blast from the past

blast from the past
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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1989:
Sugar Ray Robinson
    Sugar Ray Robinson, born Walker Smith Jr. was an African-American professional boxer. Frequently cited as the greatest boxer of all time, Robinson's performances in the welterweight and middleweight divisions prompted sportswriters to create "pound for pound" rankings, where they compared fighters regardless of weight.

    He was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990.

    Robinson was 85–0 as an amateur with 69 of those victories coming by way of knockout, 40 in the first round. He turned professional in 1940 at the age of 19 and by 1951 had a professional record of 128–1–2 with 84 knockouts.

    From 1943 to 1951 Robinson went on a 91 fight unbeaten streak, the third longest in professional boxing history. Robinson held the world welterweight title from 1946 to 1951 and won the world middleweight title in the latter year.

    He retired in 1952, only to come back two and a half years later and regain the middleweight title in 1955. He then became the first boxer in history to win a divisional world championship five times, a feat he accomplished by defeating Carmen Basilio in 1958 to regain the middleweight championship.

    Robinson was named "fighter of the year" twice: first for his performances in 1942, then nine years and over 90 fights later, for his efforts in 1951.

    Renowned for his flamboyant lifestyle outside the ring, Robinson is credited with being the originator of the modern sports "entourage".

    After his boxing career had ended, Robinson attempted a career as an entertainer, but struggled, and was challenged financially until his death in 1989. In 2006, he was featured on a commemorative stamp by the United States Postal Service.

    This year's award choice will go to one of the greatest boxers of all time. We proudly honor the memory of Sugar Ray Robinson with the 1989 Hamite Award for giving us hope in a time of despair. The black person needed a hero during this period in American history, and Sugar Ray was just that.

    In Robinson's last years, he was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. He died in Los Angeles at the age of 67 and was interred in the Inglewood Park Cemetery, Inglewood, California.

Sugar Ray Robinson
Sugar Ray Robinson
photo #101-yr-1989



Sugar Ray Robinson
American boxer Sugar Ray Robinson (1921-1989) being held aloft by other boxers.
photo #102-yr-1989



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famous african american quotes
Famous African American Quotes

    Sugar Ray Robinson -  frequently cited as the greatest boxer of all time

    "Rhythm is everything in boxing. Every move you make starts with your heart, and that's in rhythm or you're in trouble."


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How were blacks feeling in 1989?
happy mood of blacks


crack cocaine use

welcome to the 80s



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green door to success

Did you know you came from an amazing race of people who cared for you? It's true. The amazing accomplishments of our ancestors are recorded on this website. Years ago as slaves it was illegal for slaves to read and write, and a felony for anyone caught teaching them.

The slavemaster wanted to keep them ignorant so they wouldn't organize and rebel against their authority. He was able to dominate blacks in this way. The slavemaster understood the power of education.

Sadly today too many of our own have not learned how truly important it is to learn. Some may look at education as a white thing and to pick up a book as a sellout. Has any ignorant person ever made you feel that way? If so, you should run away as fast as you can from a person like this. You will meet him in a few years while he's pushing a shopping cart around town.

Education and learning are not white; it's a gift for all humankind. Read at all cost; it will add a new dimension to your life, bringing a whole new world you never knew existed. Your ancestors made it all possible for you.

green door to success




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blacks and boxing

Frank Robinson
Frank Robinson
photo #107-yr-1935

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar
photo #106-yr-1987

Rickey Henderson
Rickey Henderson
photo #111-yr-1979

     Sports in 1989
  • 1989 - Frank Robinson was awarded the American League Manager of the Year Award in 1989.

  • 1989 - The honor of being the first African American league president goes to Bill White to lead MLB National League.

  • 1989 - Oakland Raiders Art Shell holds the distinction of becoming the second-ever African American head coach in the history of professional football, and the first in the sport's modern era.

  • February 5, 1989 - Professional basketball player Kareem Abdul-Jabar becomes the first NBA player to score a whopping 38,000 career points.

  • April 9, 1989 - Baseball standout Rickey Henderson steals his 800th career base.

  • August 24, 1989 - Baseball's Pete Rose is sadly given a lifetime ban for gambling.

  • October 1, 1989 - Football's Dallas Cowboy, Ed "Too Tall" Jones records his 1,000th career NFL tackle.



