM LINCOLN

In contrast to George Washington, Abraham Lincoln evidently didn't share Washington's view of the principles this country was founded. Lincoln was an ardent lover of truth and democracy. He took pride in doing the right thing. We must be honest in saying Lincoln had adamant opinions how he felt about black people personally. He would go on to make the following quotes;

"As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this to the extent of the difference, is no democracy."


"I have no purpose to introduce political and social equality between the white and the black races.... But I hold that ... there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."


"Nearly eighty years ago we began by declaring that all men are created equal; but now from that beginning, we have run down to the other declaration, that for some men to enslave others is a "sacred right of self-government." Our republican robe is soiled and trailed in the dust.… Let us repurify it. Let us re-adopt the Declaration of Independence, and with it, the practices, and policy, which harmonize with it.… If we do this, we shall not only have saved the Union: but we shall have saved it, as to make, and keep it, forever worthy of the saving."


Now it's very clear from the many negative comments Abraham Lincoln made against black people he wasn't likely to have them over for dinner or have any other social interaction. But if living in our day would have probably changed his views. He was well known for his ability to adapt. So why was he a great President?


Because even though Lincoln felt blacks were not equal, he still felt they should be able to enjoy all the rights a white person did. HOW COURAGEOUS! Lincoln went against the grain and chose to institute the Emancipation Proclamation which freed the slaves and Reconstruction Acts that would eventually give blacks citizenship and the right to vote.


whites sitting on fence

Lincoln understood what every single President in American history ignored, and that the most important thing for America to keep sacred was upholding the principles of human rights and equality for all. Something that had never been accomplished in any government of humankind's history. Throughout the years all U.S. Presidents bowed down to racist white power and sold out these principles.



FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT

During the Roosevelt administration, America would proclaim itself a moral leader of the entire world for human rights and democracy. Without a doubt, this opened the door for the advancement of black people. This was when The Black Cabinet who were an informal group of African-American public policy advisors to the President came into existence, an accomplishment unheard of up until that time.


Roosevelt also issued Executive Order 8802, which created the Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC) which was the most significant federal move in support of the rights of African-Americans between Reconstruction and the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The President's order stated that the federal government would not hire any person based on their race, color, creed, or national origin. Millions of blacks and women achieved better jobs and better pay as a result.


In 1942, at Eleanor's instigation, Roosevelt met with a delegation of African-American leaders, who demanded full integration into the armed forces, including the right to serve in combat roles and the Navy, the Marine Corps and the United States Army Air Forces. Roosevelt agreed, but then did nothing to implement his promise.


Roosevelt also had a Vice President named Henry Wallace who was a true lover of democracy, justice, and liberty for all. Wallace was a different breed of people of his day because he believed all races were equal in America and weren't afraid to voice this. But sadly, Roosevelt didn't support Wallace as Vice President for his final term in office choosing instead go with Harry Truman who as a younger man once voiced how he felt about non-whites:

"I think one man is as good as another as long as he's decent and honest and not a nigger or a Chinaman. The Lord made the man out of dust, the nigger from mud and threw up what was left to create the Chinaman."


whites sitting on fence

Roosevelt was a mixed bag when it came to upholding the principles the nation was founded. For example, there were black leaders during his administration who petitioned the United Nations with the declaration of Genocide that the government was committing against blacks. Roosevelt failed to see the importance of being proactive in upholding the principles of the Declaration of Independence for all citizens.


What can we learn from these three great men?


The one most important observation is there weren't any of these Presidents who sincerely liked black people, and throughout the years America's white citizens haven't been any different. The honest truth is whites don't care for blacks as brothers. In their eyes, it's either white superiority or black superiority and forget all that brother crap.


But on the other hand black people view themselves as Americans and don't understand why they can't be looked upon and treated the same as an Irish American, Italian American, English American, Polish American, etc. and are always seeking inclusion as one big happy American family which makes total sense but sad to say many whites can't truthfully see beyond color (which represents advantage).


When it's all said and done racism exist because of money and pride. Just imagine if every single black person in America was a millionaire and lacked for nothing and controlled the purse strings with all white people in extreme poverty begging and eating out of garbage cans. This would eliminate the bulk of racism because whites wouldn't have any power.


Money=power, but money doesn't have to equal hate, it what the one with the power chooses to do with it. This is where pride comes in because all racist feel they are special people and their way of doing things is the best way, the superior way and the only way as far as they are concerned. People have the power to opt for love, but always choose selfishness and hate.


Because of this, America has never been the one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all we see on television, and being the father of our country, George Washington started these false beliefs and practices.


Generally speaking, white citizens today are not much different than these three past Presidents and through the years have become three distinct classes:


(1) George Washington class: This shortsighted and selfish class puts money and greed interest ahead of principle that would promote peace and harmony for the whole.


(2) Abraham Lincoln class: This class puts the welfare of whole first and recognizes this earth doesn't belong to one single group of people and must be truthfully shared equitably.


(3) Franklin D. Roosevelt class: This class hopes for the best but won't lift a finger in achieving that. This class straddles the fence and can sympathize with both the Washington and the Lincoln class. They are wishy-washy and travels where the winds blow them.


It's important to remember that all three classes don't particularity like blacks and have minimal association with them if any, and this is said because even today it's rare for the races to mingle and when they do can be uncomfortable in a social setting, how ridiculous! The race with the power is the only one that can change this for the better. It's that simple.


