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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1990:
Pearl Mae Bailey
    Pearl Bailey was an American actress and singer. After appearing in vaudeville, she made her Broadway debut in St. Louis Woman in 1946. She won a Tony Award for the title role in the all-black production of Hello, Dolly! in 1968.

    Bailey was born in Southampton County in southeastern Virginia, to Joseph and Ella Mae Ricks Bailey. She was reared in the Bloodfields neighborhood of Newport News, Virginia.

    She made her stage singing debut when she was 15 years old. Her brother Bill Bailey was beginning his career as a tap dancer and suggested she enter an amateur contest at the Pearl Theatre in Philadelphia.

    She entered the amateur song and dance contest and won and was offered $35 a week to perform there for two weeks but the theater closed during her engagement, and she wasn't paid. She later won a similar contest at Harlem’s famous Apollo Theater, and decided to pursue a career in entertainment.

    Bailey began by singing and dancing in Philadelphia’s black nightclubs in the 1930s and soon started performing in other parts of the East Coast. In 1941, during World War II, Bailey toured the country with the USO, performing for American troops.

    In 1967, Bailey and Cab Calloway headlined an all-black cast version of Hello, Dolly! The touring version was so successful; producer David Merrick took it to Broadway where it played to sold-out houses and revitalized the long-running musical.

    During the 1970s she had her television show, and she also provided voices for animations such as Tubby the Tuba (1976) and Disney's The Fox and the Hound (1981). She returned to Broadway in 1975, playing the lead in an all-black production of Hello, Dolly! She earned a B.A. in theology from Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., in 1985, at age 67.

    In 1986, she won a Daytime Emmy award for her performance as a fairy godmother in the ABC Afterschool Special, Cindy Eller: A Modern Fairy Tale.

    Her rendition of "Takes Two to Tango" hit the top ten in 1952. She received the Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award in 1976 and the Presidential Medal of Freedom on October 17, 1988.

    Pearl Bailey was a fixture in the black community during her day. Everybody knew and loved this woman. We admired the way she carried herself as a strong black woman who was more than able taking care of herself in a harsh world.

    She gave us inspiration and hope. Thank you, Pearl Bailey. At this time we would like to honor Pearl with the 1990 Hamite Award which is an award given to extraordinary people who have made the dark path of the black person a little brighter by living an exemplary life for others to follow.

    Pearl Bailey died at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia on August 17, 1990. The cause of death was arteriosclerotic coronary artery disease.

 Pearl Mae Bailey
Pearl Mae Bailey
- photo#100-yr-1918 -

 Pearl Mae Bailey
Pearl Bailey as she performed on
The Ed Sullivan Show in 1968

- photo#117-yr-1990 -

 Pearl Mae Bailey
Pearl Bailey following a performance of
"It's A Woman's Prerogative" in the 1946
stage production of "St. Louis Woman"

- photo#118-yr-1990 -





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How were blacks feeling in 1990?
happy mood of blacks


codenamed Operation Desert Shield
The Persian Gulf War is started. We hope it's not a long one!


welcome to the 90s



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Tommie Smith  and John Carlos black power salute
Tommie Smith and John Carlos
Three Proud People mural in Newtown photo #109

DID YOU KNOW?
    Ever wonder how the term "African American" came into existence? After the civil rights movement, blacks felt the need for a more accurate term to describe the race than colored or Negro, which was associated with much pain and suffering. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, blacks no longer approved of the term Negro. In its experimental stages, the term Afro-American was used for a while but didn't last. Later the Black Power movement made us feel proud using black as the term in describing our race.

    The song, "Say It Loud – I'm Black, and I'm Proud" by James Brown became an unofficial anthem of the Black Power movement. But it wasn't until the 1980s the term African American was advanced on the model of, for example, German-American or Irish-American to give descendants of American slaves and other American blacks who lived through the slavery era a heritage and a cultural base. The term was popularized in black communities around the country via word of mouth and ultimately received mainstream use after Jesse Jackson publicly used the term in front of a national audience. Subsequently, major media outlets adopted its use.

Proud to be African American


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blacks and basketball

Zina  Garrison
Zina Garrison
photo #106-yr-1963

Theodore Tiger Flowers
Theodore "Tiger" Flowers
photo #109-yr-1927

Jesse Owens
Jesse Owens
photo #106-yr-1936

David Robinson
David Robinson
photo #103-yr-1986

George Dixon
George Dixon
photo #113-yr-1870

Rickey Henderson
Rickey Henderson
photo #111-yr-1979

     Sports in 1990
  • Zina Garrison upsets Steffi Graf in the Wimbledon semi-finals.

  • George Dixon was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame as a first-class inductee. Trivia: George Dixon is the inventor of Shadowboxing.

  • March 28, 1990 Jesse Owens was posthumously awarded the Congressional Gold Medal by President George H. W. Bush.

  • Tiger Flowers was inducted into the World Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990.

  • David Robinson is the NBA Rookie of the Year.

  • 1990 - Donna Marie Cheek becomes the first African American member of the U.S. Equestrian Team.

  • January 9, 1990 - Baseball's Joe Morgan is elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.

  • January 15, 1990 - 42 year old boxer George Foreman knocks out Gerry Cooney in the 2nd round.

  • January 17, 1990 - Baseball's Dave Stewart signs a record $3,500,000 per year Oakland A's contract.

  • January 26, 1990 - The Boston Red Sox hires Elaine Weddington as assistant General Manager making her the highest-ranking black female in the front office.

  • February 11, 1990 - James "Buster" Douglas knocks out Mike Tyson in the 10th round to win the heavyweight boxing crown.

  • May 29, 1990 - Baseball's Rickey Henderson steals an amazing 893 bases which broke Ty Cobb's record.

  • October 3, 1990 - Baseball's Detroit Tiger Cecil Fielder becomes the 11th player to hit 50 homeruns.

  • October 25, 1990 - Evander Holyfield knocks out Buster Douglas in 3 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.

  • November 19, 1990 - Baseball's Pittsburgh Pirate Barry Bonds wins the National Leauge MVP.

  • November 20, 1990 - Baseball's Oakland's A's Rickey Henderson wins the American Leauge MVP.