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education and hate


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blacks and politics

President George Bush
President George Bush
photo #110-yr-1989

President Ronald Reagan
President Ronald Reagan
photo #104-yr-1981

Ronald H. Brown
Ronald H. Brown
photo #103-yr-1989

General Colin L. Powell
General Colin L. Powell
photo #108-yr-1989

Douglas Wilder
Douglas Wilder
photo #104-yr-1986

David Dinkins
David Dinkins
photo #109-yr-1989

     Political Scene in 1989
  • 1989 - George Herbert Walker Bush, an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993. A Republican, he previously served as a congressman, an ambassador, and Director of Central Intelligence.

  • 1989 - Ronald Reagan was an American politician, commentator, and actor, who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he served as the 33rd Governor of California from 1967 to 1975, following a career as an actor and union leader in Hollywood.

  • February 7, 1989 - Ronald H. Brown is elected chair of the Democratic National Committee, becoming the first African American to head one of the two major political parties.

  • August 10, 1989 - President George H. W. Bush selects General Colin L. Powell as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The first black to do so.

  • November 7, 1989 - Douglas Wilder becomes the governor of Virginia, the first African American to do so.

  • November 7, 1989 - David Dinkins is elecetd the mayor of New York.

  • November 7, 1989 - Norm Rice is elecetd the mayor of Seattle.



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racism

     Race in 1989
  • August 23, 1989 - Yusef Hawkins was a 16-year-old African-American who was shot to death in Bensonhurst, a predominantly Italian-American working-class neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. Hawkins and three friends were attacked by a crowd of 10 to 30 white youths, with at least seven of them wielding baseball bats. One, armed with a handgun, shot Hawkins twice in the chest, killing him.

  • September 2, 1989 - Activist Al Sharpton leads a civil rights march through Bensonhurst, Brooklyn. Analysis:  The two men who led the mob that beat and chased Hawkins were tried separately. Joseph Fama, the man who fired the shots that killed Hawkins, was convicted of second-degree murder on May 17, 1990. The other main defendant in the case, Keith Mondello, was acquitted on May 18, 1990, on murder and manslaughter charges, but convicted of 12 lesser charges including riot, menacing, discrimination, unlawful imprisonment and criminal possession of a weapon. America is changing. This website has done a year by year study since 1863 of the negroes treatment in America, and it wasn't many years ago that these men would have walked away scot free. Consistently, justice for blacks simply did not exist, and that was from the Presidents all the way down to white American citizens. Other members of the gang that chased and beat Hawkins were tried as well. John Vento was convicted of unlawful imprisonment and received a sentence of 2 to 8 years in August 1990 and was released in 1998. A fourth man, Joseph Serrano, was convicted on the charge of unlawfully possessing a weapon and sentenced to 300 hours of community service on January 11, 1991. The acquittal of Vento on a murder charge and the light sentence handed out to Serrano, sparked more protests by the African-American community in Bensonhurst. Shortly before that march was set to begin on January 12, 1991,, Al Sharpton was stabbed and seriously wounded by Michael Riccardi in a Bensonhurst schoolyard. Sharpton later recovered from his wounds.



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black Movies in America

Oscar Devereaux Micheaux
Oscar Devereaux Micheaux
photo #104-yr-1884

     Television / Movies in 1989
    Movies:
  • Harlem Nights - Redd Foxx (as Bennie Wilson)

  • See No Evil, Hear No Evil - It stars Richard Pryor as a blind man and Gene Wilder as a deaf man who work together to thwart a trio of murderous thieves.



  • Awards:
  • 1989 - The Directors Guild of America honored Oscar Devereaux Micheaux with a Golden Jubilee Special Award.

  • 1989 - The Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame gave Oscar Devereaux Micheaux a posthumous award.



  • Academy Award Winners:
  • 1989 - Denzel Washington for Glory. Best Actor in a Supporting Role.

  • 1989 - Russell Williams for Glory. Academy Award for Best Sound.



  • Television:
  • March 27, 1989 - The first African American soap opera begins airing, "Generations" made it's premiere on NBC-TV.