In a sense, Washington created the blueprint for a distorted and false view of American principles that became the norm in much of America's dealings with black people. Abraham Lincoln tried to do away with this damaging logic and desired America to live up to the principles it was founded and died for his beliefs. Roosevelt dabbled on either side by sitting on the fence of inaction and did little for principle because being partakers of a privileged life was more advantageous to his class.


The danger of this, of course, was that in continuing to undermine principle, the prospect would exist of being faced with an America that wouldn't be recognizable. Lincoln was the only President to understand and appreciate this danger.


whites sitting on fence


“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.”  Tim Wise


So has America changed, if yes, what has she become?


Good question, but you must answer yourself.


But there are many more questions that need to be answered. Because of the folly of greed and racism and lack of action to speak out by the real Americans, has this country morphed into another form of power that is completely different than it started out? Has it become like an insatiable, greedy, detestable and ugly monster without a soul or conscience?


whites sitting on fence





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racism

      Race in 1991
  • March 3, 1991 - Rodney King became nationally known after being beaten by Los Angeles Police Department officers following a high-speed car chase on March 3, 1991. A local witness, George Holliday, videotaped much of it from his balcony and sent the footage to local news station KTLA. The footage shows four officers surrounding King, several of them striking him repeatedly, while other officers stood. Analysis:  This story had all of America captivated. Historically many blacks and police don't trust each other. Why? It's because if you did a year by year study of life for the American black person, you would discover that many of the policemen of past used their badge to hide their strong racist feelings. I'm not saying for one minute all were like that, but I'm saying there were many, a lot, very much, mucho. The only difference during this period is the use of cameras to capture the brutality. It wasn't that long ago that the newspapers would make up false stories about blacks to incite the whites to lynch mob, and when police were called they very often would join in with the lynch mobs to injure and kill blacks. I hate to say that but it true, and it happened a lot. It was a sorrowful part of American history. It's all in the history books. Police were rarely brought to trial for brutality, and if they were it was just a pretense in the name of justice, and they were let go. This was typical. When these police officers signed up for duty, they knew what they were up against, and that didn't give them a right to break the law. We are aware there are violent black criminals just like the violent white criminal that people need protection. But with the event of the Civil Rights movement, we notice that the government has been prosecuting these cops, something that was unheard of just a short time prior. For the good cops we commend you for serving and protecting our communities because quite frankly we would be lost without you.



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blacks moving into neighborhood



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slang and memorable quotes
black slang       sLANG tALK in the 1990s
  • Sup - What's up

  • Aiight - Alright, okay

  • All That - Complete package, not lacking

  • All that and a bag a chips - Complete

  • Bangin'/Slammin' - Got it going on

  • Beef - Trouble with someone

  • Beeotch - Bitch

  • Bling-Bling - Jewelry

  • The Bomb - Perfect, out of this world

  • Boo Ya! - In your face sucka

  • Bounce - To leave, go

  • Cha-Ching - Ring it up, gonna cost

  • Cheddar - Money, greenback

  • Chill Out - Relax

  • Chillin' - Relaxing

  • Churrin - Kids, children

  • Crib - The house, pad

  • Damn Skippy - You got that right!

  • Dawg - Friend, term of endearment

  • Dis - Disrepect

  • Dope - Super cool, badd

  • Down With That - In agreement

  • Fine - The best

  • Finna - About to do something

  • Fly - Cool, something good

  • Fresh - Brand new, cool, great

  • Hella - Emphasis

  • Hoochie - Fast, easy girl

  • Hood - Your neighborhood

  • It's all good - Everything is OK, under control

  • Jack You Up - Hurt you badly

  • Jet - Leave quickly

  • Let's Role - Leave

  • Math - Phone number

  • My Bad - My mistake, I'm sorry

  • O.G. - Original Ganster

  • Oh Snaps! - Oh yeah that's right!

  • Old School - Old way of doing things

  • Paper - Money

  • Phat - Cool

  • Pimpin - Correctly done

  • Po-po - Police

  • Scrub - A guy that's lacking

  • Straight - Telling the whole truth

  • Throw Down - Fight

  • Trippin - Worried about something

  • Vibe - Feeling

  • Wack - Terrible, not good

  • Wangsta - A fake ganster

  • Word - In agreement

  • Yayo - Money

  • Yo - Hello, short for "your"



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black Movies in America

Ellen Cleghorne
Ellen Cleghorne
photo #100-yr-1991



     Television / Movies in 1991
    Movies:
  • The Three Muscatels - a 1991 film starring Richard Pryor. The film is a comedic play on the more famous story of The Three Musketeers.

  • Daughters of the Dust - the first feature film by Julie Dash.

  • Another You - a 1991 American comedy film. It was the final film pairing of Richard Pryor and Gene Wilder, neither of whom appeared again in a leading role in another film, together or apart.



  • Television:
  • Ellen Cleghorne is an American actress and comedian, best known for being a cast member of Saturday Night Live from 1991 to 1995.





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African American culture going downhill

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happy birthday

     Famous Birthdays in 1991
  • January 24, 1991 - Henry The III  an American actor, host, entrepreneur, host, producer, and director.

  • March 6, 1991 - Tyler, The Creator  an American rapper and record producer from California.