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watermelon slaves food
DID YOU KNOW?
    Ever wonder how the soul-food revolution began? It became a popular term in the 1960's. Slave ships with their cargo of slaves traveled from West Africa to North America with foods that were native to African soil. It was the ship's captain best interest to keep slaves alive and healthy by feeding them these foods for their long transatlantic voyage. Some of these foods native to Africa are black-eyed peas, rice, yams, peanuts and don't forget the infamous watermelon. Once here in America, slaves were allowed to grow these foods and along with the scraps the master would give them during 'ration times' (sometimes meat) is what laid the foundation for soul-food.


watermelon slaves food


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WHO DOES THIS DETESTABLE LOOKING MONSTER REPRESENT?
greed
America began with the noblest of intentions. But she is no match for my voracious appetite of greed! My power to influence is so great it will make folly of man's moral duty on earth and a mockery of what is truly just and righteous.



Hi, my name is Rapacity Prey Sr.

I have been alive since the beginning and will always exist as long as man governs man. There is no shame in my game and proud to admit I've always been a greedy, self-serving bastard with a voracious appetite that cannot be filled. I have many followers who adore me although most don't believe I exist.
Greedy man


I control every aspect of your life without you viewing my beautiful face and hearing words coming from my mouth. For the most part, you obey my every command from my extensive communication networks. These include the printed word, radio, music, television and my favorite form in today's world, the internet.


My only objective in life is to gain wealth and to do this I must have power, which I abundantly possess. I make a huge financial profit from misery, death, and destruction and utilize my communication networks for others to take the blame. I'm a master at setting up smokescreens to do my dirty work. In fact, as mentioned earlier most don't believe I exist. (LOL)


Most people make my work easy because they refuse to peel back the layers of history to expose me. I have created religion against religion, race against race, husband against wife, parents against their children all to my advantage. I don't care one little bit because I'm getting paid in one form or another.


 civil war


Let me tell you about some of my amazing accomplishments you may be familiar. I can't name them all because there are too many. Remember the Civil War that almost tore the country apart? I was behind that. That war was all about me getting paid, even though the majority of people thought it was about preserving the Union and ending slavery. I used man's hate against themselves to grow rich beyond all expectation during the War and Reconstruction period. It was me who got paid; my belly got super fat from that scheme.


During the Gilded Age, I made more wealth than I could count and have to admit was getting sloppy in my dirty work which resulted in the new Progressive Era which sought to clean greed and corruption from government. Well, who do you think it was that put these so-called righteous do-gooders in positions of authority? Come on now, don't be so gullible, at least put up a little fight to make this game more enjoyable.


I put people in charge to make it appear they were cleaning up the corruption and greediness which made them more cunning and cautious in providing me more wealth. I had my newspapers print how great and honorable Americans were and wouldn't put up for greed, and this made people feel great about their country because it made them feel proud and righteous above all others. What a folly! If walls could only speak!


WHO IS THIS MAN?


We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population.
George Frost Kennan


This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia. In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming, and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.

In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism. We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.

Written by Cold War strategist, George Kennan
Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974




WHO IS THIS MAN?


I spent 33 years and four months in active military service and during that period I spent most of my time as a high class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and the bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism.
Smedley Butler


I helped make Mexico and especially Tampico safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street.

I helped purify Nicaragua for the International Banking House of Brown Brothers in 1902–1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for the American sugar interests in 1916.

I helped make Honduras right for the American fruit companies in 1903. In China in 1927 I helped see to it that Standard Oil went on its way unmolested. Looking back on it, I might have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate his racket in three districts. I operated on three continents.

Quoted by former U.S. Marine Corps major general, Smedley Butler
Smedley Butler became widely known for his outspoken lectures against war profiteering





I have to admit there were some great men who put up a fight. President Roosevelt and his New Deal was a hard nut to crack. He belived he could defeat me and make America the respectable place it boasted. He even did something I hated very much in proposing a United Nations organization to prevent future wars. Now come on, you know I disliked that.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt


I had made much money from World WarII. Over 60 million people died in that war, and I didn't lose one-night sleep. I had most Americans believing the war was a fight against the threat of losing democracy and had intelligent people digging out their backyards to create bunkers, that was hilarious to me.


I even had my propaganda machine fool self-righteous Americans into believing they won the war, but in actuality it was the Soviet Union who provided victory, defeating the Germans and Japan. My communications network was at the height of its glory. That war was about one thing, me getting paid.


It's sorrowful that around the world and especially Americans are so gullible and believe the lie that they are righteous above others and especially the white ones who I influenced to think they were somewhat better or superior to other races of people. I persuaded my servant Hitler to also believe he was better and superior to others and looked what happened to him. A straightforward and honest search of history would expose so much more about me, but most people are followers who jump on my propaganda bandwagon to believe what may appear to be true. But that's okay; I get paid.


The Vietnam War was one of my greatest achievements. Once again I used my communications in tricking people into believing the Communist were coming and would invade our good and precious land of America. I demanded war but that fool John Kennedy stood in my way and began to back track. Just about every one of my military leaders was livid with him because they knew war is how I get paid. We all know the outcome of John Kennedy. War = money.


I created the entire American culture for my purposes in persuading them to believe they are winners and hate losing at war. The Revoulunary war that I aided in victory went to their heads. That's why I loved LBJ when he succeeded Kennedy. He was a man after my heart. He bombed those poor people to smithereens, even secretly. He was intent on showing the world America was a winner. He made my greedy soul very glad, as did President Nixon after him, two of my greatest workers and excellent examples for all people.


Through my communications networks I had people believe the reason Martin Luther King died was because of racism. Poppycock! If King would have kept his mouth closed and kept his attention to the race issues I created, instead of speaking out against the war he would have probably lived a long and prosperous life.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.


There were too many blacks joining the white anti-war movement in protest and it created a dilemma I had to deal with. He was messing with my money, and I didn't take kindly to that. It's that simple.


In time, Robert Kennedy was attempting to become the next President and since he was in the same mold as his war hating brother I couldn't allow that and quickly made a choice.