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famous african american birthdays


     Famous Birthdays in 1989
  • January 30, 1989 - Khaleed Leon "Khleo" Thomas an American actor, rapper, singer, and entertainer best known for his role as Zero in Holes and Mixed Mike in Roll Bounce.

  • February 21, 1989 - Corbin Bleu   is an American actor, model, dancer, producer and singer-songwriter of Jamaican-Italian heritage.

  • March 19, 1989 - Craig Lamar Traylor an American actor. He made his debut in an episode of ER in 1996.

  • April 15, 1989 - Andre Jamal Kinney  an American actor best known for his recurring role in Hannah Montana as Cooper, Jackson Stewart's friend.

  • May 5, 1989 - Chris Brown  is an American recording artist, dancer, and actor.

  • May 29, 1989 - Brandon Mychal Smith an American actor, comedian, singer, dancer, and rapper, best known for playing Bug Wendal in Gridiron Gang.

  • June 9, 1989 - Logan Laurice Browning  an American actress & professional dancer. She is best known for playing Sasha in the 2007 film Bratz.

  • June 17, 1989 - Simone Sherise Battle was an American actress and singer from Los Angeles, California. She was a finalist on The X Factor in 2011.

  • June 21, 1989 - Jascha Akili Washington an American television and film actor.

  • July 15, 1989 - Tristan Paul Mack Wilds an American actor and recording artist. He is known for his roles as Michael Lee on the HBO original drama series The Wire.

  • August 19, 1989 - Percy Romeo Miller, Jr  better known by his stage name Romeo (previously Lil' Romeo), is an American rapper, actor, basketball player, entrepreneur, and model.

  • September 17, 1989 - Danielle Brooks an American actress best known for her role as Tasha "Taystee" Jefferson on the Netflix original series Orange Is the New Black.



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black american deaths

Alvin Ailey
Alvin Ailey in en:1955
CREDIT: en:Carl Van Vechten, photographer - photo #100-yr-1989

Sugar Ray Robinson
Sugar Ray Robinson
photo #101-yr-1989

     Famous Deaths in 1989
  • March 5, 1989 - James Richmond Barthé,  African-American sculptor.

  • April 5, 1989 - Bill Gunn  was an American playwright, novelist, actor and film director.

  • April 10, 1989 - Bessie Griffin was an African-American gospel singer. Born Arlette B. Broil in New Orleans, Louisiana. She sang for a while with the Southern Harps, had her own radio show in New Orleans, and later appeared in night clubs, on Broadway and in 1962 on The Ed Sullivan Show.

  • April 12, 1989 - Sugar Ray Robinson  was an American professional boxer. Frequently cited as the greatest boxer of all time, Robinson's performances in the welterweight and middleweight divisions prompted sportswriters to create "pound for pound" rankings, where they compared fighters regardless of weight.

  • July 24, 1989 - Ernest Fredric "Ernie" Morrison  was an American child actor who performed under the stage name "Sunshine Sammy."

  • October 8, 1989 - Onest Conley was an American film actor.

  • December 1, 1989 - Alvin Ailey  African-American choreographer and activist.



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deceased hip-hop artist
  • Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five member Keith "Cowboy" Wiggins died due to his addiction to crack cocaine on September 8, 1989.

  • Osbourne Ruddock, (28 January 1941 – 6 February 1989) better known as King Tubby, was a Jamaican electronics and sound engineer, known primarily for his influence on the development of dub in the 1960s and 1970s. King Tubby was shot and killed outside his home.

  • Rapper Michael Menson, of the group Double Trouble died after being doused in gasoline and set on fire.



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famous african american weddings

Debbi  Morgan
Actress Debbi Morgan with Dorian Harewood in The Jesse Owens Story, 1984
photo #102-yr-1956

Michael Jordan
Michael Jordan
photo #102-yr-1999

     Famous Weddings in 1989
  • April 1989 - Kimberly Elise and Maurice Oldham were married.

  • July 11, 1989 - Rae Dawn Chong and C. Thomas Howell were married.

  • September 5, 1989 - LaToya Jackson  and Jack Gordon were married.

  • September 16, 1989 - Natalie Cole  and Andre Fischer were married.

  • December 31, 1989 - Shari Belafonte and Sam Behrenswere married.

  • 1989 - Terrence Howard and Lori Howard were married.