  • March 14, 1991 - Kendré Berry  is an actor. He is perhaps best known for his roles on Six Feet Under as Durrell.

  • May 17, 1991 - Daniel Curtis Lee an American actor, comedian, and rapper.

  • June 13, 1991 - Doe B was an American hip hop recording artist from Montgomery, Alabama.

  • June 24, 1991 - Dexter Darden  an American actor.

  • June 26, 1991 - John Mark Loudermilk  an American actor.

  • July 29, 1991 - Maestro Harrell  an American singer, recording artist, dancer and actor.

  • August 12, 1991 - LaKeith Lee "Keith" Stanfield  an American actor and rapper.

  • August 26, 1991 - Augustus Paul Hoffman an American actor.

  • August 26, 1991 - Ryan Coleman  an American teen actor from the Nickelodeon series All That.

  • August 28, 1991 - Kyle Orlando Massey  an American actor, dancer, rapper, comedian, holy leader, and magician from Atlanta, Georgia.

  • September 10, 1991 - Hannah Rose Hodson  an American actress.

  • October 6, 1991 - RO SHON  an American actor, singer-songwriter and dancer.



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african americans and death

Redd Foxx
Redd Foxx
photo #101-yr-1991

     Famous Deaths in 1991
  • January 2, 1991 - Gilbert Price   was an American operatic baritone and actor.

  • March 10, 1991 - Etheridge Knight was an African-American poet who made his name in 1968 with his debut volume, Poems from Prison.

  • April 10, 1991 - Kevin Peter Hall   was an American actor best known for his roles as the title character in the first two films in the Predator franchise and the title character of Harry in the film.

  • April 28, 1991 - Floyd Bixler McKissick,became the first African-American student at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's Law School.

  • July 21, 1991 - Theodore "Teddy" Wilson   was an American character actor best known for his recurring role as Sweet Daddy Williams on the CBS sitcom Good Times.

  • August 27, 1991 - Gordon Heath   was an African-American actor and musician who narrated the animated feature film Animal Farm.

  • October 9, 1991 - Thalmus Rasulala   was an African American actor who starred in Blaxploitation films.

  • October 11, 1991 - Redd Foxx, comedian and actor, best remembered for his explicit comedy records and his starring role on the 1970s sitcom Sanford and Son.

  • November 29, 1991 - Frank Garvin Yerby was an African-American historical novelist. He is best known as the first African-American writer to become a millionaire from his pen, and to have a book purchased by a Hollywood studio for a film adaptation.



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deceased hip-hop artist
  • LaTasha Sheron Rogers (July 30, 1970 – June 4, 1991), better known as MC Trouble, was a rap artist, and the first female rapper signed to Motown Records. Rogers was born with epilepsy and received daily treatment to prevent seizures, her condition worsened when she developed an inoperable brain tumor. In 1991, LaTasha died in her sleep on June 4, 1991, while at the home of a friend in Los Angeles.



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IF NOT, WHY SO DIFFICULT TO FIND FOR MANY?


National issues have always been compounded for black males and females in America. The feminist movement of the 70s ushered in a division between men and women relationships both black and white. It taught the woman to be self-reliant, strong and independent from the male, and we must all admit she has down an outstanding job.

black relationships
photo#117-yr-2015


But in regards to relationships, black women had another issue to add to this because the black male in America has historically been a target of hate and fear and will probably continue to be so. After the 60s, the face of racism and exclusion changed its ugly image from overt to covert for the most part which can be just as damaging.

Let's be totally honest. Black men are simply not well liked or spoken of kindly in America. Just about every article we read in the papers or internet is something negative when editors just as easily could have chosen a positive story of black male kindness. People tolerate black men, but don't want any part of us, or to get to know us as human beings or fellow Americans.

After slavery whites instituted illegal laws that were 100% against our Constitution which enabled them to build an enormous and exclusive white power structure that still stands today.

Even today many black men are intimidated by this power structure and refuse to challenge it in an intelligent way, like picking up a book and using their God-given brain power. This is why our distant ancestors in Africa who come to America as immigrants to enroll in American colleges don't want anything to do with black Americans.

They think we're foolish for wasting this incredible opportunity in gaining success. They know it's not because black American males can't do it, it's because we don't want to do it. To prove this point, Google "African immigrants in college" and discover that African/Asian immigrants out-perform all races academically in higher learning.


No one would deny that African-Americans and Africans are from the same stock of humanity. So why is it black immigrants can achieve on such a high level in America and we don't?


It's because we start out the gate with a disadvantage created by this humongous power structure against us and even more sad is our own people, AKA black role models who sell their damaging and harmful products which teaches our young males an entirely different approach to American success while they pad their already fat pocketbooks.

These people fail to uplift our race and are always portraying negative images and imply that something is owed to us and we should feel sorry for ourselves, so why even try? What they rap/sing/act about doesn't include books and education but glorifies a life of having fun each and every day. For the most part, good black parents struggle to compete with these very powerful enemies and lose their sons to the streets.

Before the movement, there were more blacks who were married than whites. But that would later change. When the opportunity presented itself, these aggressive and amazing black women took off to achieve and soar like the eagles, leaving the intimidated black male in the dust with his foolish boy-like games. Many black women would go on to raise families without the intimidated and targeted black man in the children's life.