Well as you can tell I love war and also make much profit from covert activities by installing regimes in other countries that are beneficial for me. I've been doing this for years, as a simple search in history would show. But that's not the extent of my capabilities; I also have a huge domestic interest in my beloved country.


greedy doctors
I also operate a very lucrative and legal drug business created with the assistance of science. The doctors who work for me send me their clients and I make them pay dearly. I could care less if a person suffers or die from an illness my drugs could have prevented. The truth of the matter is the top priority of scientific research was not intended to help people; its primary purpose is to fill my fat belly. Silly people!


Just put it this way. In just about every place where money can be made, I reside. I vacation on Wall Street regularly. I love the atmosphere there. I'm a master at the art of persuasion and thrive on disaster and turmoil which frightened and agitates American people but will make me more money in one form or another. Do I feel guilty? No, I don't, I don't feed a silly conscience. I only feed my fat belly. Long live America!, Or is it really America? (LOL)


John Adams




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blacks and politics

President George Bush
President George Bush
photo #110-yr-1989

Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev and his beautiful wife Raisa
photo #119-yr-1990

David Dinkins
David Dinkins
photo #109-yr-1989

     Political Scene in 1990
  • 1990 - George Herbert Walker Bush, an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993. A Republican, he previously served as a congressman, an ambassador, and Director of Central Intelligence.

  • January 1, 1990 - David Dinkins is sworn in as New York City first African American mayor.

  • January 18, 1990 - Washington DC, Mayor Marion Barry busted buying drugs.

  • August 2, 1990 - The Gulf War codenamed Operation Desert Shield for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

  • October 1, 1990 - United States President George Bush at the United Nations condemns Iraq's takeover of Kuwait.

  • October 15, 1990 - Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev wins the Nobel Peace Prize.

  • November 1990 - Sharon Pratt Kelly is elected mayor of Washington, D.C.



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black professional women


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Acts of Goodness is Colorblind


The only way to get the full impact of this viewpoint is by watching this quick episode of the old Andy Griffith show in its entirety (only 8 minutes). The show was shot in the old Confederate town of Mayberry, but try to look past that for the sake of this perspective. Andy was the type of father all kids wanted, and all men aspired to be. In various episodes, he would spend quality time and teach his son Opie the meaning of life in a way that would bring tears to the eyes. Sadly, blacks were invisible on the television in those days through no fault of their own.

The Andy Griffith show is one small example how powerful the media has been throughout American history and helped shaped our communities and behaviors today. Andy taught Opie the importance of being honest, reliable, friendly, unselfish and much more life skills that were needed for him to prosper. Shows like Andy Griffith were typical in displaying acts of goodness by whites.


Andy, Opie, and Horatio



What were black citizens doing during the Andy Griffith era?

Well, you would think that the millions of blacks in America didn't exist. They were rarely shown on television and if so were displayed negatively as dishonest, crooks, cheats, servants, janitors, etc. So the downfall of shows like the Andy Griffith show was whites would beam with pride and confidence and blacks watching the show which I'm sure they loved would feel left out, lacking as human beings and inferior.

The racist white media did a horrible disservice to the American community by ignoring its black citizens. It helped to drive a wedge between the races even further. It had the powers to unite but chose not to.

 black fathers


So in a sense, this biased media was a hater of democracy and opted to provide its viewers with a single story of white goodness and ignore the positive achievements of black citizens which would have made our common American stories more accurate and complete.

It's important to believe that acts of wisdom, knowledge, and kindness do not belong solely to Andy Taylor. There were black fathers doing the same for their kids; we just didn't hear about them. But because of a racist media, Andy was in a privileged position to uplift his race of people with these acts and because white people were the only one's viewed on television, on the radio, in the magazines, newspapers in a positive light. It became common in associating goodness as being solely white, and especially among white people, just ask them.

So, even to this day, there are too many blacks, and especially the young that associate being good, smart, educated with white people, and don't believe these gifts also belong to them. But the truth of the matter is there is no race that has the market on doing what's right which means every single person in America can be just as good as the next if they choose to be.



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racism

     Race in 1990
    Hooray!

    No Race News to Report,

    Right on America


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slang and memorable quotes
black slang      sLANG tALK in the 1990s
  • Sup - What's up

  • Aiight - Alright, okay

  • All That - Complete package, not lacking

  • All that and a bag a chips - Complete

  • Bangin'/Slammin' - Got it going on

  • Beef - Trouble with someone

  • Beeotch - Bitch

  • Bling-Bling - Jewelry

  • The Bomb - Perfect, out of this world

  • Boo Ya! - In your face sucka

  • Bounce - To leave, go

  • Cha-Ching - Ring it up, gonna cost

  • Cheddar - Money, greenback

  • Chill Out - Relax

  • Chillin' - Relaxing

  • Churrin - Kids, children

  • Crib - The house, pad

  • Damn Skippy - You got that right!

  • Dawg - Friend, term of endearment

  • Dis - Disrepect

  • Dope - Super cool, badd

  • Down With That - In agreement

  • Fine - The best

  • Finna - About to do something

  • Fly - Cool, something good

  • Fresh - Brand new, cool, great

  • Hella - Emphasis

  • Hoochie - Fast, easy girl

  • Hood - Your neighborhood

  • It's all good - Everything is OK, under control

  • Jack You Up - Hurt you badly

  • Jet - Leave quickly

  • Let's Role - Leave

  • Math - Phone number

  • My Bad - My mistake, I'm sorry

  • O.G. - Original Ganster

  • Oh Snaps! - Oh yeah that's right!

  • Old School - Old way of doing things

  • Paper - Money

  • Phat - Cool

  • Pimpin - Correctly done

  • Po-po - Police

  • Scrub - A guy that's lacking

  • Straight - Telling the whole truth

  • Throw Down - Fight

  • Trippin - Worried about something

  • Vibe - Feeling

  • Wack - Terrible, not good

  • Wangsta - A fake ganster

  • Word - In agreement

  • Yayo - Money

  • Yo - Hello, short for "your"



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Little Richard
Little Richard
photo #120-yr-1990

black Movies in America

Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye
photo #108-yr-1968

     Television / Movies in 1990
    Television:
  • April 15, 1990 - "In Living Color" debuts on FOX-TV.