  • 1989 - Victoria Rowell  and Tom Fahey were married.

  • 1989 - Terry Crews and Rebecca Crews were married.

  • 1989 - Najee  and Regina Jackson were married.

  • 1989 - Charles S. Dutton and Debbi Morgan were married.

  • 1989 - Michael Jordan and Juanita Vanoy were married.



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famous african american divorces

     Famous Divorces in 1989
  • February 1989 - Mike Tyson  and Robin Givens were divorced.

  • 1989 - Montel Williams  and Rochele See were divorced.



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the meaning of cool
How did "acting" Cool begin for African Americans?

It seems like it's been around forever and
expected of every black kid growing up



For most blacks, cool started on the southern plantations. Opportunists slavemasters devised a way for slaves to work harder and reap the benefits of their labor. During the year at a chosen plantation slave masters would hold a "Corn Shucking Festival." Slaves from nearby plantations would also join this event with their owner's permission, so it was almost like a community gathering of all the local slaves, with greedy slavemasters making all the money.

The slave who shucked the most corn won an award, sometimes cash or a suit of clothes. Anyone who found a red ear of corn also received a reward - perhaps a kiss from a young woman or a jug of whiskey. It was at these events that the term Shuckin' and jivin' came into existence by the slaves while working and telling tall stories, talking smack, and joking around with each other.

These gatherings, even though involving hard work had to be an event looked forward to by the slaves, because it was one of the few times during the year blacks had a chance to interact with one another. Shuckin' and jivin' would become a tool the slaves would use to convince their masters of an untruth, and even among themselves. It was an early form of being cool.
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Corn-Shucking+Festival

After slavery blacks were free (sort of) to do as they pleased. Most blacks wanted to assimilate into American culture very much but were shut out by the white racist. African and European culture met head on in what was supposed to be fair in America guaranteed by our Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, but blacks didn't stand a chance.


Why, what happened?

Because most whites banded together by breaking the law and made blacks second class citizens and would go on to murder, lynch, rape, humiliate them all the way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement. After Lincoln, every single United States President was aware of this and did nothing. Whites achieved like crazy and prospered while blacks lagged far behind and got along the best way they knew how.

Blacks disliked whites very much for this terrible treatment and instead of violent disobedience, they protested by living their lives opposite of white culture. I mean let's face it, why would blacks want to imitate or become a part of a race of people that hated them?

This is when being cool became a symbol of white resistance and protest. Being cool would show you were down with the struggle. During slavery, we had already created our language which was AAVE and many blacks communicated this way. Any black that did not use it was looked down as trying to act white, joining the enemy sort of speak.

We developed our own way of walking with a proud gait, (George Jefferson strut) our own style of music, our own style of dance, our own style of food, our own style of worship, that didn't have anything in common with white folks and that suited blacks just fine. We were poor, but we were proud and cool and everyone who practiced these traits was cool and a part of the resistance.

In the process, we were creating a new culture that was admired over the world. Blacks have always had a remarkable ability to create something out of nothing. But sadly there was significant risk with this lifestyle in a great country such as America.

What were the downfalls?

Oscar Micheaux felt it was wrong for blacks to live this way in America. Oscar was an African American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 movies and he is regarded as the first major African-American feature filmmaker, the most successful African-American filmmaker of the first half of the twentieth century and the most prominent producer of race films. He produced both silent movies and "talkies" after the industry changed to incorporate speaking actors.

cool black americans


Oscar felt that blacks should become aggressive and use their brainpower in achieving instead of just settling for what the white man doled out. This man lived in some of the most racist times in American history, but he didn't let that stop him from fulfilling his dreams and doing it the legal way.

Evidently, Oscar had a brother who was the very cool type and was content on just putting up a show, or a front as living a successful life. We all know the type. A person that was living beyond his means. Blacks of his day called this way of living “the good life.”

Oscar didn't like it and was very upset with his brother. He later wrote in his book and discussed the culture of doers who want to accomplish, and those who see themselves as victims of injustice and hopelessness, and do not want to step out and try to succeed, but instead like to dress up, act cool and pretend to be successful while living the city lifestyle in poverty.

cool black americans


Oscar understood that education doesn't belong only to white people, it's a gift for all humanity to better ourselves, and honestly the best-proven way. Chinese, Japanese, Middle-Eastern and all other non-white nations understand this and have prospered by education. It's one of humanities treasure to learn.