No one better than her understood what the black male was going through facing everyday life, and she would have supported him if he would have put up some intelligent fight, but many struggling black men didn't and chose a foolish life of running game, and backwards living that's opposite of what it takes for American success.

In today's world, black women probably encounter these same struggling black men much more than the successful ones in their quest for love, but judge them as all the same.

Many extraordinary black men have figured out the white power structure game and became successful at it, and continues to do so. There are tons of black fellas who are intelligent, honorable, stable, gainfully employed, and faithful who just desires a smart, sexy, girly black woman who understands how to relax in her femininity and allow the man to rest in his masculinity for the well-being of the relationship.

These extraordinary single black men sincerely wonder if they stand an ounce of a chance with the characteristic traits of a typical Black American woman.

Who are today's black women? We all know they are amazing human beings to accomplish what they have, but have they out-smarted themselves in regards to male-female relationships?

black men love black women

How would you answer?

Letisha is a 30-year-old college educated black woman who has worked hard as a lawyer to achieve the lifestyle she adores which includes a lovely home, luxury cars, plenty of cash in the bank and much food in the refrigerator. In a good year, Letisha will make $150,000. Letisha doesn't want for anything except for meeting a nice man, falling in love and getting married.

Lamont is a blue collar worker earning just enough to get by. He is self-taught in everything he does and is quite smart. He owns a junk yard that was left to him by his long-deceased dad, Fred. Lamont prefers his profession to be recognized as dealing in commodities. He loves his work. He just doesn't make much money from it. In a good year, Lamont will make $35,000.

Letisha decides to treat herself to a month long vacation in Hawaii staying at the best hotel. Lamont who plays the lottery every week finally hit a little jackpot decided to do the same. Fate would have these two young black people meeting and discovering an instant attraction and love connection, and happy they have a whole month to nurture it along.

Lamont and Letisha are inseparable the entire vacation. Letisha explains to Lamont that she's a lawyer and Lamont explains to her he's a dealer in commodities. They are so connected; they never run out of words to say, and even finish each other's sentences. Well, needless to say, they eventually make mad passionate love with Letisha shedding one tear which was always her gauge of a real lover.

Letisha and Lamont were very excited about what the future held for them. Possible marriage was even discussed. On the last day of vacation, they exchanged addresses. Letisha was so excited she expressed to Lamont she couldn't wait to visit him. Two weeks later and upon arriving at Lamont's junkyard business she couldn't believe the huge sign that read "Top Commodities Dealer, Lamont." Letisha made a quick u-turn and never called Lamont again. Lamont felt hurt and wondered if another type of woman would have stayed.

Which woman do you more associate with?

(1) The woman that stayed and continued with her relationship with Lamont is a level headed woman and hasn't let money cloud her view of real life and potential happiness with an otherwise good black man who had proven to stimulate both her mind and body.

(2) The woman that made the quick u-turn is the frustrated one, and always complaining about there not being any good black men because she equates money with happiness, when quite the contrary joy and love is very straightforward and easy. Being unreasonable she makes everything difficult.

Analysis:  Independent black women have accomplished so much since the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, and have our wonderful African American ancestors to thank for the opportunity. Money should only be used as a tool for the benefit of the relationship between a man and woman not a gauge of another person's character or worth. Real men for decades found pride in bringing home the bacon to their wives who didn't work and those relationships worked just fine, only because money was not the primary factor, love and respect was.



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african americans and weddings

David Robinson
David Robinson
photo #103-yr-1986

Redd Foxx
Redd Foxx
photo #101-yr-1991

     Famous Weddings in 1991
  • March 31, 1991 - Terry Lewis  and Karyn White are wed.

  • March 1991 - Jennifer Holliday  and Billy Meadow are wed.

  • July 8, 1991 - Redd Foxx   and Ka Ho Cho are wed.

  • 1991 - Michael Strahan  and Wanda Hutchins Strahan are wed.

  • 1991 - Garcelle Beauvais   and Daniel Saunders are wed.

  • 1991 - Master P  and Sonya Miller are wed.

  • 1991 - Jody Watley  and Andre Cymone are wed.

  • 1991 - Wanda Sykes  and David Hall are wed.

  • 1991 - CCH Pounder  and Boubacar Kone are wed.

  • 1991 - Andre Braugher   and Ami Brabson are wed.

  • 1991 - Regina Belle  and John Battle are wed.

  • 1991 - David Robinson   and Valerie Hoggatt are wed.



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famous african american divorces

Babyface
Babyface
photo #116-yr-1990

     Famous Divorces in 1991
  • February 1991 - Kenneth 'Babyface' Edmonds  and Denise Ladd were divorced.

  • December 1991 - Jennifer Holliday and Billy Meadows were divorced.

  • 1991 - Clifton Davis and Ann Taylor were divorced.

  • 1991 - Edwin Moses  and Myrella Bordt were divorced.

  • 1991 - Evander Holyfield  and Paulette Bowen were divorced.

  • 1991 - June Pointer  and William Whitmore  were divorced.