  • Academy Award Winners:
  • 1990 - Whoopi Goldberg for Ghost. Best Actress in a Supporting Role.

  • 1990 - Russell Williams for Dances with Wolves. Academy Award for Best Sound.



  • Award Winners:
  • June 2, 1990 - Entertainer Little Richard gets a star on Hollywood's Walk of Fame.

  • September 28, 1990 - Soul Singer Marvin Gaye gets a star on Hollywood's Walk of Fame.

  • November 6, 1990 - Talk show host Arsenio Hall gets a star on Hollywood's Walk of Fame.



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happy birthday

     Famous Birthdays in 1990
  • January 26, 1990 - Christopher Michael Massey an American actor, comedian and rapper best known for starring as Michael Barret in Nickelodeon/Family television series Zoey 101.

  • January 27, 1990 - Timothy Lamar Beckham an American professional baseball shortstop for the Tampa Bay Rays of Major League Baseball (MLB).

  • February 9, 1990 - Camille Simoine Winbush an American television actress, comedienne and recording artist.

  • March 26, 1990 - Chester Arthur "Chet" Brewer was an American right-handed pitcher in baseball's Negro Leagues.

  • April 19, 1990 - Jackie Bradley, Jr. is an American professional baseball center fielder with the Boston Red Sox of Major League Baseball (MLB).

  • May 16, 1990 - Marc John Jefferies an American actor. Among his best-known roles are Derrick Mitchell on the NBC sitcom The Tracy Morgan Show.

  • June 10, 1990 - Tristin Mays an American actress. She has appeared in a number of television series most notably as Shaina in the Nickelodeon series Gullah Gullah Island.

  • June 15, 1990 - Denzel Dominique Whitaker an American film and television actor.

  • July 6, 1990 - Jeremy Steven Suarez is an American actor.

  • July 28, 1990 - Soulja Boy an American rapper, record producer, actor, and entrepreneur.

  • October 5, 1990 - Taylour Paige an American dancer and actress.

  • October 18, 1990 - Jordan Calloway an American actor.

  • October 31, 1990 - Lil' JJ an American stand-up comedian, musician, dancer, and actor, best known for his role as Jordan on the Nickelodeon television series Just Jordan.

  • November 25, 1990 - Rye Rye an American rapper, singer, dancer and actress.



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african americans and death

 Pearl Mae Bailey
Pearl Mae Bailey
- photo#100-yr-1918 -

Raymond St. Jacques
Raymond St. Jacques
photo #113-yr-1930

     Famous Deaths in 1990
  • January 9, 1990 - Northern James Calloway was an American actor, voice artist, and comedian, best known for playing David on Sesame Street from 1971 through 1989.

  • March 18, 1990 - Robin Hughes Harris was an American comedian and actor, known for his recurring comic sketch about Bébé's Kids.

  • April 3, 1990 - Sarah Lois Vaughan, very popular African American jazz singer.

  • April 17, 1990 - Ralph David Abernathy, Sr.  was a leader of the African-American Civil Rights Movement, a minister, and Martin Luther King Jr.'s closest friend. In 1955, he collaborated with King to create the Montgomery Improvement Association, which would lead to the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott against segregation on buses in the south.

  • May 14, 1990 - Franklyn Seales was an American film, television and stage actor.

  • May 16, 1990 - Sammy Davis, Jr. was an American entertainer. Primarily a dancer and singer, he was also an actor of stage and screen.

  • August 17, 1990 - Pearl Mae Bailey, African American actress and singer.

  • August 27, 1990 - Raymond St. Jacques was an American actor. He was the first black actor to appear in a regular role on a western series, playing Simon Blake on Rawhide.

  • October 16, 1990 - Art Blakey was an American jazz drummer and bandleader. He was known as Abdullah Ibn Buhaina after he became a Muslim. Blakey made a name for himself in the 1940s in the big bands of Fletcher Henderson and Billy Eckstine. He worked with bebop musicians Thelonious Monk, Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie.

  • December 23, 1990 - Wendell Oliver Scott, African American stock car racing driver from Danville, Virginia.



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deceased hip-hop artist
  • MC Rock, rapper with The Almighty RSO, a hip hop group from Boston, Massachusetts was stabbed to death in 1990 at age 28.

  • Troy Dixon (October 19, 1967 — July 15, 1990), better known as Trouble T Roy, was a hip-hop dancer and rapper with the successful group Heavy D and the Boyz from 1987 until 1990. On July 15, 1990, at the age of 22, Dixon was killed by an accidental fall.

  • Tragically, Wreckx-n-Effect member, Brandon "B-Doggs" Mitchell was killed in a shooting incident in 1990.

  • Daniel Dimitri Rodriguez (November 10, 1967 - October 6, 1990), alias D-Boy Rodriguez, was a Christian rap artist. He released two albums that received moderate commercial success, before being murdered in 1990. His third album was released posthumously.

  • Rapper Michael Robinson The Mac was shot dead in Northern California, in Vallejo, 1990 while sitting in his car.



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african americans and weddings

Richard Pryor
Richard Pryor in his Mister Kelly's appearances
photo #100-yr-1969

     Famous Weddings in 1990
  • February 10, 1990 - Robert Cray and Susan Turner-Cray were married.

  • May 5, 1990 - Big Pun and Liza Rios were married.

  • May 11, 1990 - Shemar Moore and Sanaa Lathan were married.

  • September 8, 1990 - Ruth Pointer and Michael Sayles were married.

  • September 15, 1990 - Robert Townsend and Cheri Jones were married.

  • 1990 - Richard Pryor and Flynn Belaine are married for the second time.

  • 1990 - Pebbles and L.a. Reid were married.

  • 1990 - Q-Tip and Michele Daves were married.

  • 1990 - Brian McKnight and Julie McKnight were married.

  • 1990 - Patrick Ewing and Rita Williams were married.

  • 1990 - Julian Bond and Pamela Horowitz were married.

  • 1990 - Sheryl Ralph and Eric Maurice were married.