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soul train
Soul Train ran from 1971-2006
photo #109-yr-1971

Whitney Houston
Whitney Houston
photo #101-yr-1985

Babyface
Babyface
photo #116-yr-1990

James Brown
James Brown
photo #103-yr-1933

Janet Jackson
Janet Jackson
photo #104-yr-1994

Billie Holiday
Billie Holiday
photo #102-1915

Mariah Carey
Mariah Carey
photo #115-yr-1990

Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald, Dizzy Gillespie, Ray Brown, Milt (Milton) Jackson, and Timme Rosenkrantz, Downbeat, New York, N.Y.
photo #100-yr-1959

Anita Baker
Anita Baker
photo #102-yr-2008

Rick James
Rick James
photo #107-yr-1981

Luther Vandross
Luther Vandross performing with Diana Ross
photo #100-yr-2005

Ray Charles
Ray Charles
photo #100-yr-1961

     Music in 1991

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • "Love Me Down" Freddie Jackson

  • "The First Time" Surface

  • "Love Makes Things Happen" Pebbles and Babyface

  • "You Don't Have to Worry" En Vogue

  • "I'll Give All My Love to You" Keith Sweat

  • "Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)" C&C Music Factory featuring Freedom Williams

  • "All the Man That I Need" Whitney Houston

  • "Written All Over Your Face" The Rude Boys

  • "I Like the Way (The Kissing Game)" Hi-Five

  • "Do Me Again" Freddie Jackson

  • "Wrap My Body Tight" Johnny Gill

  • "Whatever You Want" Tony! Toni! Toné!

  • "I'm Dreamin'" Christopher Williams

  • "Call Me" Phil Perry

  • "It Should've Been You" Teddy Pendergrass

  • "Kissing You" Keith Washington

  • "I Wanna Sex You Up" Color Me Badd

  • "Power of Love / Love Power" Luther Vandross

  • "How Can I Ease the Pain" Lisa Fischer

  • "Exclusivity " Damian Dame

  • "Baby I'm Ready" LeVert

  • "Summertime" DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince

  • "I Can't Wait Another Minute" Hi-Five

  • "Can You Stop the Rain" Peabo Bryson

  • "Addictive Love" BeBe & CeCe Winans

  • "Let the Beat Hit 'Em" Lisa Lisa and Cult Jam

  • "Don't Wanna Change the World" Phyllis Hyman

  • "I Adore Mi Amore" Color Me Badd

  • "Running Back to You" Vanessa Williams

  • "Romantic" Karyn White

  • "It's So Hard to Say Goodbye to Yesterday" Boyz II Men

  • "Emotions" Mariah Carey

  • "Forever My Lady" Jodeci

  • "Tender Kisses" Tracie Spencer

  • "Are You Lonely for Me" The Rude Boys

  • "I'll Take You There" BeBe & CeCe Winans

  • "Private Line " Gerald Levert

  • "I Love Your Smile" Shanice




  Popular Soul Dances:
  • The Hammer

  • Electric Slide

  • The Carlton

  • The Jiggy

  • Tootsee Roll

  • Rump Shaker

  • Da Dip

  • The Butterfly

  • The Funky Charleston

  • Macrena

  • The Humpy Dance



  Musical Happenings in 1991:
  • A Tribe Called Quest, one of the earliest jazz hip hop fusionists, become the first hip hop group to collaborate with a live musician, Ron Carter, on an album, Low End Theory.

  • February 27, 1991 - Soul singer James Brown is released from prison.



 Blues Hall of Fame for 1991:
    The Blues Hall of Fame is a music museum located in Memphis, Tennessee. Until recently, the "Blues Hall of Fame" was not a physical building, but a listing of people who have significantly contributed to blues music. Started in 1980 by the Blues Foundation, it honors those who have performed, recorded, or documented blues. The actual building for the hall opened to the public on May 8, 2015

  • Sleepy John Estes
  • Billie Holiday
  • Mississippi Fred McDowell
  • Sunnyland Slim


 American Music Awards winners in 1991:
    The American Music Awards was created by Dick Clark to compete with the Grammy Awards. Michael Jackson and Donny Osmond co-hosted the first award show with Rodney Allen Rippy and Ricky Segall in 1974. The 18th Annual American Music Awards were held on January 28, 1991.

    Favorite Pop/Rock Female Artist
  • Janet Jackson

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Male Artist
  • MC Hammer

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Female Artist
  • Janet Jackson

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Band, Duo, or Group
  • Tony! Toni! Tone!

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Album
  • Please Hammer Don't Hurt 'Em - MC Hammer

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Single
  • "U Can't Touch This" - MC Hammer

  • Favorite Soul/R&B New Artist
  • Bell Biv DeVoe

  • Favorite Rap/Hip-Hop Artist
  • MC Hammer

  • Favorite Rap/Hip-Hop Album
  • Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em - MC Hammer

  • Favorite Dance Artist
  • Janet Jackson

  • Favorite Dance Single
  • "Vogue" - Madonna

  • Favorite Dance New Artist
  • Bell Biv DeVoe



 Grammy winners in 1991:
    The 33rd Annual Grammy Awards were held on February 20, 1991. They recognized accomplishments by musicians from the previous year. Quincy Jones was the night's big winner winning a total of six awards including Album of the Year.

    Album of the Year
  • Quincy Jones (producer & artist) for Back on the Block


  • Best New Artist
  • Mariah Carey


  • Best Traditional Blues Recording
  • Live at San Quentin-B.B. King


  • Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television
  • James Horner (composer) for Glory performed by James Horner & the Boys Choir of Harlem


  • Best Arrangement on an Instrumental
  • Jerry Hey, Quincy Jones, Ian Prince & Rod Temperton (arrangers) for "Birdland" performed by Quincy Jones


  • Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocal(s)
  • Glen Ballard, Jerry Hey, Quincy Jones & Clif Magness (arrangers) for "The Places You Find Love" performed by Siedah Garrett & Chaka Khan


  • Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album
  • Tramaine Hawkins for Tramaine Hawkins Live


  • Best Contemporary Soul Gospel Album
  • Take 6 for So Much 2 Say


  • Best Gospel Album by a Choir or Chorus
  • James Cleveland (choir director) for Having Church performed by the Southern California Community Choir


  • Best Historical Album
  • Lawrence Cohn & Stephen Lavere (producers) for Robert Johnson - The Complete Recordings


  • Best Jazz Vocal Performance, Female
  • Ella Fitzgerald for All That Jazz


  • Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Soloist
  • Oscar Peterson for The Legendary Oscar Peterson Trio Live at the Blue Note


  • Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Group
  • The Oscar Peterson Trio for The Legendary Oscar Peterson Trio Live at the Blue Note


  • Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Big Band
  • Frank Foster for "Basie's Bag"


  • Best Jazz Fusion Performance
  • Quincy Jones for "Birdland"


  • Best Music Video, Short Form
  • Sharon Oreck (video producer), Candice Reckinger, Michael Patterson (video directors) & Paula Abdul for "Opposites Attract"


  • Best Music Video, Long Form
  • John Oetjen (video producer), Rupert Wainwright (video director) & M.C. Hammer for Please Hammer Don't Hurt 'Em: The Movie


  • Best Vocal Performance, Female
  • Mariah Carey "Vision of Love"


  • Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal
  • Aaron Neville & Linda Ronstadt for "All My Life"


  • Best Engineered Recording, Non-Classical
  • Bruce Swedien (engineer) for Back On the Block performed by Quincy Jones


  • Producer of the Year, (Non-Classical)
  • Quincy Jones


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Female
  • Anita Baker for Compositions


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male
  • Luther Vandross for "Here and Now"


  • Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal
  • Ray Charles & Chaka Khan for "I'll Be Good to You"


  • Best Rhythm & Blues Song
  • M.C. Hammer, Rick James & Alonzo Miller (songwriters) for "U Can't Touch This" performed by M.C. Hammer


  • Best Rap Solo Performance
  • M.C. Hammer for "U Can't Touch This"


  • Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group
  • Big Daddy Kane, Ice-T, Kool Moe Dee, Melle Mel, Quincy D. III & Quincy Jones for "Back on the Block"


  • Best Reggae Recording
  • Time Will Tell: A Tribute to Bob Marley-Bunny Wailer




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womens fashion
Young woman wearing a spaghetti strap top, a silver necklace, and straight-leg jeans
photo #111-yr-1990

mens fashion
Double breasted power suit with large shoulder pads
photo #112-yr-1990

 Converse All-Stars
A classic dark blue pair of Converse All-Stars resting on the Black & White Ed. Shoebox
photo #109-yr-1990

 Slap bracelets
Slap bracelets
photo #110-yr-1990

hairstyles in the 1980s
Jheri curl hairstyle worn in the 80s and 90s.
photo #108-yr-1980


A medium-length hi-top fade haircut
photo #100-yr-1985

     Fashions and Styles in 1991

  Popular Fashions:

    Women:
    The early 1990s saw a continuation of late 1980s fashion: women wore denim button down shirts, leggings, drainpipe jeans, colored tights, bike shorts, black leather jackets with shoulder pads, and skater dresses. Popular accessories included court shoes, cowboy boots, headscarves, leggings, slouch socks, Keds, ballet flats, and penny loafers. Leotards worn as tops with jeans were popular with young girls, teens, college girls, young women and women. A common outfit was to wear a skirt, dress shorts, babydoll or minidress with black opaque tights, white slouch socks and white sneakers especially Keds. Women's fashion in the mid 1990s became more feminine and form-fitting. Women tended to dress differently for each occasion. Both long and short skirts were favored, and loungewear generally consisted of leggings, large T-shirts, and baggy sweaters while at home or relaxing during the weekends.The most common look among young women was the short black slip dress worn over a tight, undersized white T-shirt. Among other fashion trends included lean pants, hot pants, black Lycra leggings, belted trench coats, and leather. Popular shoes and accessories during the mid-1990s included Wonderbra, Loafers, Mary Janes, suede sneakers, mules, clogs, knee high boots, jelly shoes, Go-go boots, black shoes, silver jewelry, dainty earrings and necklaces, conch shell necklaces,Slap bracelets, berets, straw hats, floppy hats, gold jewelry, and hipster belts. Navel piercings had started to gain popularity around this time.