  • 1990 - Berry Gordy and Grace Easton were married.



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famous african american divorces

Laurence Fishburne
Laurence Fishburne
photo #101-yr-2002

     Famous Divorces in 1990
  • 1990 - Tyne Daly and Georg Stanford Brown were divorced.

  • 1990 - Wesley Snipes and April Snipes  were divorced.

  • 1990 - Sugar Ray Leonard  and Juanita Wilkinson were divorced.

  • 1990 - Quincy Jones and Peggy Lipton were divorced.

  • 1990 - Victoria Rowell and Tom Fahey were divorced.

  • 1990 - Rae Dawn Chong  and C. Thomas Howell were divorced.

  • 1990 - Ike Turner and Margaret Thomas were divorced.

  • 1990 - August Wilson and Judy Oliver were divorced.

  • 1990 - Cissy Houston and John Houston were divorced.

  • 1990 - Laurence Fishburne and actress Hajna O. Moss  were divorced.



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soul music orgin


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Mariah Carey
Mariah Carey
photo #115-yr-1990

soul train
Soul Train ran from 1971-2006
photo #109-yr-1971

Barry White
Barry White
photo #109-yr-1973

Whitney Houston
Whitney Houston
photo #101-yr-1985

Babyface
Babyface
photo #116-yr-1990

James Brown
James Brown
photo #103-yr-1933

Janet Jackson
Janet Jackson
photo #104-yr-1994

Luther Vandross
Luther Vandross performing with Diana Ross
photo #100-yr-2005

     Music in 1990

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • "Tender Lover" Babyface

  • "Rhythm Nation" Janet Jackson

  • "I'll Be Good to You" Quincy Jones featuring Ray Charles and Chaka Khan

  • "Make It Like It Was" Regina Belle

  • "Real Love" Skyy

  • "It's Gonna Be Alright" Ruby Turner

  • "Where Do We Go from Here" Stacy Lattisaw with Johnny Gill

  • "Escapade" Janet Jackson

  • "The Secret Garden (Sweet Seduction Suite)" Quincy Jones with Al B. Sure!, James Ingram, El DeBarge and Barry White

  • "All Around the World" Lisa Stansfield

  • "Spread My Wings" Troop

  • "Ready or Not" After 7

  • "Poison" Bell Biv DeVoe

  • "Rub You the Right Way" Johnny Gill

  • "Hold On" En Vogue

  • "The Blues" Tony! Toni! Toné!

  • "Tomorrow (A Better You, A Better Me)" Quincy Jones featuring Tevin Campbell

  • "U Can't Touch This" MC Hammer

  • "All I Do Is Think of You" Troop

  • "You Can't Deny It" Lisa Stansfield

  • "My, My, My" Johnny Gill

  • "Make You Sweat" Keith Sweat

  • "Can't Stop" After 7

  • "Vision of Love" Mariah Carey

  • "Jerk Out" The Time

  • "Feels Good" Tony! Toni! Toné!

  • "Lies" En Vogue

  • "Crazy" The Boys

  • "Thieves in the Temple" Prince

  • "Giving You the Benefit" Pebbles

  • "So You Like What You See" Samuelle

  • "Love Takes Time" Mariah Carey

  • "B.B.D. (I Thought It Was Me)?" Bell Biv DeVoe

  • "Misunderstanding" Al B. Sure!

  • "I'm Your Baby Tonight" Whitney Houston

  • "Sensitivity" Ralph Tresvant

  • "It Never Rains (In Southern California)" Tony! Toni! Toné!



  Popular Soul Dances:
  • The Hammer

  • Electric Slide

  • The Carlton

  • The Jiggy

  • Tootsee Roll

  • Rump Shaker

  • Da Dip

  • The Butterfly

  • The Funky Charleston

  • Macrena

  • The Humpy Dance



  Musical Happenings in 1990:
  • MC Hammer's "Please Hammer Don't Hurt 'Em" becomes the best-selling hip hop album ever.

  • April 12, 1990 - Soul singer James Brown moves to a halfway center after serving 15 months in prison.

  • July 4, 1990 - 2 Live Crew release "Banned in the USA" .



 Blues Hall of Fame for 1990:
    The Blues Hall of Fame is a music museum located in Memphis, Tennessee. Until recently, the "Blues Hall of Fame" was not a physical building, but a listing of people who have significantly contributed to blues music. Started in 1980 by the Blues Foundation, it honors those who have performed, recorded, or documented blues. The actual building for the hall opened to the public on May 8, 2015

  • Blind Blake
  • Lonnie Johnson
  • Bukka White



 American Music Awards winners in 1990:
    The American Music Awards was created by Dick Clark to compete with the Grammy Awards. Michael Jackson and Donny Osmond co-hosted the first award show with Rodney Allen Rippy and Ricky Segall in 1974. Unlike the Grammys, which are awarded on the basis of votes by members of the Recording Academy, the AMAs are determined by a poll of the public and fans, who can vote through the AMAs website.

    Favorite Pop/Rock Male Artist
  • Bobby Brown

  • Favorite Pop/Rock Female Artist
  • Paula Abdul

  • Favorite Pop/Rock Single
  • "Girl You Know It's True" - Milli Vanilli

  • Favorite Pop/Rock New Artist
  • Milli Vanilli

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Male Artist
  • Luther Vandross

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Female Artist
  • Anita Baker

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Band, Duo, or Group
  • The O'Jays

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Album
  • Don't Be Cruel - Bobby Brown

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Single
  • "Miss You Much" - Janet Jackson

  • Favorite Soul/R&B New Artist
  • Milli Vanilli

  • Favorite Rap/Hip-Hop Artist
  • MC Hammer

  • Favorite Rap/Hip-Hop Album
  • Let's Get It Started - MC Hammer

  • Favorite Rap/Hip-Hop New Artist
  • Young MC

  • Favorite Dance Artist
  • Paula Abdul

  • Favorite Dance Single
  • "Miss You Much" - Janet Jackson

  • Favorite Dance New Artist
  • Tone Loc

  • Award of Achievement
  • Prince



 Grammy winners in 1990:
    The 32nd Annual Grammy Awards were held in 1990. They recognized accomplishments by musicians from the previous year.