    Men:
    Continuing on from the late 1980s, many young men wore tapered high waisted jeans with matching denim jackets, Stone Island or Ralph Lauren polo shirts with contrasting collars, short Harrington jackets, brightly colored windcheaters, Hush Puppies shoes, V neck sweaters, soccer shorts, pastel colored three button sportcoats, graphic print T shirts, tracksuit tops with a vertical contrasting stripe down the sleeve, sweatpants, shiny red or blue rayon monkey jackets, grey or tan leather jackets with shoulder pads, and wool baseball jackets with contrasting sleeves. Short shorts were popular in the early years of the decade, but were replaced with looser and baggier basketball shorts after 1993 when hip-hop fashion went mainstream. Hip-hop fashion went mainstream in 1995, with oversized baseball jackets, baggy jeans, bomber jackets, Baja Jackets, and tracksuits popular among young men as casual wear. Simultaneously, industrial and military styles crept into mainstream fashion, with machinery pieces becoming accessories. Baseball caps started being worn forwards again. Southern hip hop provided a platform for Fashion designers and musical artists to collaborate forming an influential subculture of anti fashion and alternative fashion designs, especially the popular recycled clothing worn by Arrested Development and Goodie Mob. Black leather reefer jackets and trenchcoats were also fashionable in the late 1990s.


    Hairstyles:
    The Jheri curl often spelled Jerry curl or Jeri Curl is a permed hairstyle that was common and popular among African American, Black Canadian, and Black British, especially during the 1980s and the 1990s. Invented by the hairdresser Jheri Redding, the Jheri curl gave the wearer a glossy, loosely curled look. It was touted as a "wash and wear" style that was easier to care for than the other popular chemical treatment of the day, the relaxer. A hi-top fade is a style of haircut where hair on the sides is cut off or kept very short while hair on the top of the head is very long (in contrast, a low fade is a style where hair on the top is kept shorter). It was common among young black people between 1985 and 1993. For African-American men, the cornrows (popularized by former NBA player Allen Iverson) and buzz cut were a popular trend that continued into the early 2000s.



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the meaning of cool
How did "acting" Cool begin for African Americans?

It seems like it's been around forever and
expected of every black kid growing up



For most blacks, cool started on the southern plantations. Opportunists slavemasters devised a way for slaves to work harder and reap the benefits of their labor. During the year at a chosen plantation slave masters would hold a "Corn Shucking Festival." Slaves from nearby plantations would also join this event with their owner's permission, so it was almost like a community gathering of all the local slaves, with greedy slavemasters making all the money.

The slave who shucked the most corn won an award, sometimes cash or a suit of clothes. Anyone who found a red ear of corn also received a reward - perhaps a kiss from a young woman or a jug of whiskey. It was at these events that the term Shuckin' and jivin' came into existence by the slaves while working and telling tall stories, talking smack, and joking around with each other.

These gatherings, even though involving hard work had to be an event looked forward to by the slaves, because it was one of the few times during the year blacks had a chance to interact with one another. Shuckin' and jivin' would become a tool the slaves would use to convince their masters of an untruth, and even among themselves. It was an early form of being cool.
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Corn-Shucking+Festival

After slavery blacks were free (sort of) to do as they pleased. Most blacks wanted to assimilate into American culture very much but were shut out by the white racist. African and European culture met head on in what was supposed to be fair in America guaranteed by our Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, but blacks didn't stand a chance.


Why, what happened?

Because most whites banded together by breaking the law and made blacks second class citizens and would go on to murder, lynch, rape, humiliate them all the way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement. After Lincoln, every single United States President was aware of this and did nothing. Whites achieved like crazy and prospered while blacks lagged far behind and got along the best way they knew how.

Blacks disliked whites very much for this terrible treatment and instead of violent disobedience, they protested by living their lives opposite of white culture. I mean let's face it, why would blacks want to imitate or become a part of a race of people that hated them?

This is when being cool became a symbol of white resistance and protest. Being cool would show you were down with the struggle. During slavery, we had already created our language which was AAVE and many blacks communicated this way. Any black that did not use it was looked down as trying to act white, joining the enemy sort of speak.

We developed our own way of walking with a proud gait, (George Jefferson strut) our own style of music, our own style of dance, our own style of food, our own style of worship, that didn't have anything in common with white folks and that suited blacks just fine. We were poor, but we were proud and cool and everyone who practiced these traits was cool and a part of the resistance.

In the process, we were creating a new culture that was admired over the world. Blacks have always had a remarkable ability to create something out of nothing. But sadly there was significant risk with this lifestyle in a great country such as America.

What were the downfalls?

Oscar Micheaux felt it was wrong for blacks to live this way in America. Oscar was an African American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 movies and he is regarded as the first major African-American feature filmmaker, the most successful African-American filmmaker of the first half of the twentieth century and the most prominent producer of race films. He produced both silent movies and "talkies" after the industry changed to incorporate speaking actors.

cool black americans


Oscar felt that blacks should become aggressive and use their brainpower in achieving instead of just settling for what the white man doled out. This man lived in some of the most racist times in American history, but he didn't let that stop him from fulfilling his dreams and doing it the legal way.

Evidently, Oscar had a brother who was the very cool type and was content on just putting up a show, or a front as living a successful life. We all know the type. A person that was living beyond his means. Blacks of his day called this way of living “the good life.”

Oscar didn't like it and was very upset with his brother. He later wrote in his book and discussed the culture of doers who want to accomplish, and those who see themselves as victims of injustice and hopelessness, and do not want to step out and try to succeed, but instead like to dress up, act cool and pretend to be successful while living the city lifestyle in poverty.

cool black americans


Oscar understood that education doesn't belong only to white people, it's a gift for all humanity to better ourselves, and honestly the best-proven way. Chinese, Japanese, Middle-Eastern and all other non-white nations understand this and have prospered by education. It's one of humanities treasure to learn.

But many blacks associated education with white and stayed far away from it, to continue with their cool lifestyle. A foolish mistake, and just what racist whites want you to believe.

Early Europeans completely dominated the Africans because they were better educated. They had guns we had spears, you do the math. In Africa our ancestors didn't value education, but traditions and silly ones at that. But that didn't save them. Education would have, though.

So without a doubt, it is entirely wrong to associate teaching and learning to white people. Many of us would look down upon another black who tried to better himself through education by saying they were trying to act white, and it wasn't cool. Racist whites laughed at us for believing this way because they knew we would always be behind.

After the 1960s, when our full Civil Rights were finally restored, many blacks chose to live the more standard American way by attending school to learn. But many also wanted to remain trapped in time with the old AAVE living in what they still perceived as defiance to the white American way of doing things. But were they only hurting themselves?

Later in time, being cool had become so prevalent in the black community it confused many kids, because they didn't quite understand if they were going to hang out with the cool kids or the so-called boring kids who liked to read and learn. At an early age, they are at a critical crossroad. Taking the cool route may seem easier, and a lot of fun, but would be a devastating mistake.

After the Civil Rights era we now have the opportunity to attend school and achieve as much as we can, but being cool has snatched many of the black kids and locked them into a culture hating education and in the process ruining their young lives.

Many entertainment figures reap much money from this cool culture by portraying cool as, well cool. They tell impressionable ones what's cool to hear, talk about, wear, eat, etc. and at the same time padding their cool humongous bank accounts.

These even get on television and flaunt their riches in a youngster's face never explicitly teaching on how they might be as successful, without being dishonest, stealing or selling drugs. Education is not cool for them to preach.

One thing is for sure, being cool can be a lot of fun and there's no denying that. Everybody wants to be liked, and it seems like cool people are respected and admired the most, from the clothes they wear to the type of songs they listen to the way they talk, the effortless way they seem to accomplish every task is amazing.

They possess incredible confidence. But truthfully everything they've accomplished wouldn't have been possible without the sacrifices of our wonderful ancestors. So don't you agree we owe a particular moral responsibility to them?

Kids should remember cool is not the real deal, It's a game we can't get caught up in. Our ancestors endured so much so we could achieve. We should never forget that. That's what this site was created. Browse through its pages, and you're going to read stories of amazing blacks.

They made it possible for us, and we're sure they would advise us to achieve through education first and foremost and save the cool for the weekends, and I ain't Shuckin and Jivin!

the meaning of cool


Resources:
By White House (Pete Souza) / Maison Blanche (Pete Souza) (The Official White House Photostream[1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Senate Office of Richard Lugar [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
https://pixabay.com/en/flag-united-states-american-waving-40724/



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ww1 black soldiers
After the posthumous presentation (April 4, 1991) of the Medal of Honor made at the White House to the sisters of Corporal (CPL) Freddie Stowers, a native of Anderson County, South Carolina, for action during World War I by President George H. W. Bush, Mrs. Barbara Bush and Mary Bowens admire the Medal of Honor certificate. Ms Bowens is CPL Stowers' sister. His other sister Georgina Palmer (far left) looks on. CPL Stowers is the only Black American to receive the Medal for action during World War I.



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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1990s

 Mary Seacole
Mary Seacole
photo #104-yr-1881

Marian Anderson
Marian Anderson
photo #104-yr-1955

William Henry Johnson
Street Musicians (1939-1940)
by William H. Johnson

photo #108-yr-1901

 Lionel Hampton
Lionel Hampton at the Aquarium, New York
photo #102-yr-1908

Freddie Stowers
Freddie Stowers
photo #113-yr-1896

Our Community in 1991
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • April 4, 1991 - Late World WarI hero Freddie Stowersl receives a posthumous Medal of Honor Award from President George Bush.

  • October 7, 1991 - Law Professor Anita Hill accuses Supreme nominee Clarence Thomas of sexual harassment.

  • December 29, 1991 - The 12th United Negro College Fund hosted by Lou Rawls airs.

  • 1991 - The Smithsonian American Art Museum organized and circulated a major exhibition of his artwork, Homecoming: The Art and Life of William H. Johnson.

  • Mary Jane Seacole was a Jamaican-born woman of Scottish and Creole descent who set up a "British Hotel" behind the lines during the Crimean War. She was posthumously awarded the Jamaican Order of Merit in 1991.

  • Opera singer Marian Anderson  was recognized with a Grammy Award for Lifetime Achievement in 1991.

  • 1991 - Lionel Hampton suffers a stroke in Paris that led to a collapse on stage. That incident, combined with years of chronic arthritis, forced him to cut back drastically on performances.


  • 1990s - The United States Population is 248,709,878 with a total of 29,986,060 being African Americans.




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RESOURCES:


Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License


#100 -   Public Domain image - By Photo by Airman 1st Class Nathan Doza [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#101 -   Public Domain image - By ABC Television (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#102 -   Public Domain image - By United States Senate [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#103 -   Public Domain image - By U.S. Congress (Image from Rep. Cleaver's home page.) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#104 -   Public Domain image - By Robert Ward, DOD PA (Photo DD-SC-02-05877 at defenseimagery.mil) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


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