    Best Traditional Blues Recording
  • Bonnie Raitt & John Lee Hooker for "I'm in the Mood"


  • Best Opera Recording
  • Jessye Norman & the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra for Wagner: Die Walküre


  • Best Gospel Vocal Performance, Female
  • CeCe Winans for "Don't Cry"


  • Best Gospel Vocal Performance, Male
  • BeBe Winans for "Meantime"


  • Best Gospel Vocal Performance by a Duo or Group, Choir or Chorus
  • Take 6 for "The Savior Is Waiting"


  • Grammy Award for Best Soul Gospel Performance, Male or Female
  • Al Green for "As Long as We're Together"


  • Best Soul Gospel Performance by a Duo or Group, Choir or Chorus
  • Daniel Winans for "Let Brotherly Love Continue"


  • Best Historical Album
  • Andy McKaie (producer) for Chuck Berry - The Chess Box


  • Best Jazz Vocal Performance, Female
  • Ruth Brown for Blues on Broadway


  • Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Soloist (On a Jazz Recording)
  • Miles Davis for Aura


  • Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Big Band
  • Miles Davis for Aura


  • Best Music Video, Short Form
  • Jim Blashfield, Paul Diener, Frank DiLeo, Jerry Kramer, (video producers), Jim Blashfield (video director) & Michael Jackson for "Leave Me Alone"


  • Best Music Video, Long Form
  • Aris McGarry (video producer), Jonathan Dayton and Valerie Faris (video producers & directors), Dominic Sena (video director), & Janet Jackson for Rhythm Nation 1814


  • Best Album Notes
  • Phil Schaap (notes writer) for Bird - The Complete Charlie Parker on Verve


  • Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal
  • Aaron Neville & Linda Ronstadt for "Don't Know Much"


  • Best Pop Instrumental Performance
  • The Neville Brothers for "Healing Chant"


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Female
  • Anita Baker for "Just Because"


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male
  • Bobby Brown for "Every Little Step"


  • Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal
  • Soul II Soul & Caron Wheeler for "Back to Life"


  • Best R&B Instrumental Performance
  • Soul II Soul for "African Dance"


  • Best Rap Performance
  • Young MC for "Bust a Move"


  • Best Reggae Recording
  • Ziggy Marley & the Melody Makers for One Bright Day


  • Hall of Fame Award
  • "Black, Brown and Beige" Duke Ellington & His Famous Orchestra


  • Best New Artist
  • Milli Vanilli -
  • During a live performance on MTV at the Lake Compounce theme park in Bristol, Connecticut they performed onstage live in front of an audience, the recording of the song "Girl You Know It's True" jammed and began to skip, repeating the partial line "Girl, you know it's..." over and over on the speakers. They continued to pretend to sing and dance onstage for a few more moments, then they both ran offstage. According to the episode of VH1's Behind the Music which profiled Milli Vanilli, Downtown Julie Brown stated that fans attending the concert seemed neither to care nor even to notice, and the concert continued as if nothing unusual had happened. Milli Vanilli would later confess to reporters on November 12, 1990, that Morvan and Pilatus did not sing on the records. As a result of American media pressure, Milli Vanilli's Grammy was withdrawn four days later.



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hip hop
The Civil Rights movement of the 60s was a total success. Now the second part of our journey begins.

Now here's the problem.

For the last hundred years or so, white Americans have had every privilege simply for being white. Unconstitutional Jim Crow laws instituted in the past had restricted blacks in every sense of the word.

Blacks were routinely treated as second-class citizens even after fighting courageously in every single American war, Revolutionary war included.

During this Jim Crow period, whites created a humongous stronghold and power structure for their families in America that still stands today. They completely understand how to navigate this power structure, and do it very well.

But after the 60s, blacks, on the other hand, found it difficult to penetrate and become a part of this American structure and ones that attempted were generally fought every step of the way, not by outright in your face racism, but a new one called casual racism which is just as harmful.

Ever since slavery ended, blacks who are of African culture didn't get much help assimilating into an American (European) way of life. After victory with our Civil Rights in the 60s, many didn't understand how to challenge this power structure in a productive and intelligent way growing frustrated and angry. Many were resorting to violence until an amazing man named DJ Kool Herc steps onto the scene to save the day!


DJ Kool Herc spinning records
photos#118-yr-1980


DJ Kool Herc was the beginning of Hip Hop and gave many a positive outlet instead of violence, and whether older blacks liked it or not for our younger people would replace the guidance of influential civil rights leaders of past and become the voice they listened to for knowledge and help.

The media began to portray Hip hop/rapper figures as the brains of the black race. They are treated as wise ones and royalty. But they forgot or just ignored the many blacks who achieved with brainpower as college graduates, as opposed to artistic ability. Because of this portrayal, Hip-hop/Rap artist have without a doubt become an influential voice in the black community.

rapper



Many older blacks who were trained by our past Civil Rights leaders excellent moral guidance and teachings liked their beats but not the messages because it was filled with much hate and violence, especially on our people.

So when a younger black person who has been trained by these lyrics attempt to enter the white power structure workforce, they very seldom get through the front door, and it has nothing to do with racism, and if they are lucky enough to get that far they usually don't last, because they don't understand how to deal and work with people.

Don't get it wrong; Hip hop/rap music is a part of who we are, and we are all so proud of our ability to create something out of nothing that the entire world loves and imitates. But it also comes with a tremendous responsibility when possessing such great power and influence to help people and especially our own. Don't forget to teach our young that beats are good, but books are better!

There are many who keep the entertainment value of Hip hop/rap in perspective and understand how to maintain a balance, but there are also many easily influenced ones who fail and don't have a clue. So an important question arises. Will Hip-Hop lead the weaker one's in learning to live in the real world so we all can achieve and soar like the eagles or will it sell us out for the love of fame and money?



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pretty lady cooking
Hi there, I'm Annie.
Thanks for viewing my collection of wonderful soul-food dishes that my amazing ancestors cooked, and more than likely yours did too.

We didn't have much of anything back in the day and had to live off the scraps we were given. But like a famous rapper once said in his songs, we knew how to "make a dollar out of 15 cents" Enjoy.



sweet potatoes
Sweet Potatoes / Yams


Barbecue Ribs
Barbecue Ribs


Ham Hocks
Ham Hocks


Rice and Beans
Rice and Beans


Fish and Chips
Fish and Chips


Bean Soup
Bean Soup


Biscuits and Gravy
Biscuits and Gravy


Waffles
Waffles


Fried Chicken
Fried Chicken


Cornbread
Cornbread


Collard Greens
Collard Greens


Fried Liver
Fried Liver


Peach Preserves
Peach Preserves


Pinto Beans
Pinto Beans


Pound Cake
Pound Cake


Pork Chops
Pork Chops


Watermelon
Watermelon


black man hungry


(images - https://pixabay.com/)
Southern Cooking - Soul Food

    Have you ever wondered what African-Americans ate back in the day? Well, maybe we can help you with that. We've found the oldest known black cookbook to date.

    This cookbook was written by an actual former slave woman that had once lived on a plantation, but gained her freedom with the Emancipation Proclamation moving from Mobile, Alabama to San Francisco, California where she published an entirely excellent collection of 160 authentic and tasty recipes of the Old South entitled;

    "What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking"

    This book is indeed a rare gemstone with tons of actual recipes that black folks enjoyed back in the day, but Mrs. Fisher cooking wasn't limited to blacks only, many whites also loved her delicious recipes and persuaded her to make a cookbook.

    Here is just a sample of some of the southern foods mentioned in her book, and by the way, it wasn't called soul-food until the 1960's.

    Breakfast
  • Maryland Beat Biscuit
  • Waffles
  • Cream Cake
  • Flannel Cakes
  • Sallie Lund
  • Egg Corn Bread
  • Plantation Corn Bread
  • Light Bread


  • Broiled Meats
  • Beefsteak
  • Lamb or Mutton Chops
  • Pork Steak or Chops
  • Venison


  • Croquettes
  • Lamb
  • Chicken
  • Crab
  • Liver
  • Oyster
  • Fish


  • Cakes Etc.
  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Almond
  • Feather
  • Sponge
  • Fruit
  • Jelly
  • Carolas
  • Ginger Cookies
  • Sweet Wafers


  • Pickels, Sauces Etc.
  • Sweet Cucumber Pickles
  • Sweet Cucumber Mangoes
  • Chow Chow
  • Creole Chow Chow
  • Cherry Chutney
  • Game Sauce
  • Compound Tomato
  • Napoleon
  • Sweet Pickle Peaches
  • Sweet Pickle Prunes
  • Sweet Watermelon Kind Pickle
  • Sauce for Boiled Fish or Mutton
  • Milanese Sauce
  • Sauce for Suet Pudding


  • Pies, Etc.
  • Pastry for making Pies of all kinds
  • Preparing the Fruit for Pies
  • Rhubarb
  • Apple
  • Peach
  • Lemon Pies
  • Cocoanut
  • Cream Apple
  • Sweet Potato
  • Gooseberry and Cherry
  • Light Bread
  • Mince
  • Blackberry Roll
  • Oyster


  • Puddings
  • Snow
  • Plum
  • Corn
  • Corn Fritters
  • Batter
  • Rice
  • Yorkshire
  • Cheese
  • Suet


  • Preserves, Spices, ETC.
  • Brandy Peaches
  • Quince Preserves
  • Syrups for Preserves
  • Preserved Peaches
  • Preserved Pears
  • Currant Jelly
  • Cranberry Jelly
  • Strawberry Jam
  • Raspberry and Currant Jam Combined
  • Marmalade Peach
  • Crab Apple Jelly
  • Blackberry Brandy
  • Blackberry Syrup for Dysentery in Children
  • Preserved Apricots
  • Apple Sauce for Roast Pork
  • Charlotte Eusse
  • Spiced Currants
  • Preserved Cherries


  • Roast Meats
  • Venison
  • Beef
  • Lamb
  • Pork
  • Pig
  • Veal
  • Turkey
  • Chicken
  • Birds
  • Quail
  • Domestic Duck
  • Wild Duck


  • Salads
  • Chicken
  • Veal
  • Lamb
  • Shrimp
  • Crab
  • Meat


  • Sherbets
  • Orange
  • Lemon
  • Pineapple


  • Soups, Chowders, Etc.
  • Beef
  • Ox-TaH
  • Calf 's Head
  • Mock Turtle
  • Green Turtle
  • Oyster Gumbo
  • Ochra Gumbo
  • Old Fashioned Turnip
  • Chicken
  • Corn and Tomato
  • Creole
  • Fish Chowder
  • Chicken Gumbo


  • Miscellaneous
  • Fricassed Chicken
  • Fried Chicken
  • Chicken fried Steak
  • Meat Stews or Entrees
  • Ice Cream
  • Boiled Turkey
  • Beef a la Mode
  • Neckbones
  • Spiced Round
  • Hog Maws
  • Stuffed Ham
  • Lima Beans
  • Jumberlie a Creole Dish
  • Baked Fish
  • Ribs, Beef or Pork
  • Boiled Corn
  • Peach Cobbler
  • Egg Plant Stuffed
  • Chitterlings or "Chitlins"
  • Corned Beef Hash
  • Ladies' Custard
  • Tonic Bitters
  • Terrapin Stew
  • Leaven Biscuit
  • Pap for infant Diet
  • Sorghum Syrup
  • Cracklins
  • Meringue for Pudding
  • Circuit Hash


  • What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking
    Paperback – March, 1995
    by Abby Fisher (Author), Karen Hess (Editor)

    http://www.amazon.com/Fisher-Knows-About-Southern-Cooking/dp/1557094039

 

Southern Jewel Million Dollar Pound Cake
(this recipe is not from Mrs. Fisher cookbook, but has been in Annie's family for generations, it's everyones favorite!)

    Butter: 1 pound
    Sugar: 3 cups
    Eggs: 6
    Milk: 3/4 cup
    Cake Flour: 4 cups (Soft as Silk Cake Flour)
    Baking Powder: 1 teaspoon
    Vanilla Flavor: 1 teaspoon
    Lemon Flavor: 1 teaspoon

    Directions:
    For best results, leave butter and eggs out overnight
    Cream butter well, add sugar and mix until butter and sugar look like whip cream.
    Beat each egg individually and then add with sugar and butter, mix well for at least a couple minutes.
    Add milk and cake flour a little at a time, then add flavorings.
    Spray Pam spray on entire round cake pan, and then add cake batter.
    Bake about 1 hour and 15 minutes at 325.
    Let cake cool for about 30 minutes, and then remove cake from cake pan.



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womens fashion
Young woman wearing a spaghetti strap top, a silver necklace, and straight-leg jeans
photo #111-yr-1990

mens fashion
Double breasted power suit with large shoulder pads
photo #112-yr-1990

 Converse All-Stars
A classic dark blue pair of Converse All-Stars resting on the Black & White Ed. Shoebox
photo #109-yr-1990

 Slap bracelets
Slap bracelets
photo #110-yr-1990

hairstyles in the 1980s
Jheri curl hairstyle worn in the 80s and 90s.
photo #108-yr-1980


A medium-length hi-top fade haircut
photo #100-yr-1985

     Fashions and Styles in 1990

  Popular Fashions:

    Women:
    The early 1990s saw a continuation of late 1980s fashion: women wore denim button down shirts, leggings, drainpipe jeans, colored tights, bike shorts, black leather jackets with shoulder pads, and skater dresses. Popular accessories included court shoes, cowboy boots, headscarves, leggings, slouch socks, Keds, ballet flats, and penny loafers. Leotards worn as tops with jeans were popular with young girls, teens, college girls, young women and women. A common outfit was to wear a skirt, dress shorts, babydoll or minidress with black opaque tights, white slouch socks and white sneakers especially Keds. Women's fashion in the mid 1990s became more feminine and form-fitting. Women tended to dress differently for each occasion. Both long and short skirts were favored, and loungewear generally consisted of leggings, large T-shirts, and baggy sweaters while at home or relaxing during the weekends.The most common look among young women was the short black slip dress worn over a tight, undersized white T-shirt. Among other fashion trends included lean pants, hot pants, black Lycra leggings, belted trench coats, and leather. Popular shoes and accessories during the mid-1990s included Wonderbra, Loafers, Mary Janes, suede sneakers, mules, clogs, knee high boots, jelly shoes, Go-go boots, black shoes, silver jewelry, dainty earrings and necklaces, conch shell necklaces,Slap bracelets, berets, straw hats, floppy hats, gold jewelry, and hipster belts. Navel piercings had started to gain popularity around this time.


    Men:
    Continuing on from the late 1980s, many young men wore tapered high waisted jeans with matching denim jackets, Stone Island or Ralph Lauren polo shirts with contrasting collars, short Harrington jackets, brightly colored windcheaters, Hush Puppies shoes, V neck sweaters, soccer shorts, pastel colored three button sportcoats, graphic print T shirts, tracksuit tops with a vertical contrasting stripe down the sleeve, sweatpants, shiny red or blue rayon monkey jackets, grey or tan leather jackets with shoulder pads, and wool baseball jackets with contrasting sleeves. Short shorts were popular in the early years of the decade, but were replaced with looser and baggier basketball shorts after 1993 when hip-hop fashion went mainstream. Hip-hop fashion went mainstream in 1995, with oversized baseball jackets, baggy jeans, bomber jackets, Baja Jackets, and tracksuits popular among young men as casual wear. Simultaneously, industrial and military styles crept into mainstream fashion, with machinery pieces becoming accessories. Baseball caps started being worn forwards again. Southern hip hop provided a platform for Fashion designers and musical artists to collaborate forming an influential subculture of anti fashion and alternative fashion designs, especially the popular recycled clothing worn by Arrested Development and Goodie Mob. Black leather reefer jackets and trenchcoats were also fashionable in the late 1990s.


    Hairstyles:
    The Jheri curl often spelled Jerry curl or Jeri Curl is a permed hairstyle that was common and popular among African American, Black Canadian, and Black British, especially during the 1980s and the 1990s. Invented by the hairdresser Jheri Redding, the Jheri curl gave the wearer a glossy, loosely curled look. It was touted as a "wash and wear" style that was easier to care for than the other popular chemical treatment of the day, the relaxer. A hi-top fade is a style of haircut where hair on the sides is cut off or kept very short while hair on the top of the head is very long (in contrast, a low fade is a style where hair on the top is kept shorter). It was common among young black people between 1985 and 1993. For African-American men, the cornrows (popularized by former NBA player Allen Iverson) and buzz cut were a popular trend that continued into the early 2000s.



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african americans and religion


How did religion begin for the American Negro?

Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.

What is fetishism you may ask?


 Traditional  Benin Voodoo Dance
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance

Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.

But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.

In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.


Religion definition:
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.



Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.

But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.

Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.

This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.

Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.

During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.

But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.


The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:


Pentacostal -
 Pentacostal Movement
    William Seymour
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015

Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.

Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.

So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.




The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
 The Church Of God in Christ baptism
Church Of God in Christ Baptism
photo#112-yr-2015

The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.



A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.



Baptists -
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.



Islam -
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.

But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.

Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.

So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.




Science -
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.


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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1990s

Marcelite Jordan Harris
Marcelite Jordan Harris
photo #121-yr-1990

Our Community in 1990
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • December 30, 1990 - The 11th United Negro College Fund was a huge success by raising ten million dollars for education.

  • 1990 - Beauty contestant Carole Ann-Marie Gist of Detroit, Michigan becomes the first black female to win the Miss USA pageant.

  • 1990 - American educator, physicist, and business executive Walter E. Massey becomes the first African American to head the National Science Foundation.

  • 1990 - Marcelite Jordan Harris is the first African American woman brigadier general in the U.S. Army and the first woman to lead a mostly male battalion.

  • 1990 - American playwright August Wilson wins a Pulitzer Prize for the play The Piano Lesson.

  • 1990s - The United States Population is 248,709,878 with a total of 29,986,060 being African Americans.




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RESOURCES:


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