But many blacks associated education with white and stayed far away from it, to continue with their cool lifestyle. A foolish mistake, and just what racist whites want you to believe.

Early Europeans completely dominated the Africans because they were better educated. They had guns we had spears, you do the math. In Africa our ancestors didn't value education, but traditions and silly ones at that. But that didn't save them. Education would have, though.

So without a doubt, it is entirely wrong to associate teaching and learning to white people. Many of us would look down upon another black who tried to better himself through education by saying they were trying to act white, and it wasn't cool. Racist whites laughed at us for believing this way because they knew we would always be behind.

After the 1960s, when our full Civil Rights were finally restored, many blacks chose to live the more standard American way by attending school to learn. But many also wanted to remain trapped in time with the old AAVE living in what they still perceived as defiance to the white American way of doing things. But were they only hurting themselves?

Later in time, being cool had become so prevalent in the black community it confused many kids, because they didn't quite understand if they were going to hang out with the cool kids or the so-called boring kids who liked to read and learn. At an early age, they are at a critical crossroad. Taking the cool route may seem easier, and a lot of fun, but would be a devastating mistake.

After the Civil Rights era we now have the opportunity to attend school and achieve as much as we can, but being cool has snatched many of the black kids and locked them into a culture hating education and in the process ruining their young lives.

Many entertainment figures reap much money from this cool culture by portraying cool as, well cool. They tell impressionable ones what's cool to hear, talk about, wear, eat, etc. and at the same time padding their cool humongous bank accounts.

These even get on television and flaunt their riches in a youngster's face never explicitly teaching on how they might be as successful, without being dishonest, stealing or selling drugs. Education is not cool for them to preach.

One thing is for sure, being cool can be a lot of fun and there's no denying that. Everybody wants to be liked, and it seems like cool people are respected and admired the most, from the clothes they wear to the type of songs they listen to the way they talk, the effortless way they seem to accomplish every task is amazing.

They possess incredible confidence. But truthfully everything they've accomplished wouldn't have been possible without the sacrifices of our wonderful ancestors. So don't you agree we owe a particular moral responsibility to them?

Kids should remember cool is not the real deal, It's a game we can't get caught up in. Our ancestors endured so much so we could achieve. We should never forget that. That's what this site was created. Browse through its pages, and you're going to read stories of amazing blacks.

They made it possible for us, and we're sure they would advise us to achieve through education first and foremost and save the cool for the weekends, and I ain't Shuckin and Jivin!

the meaning of cool


Resources:
By White House (Pete Souza) / Maison Blanche (Pete Souza) (The Official White House Photostream[1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Senate Office of Richard Lugar [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
https://pixabay.com/en/flag-united-states-american-waving-40724/



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Karyn White
Karyn White
photo #106-yr-1989

soul train
Soul Train ran from 1971-2006
photo #109-yr-1971

Anita Baker
Anita Baker
photo #102-yr-2008

Roberta Flack
Roberta Flack
photo #105-yr-1989

Robert Jr. Lockwood
Robert Jr. Lockwood
photo #111-yr-1989

Janet Jackson
Janet Jackson
photo #104-yr-1994

Whitney Houston
Whitney Houston
photo #101-yr-1985

  Gladys Knight and the Pips
Gladys Knight and the Pips
photo #108-yr-1967

Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
photo #101-yr-1958

     Music in 1989

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • "Oasis" Roberta Flack

  • "Superwoman" Karyn White

  • "Can You Stand the Rain" New Edition

  • "Dreamin'" Vanessa Williams

  • "Just Because" Anita Baker

  • "Just Coolin'" LeVert featuring Heavy D

  • "Closer Than Friends" Surface

  • "Lucky Charm" The Boys

  • "Girl I Got My Eyes On You" Today

  • "Every Little Step" Bobby Brown

  • "Love Saw It" Karyn White

  • "Real Love" Jody Watley

  • "Start of a Romance" Skyy

  • "My First Love" Atlantic Starr

  • "Miss You Like Crazy" Natalie Cole

  • "Me, Myself and I" De La Soul

  • "Have You Had Your Love Today" The O'Jays

  • "Show and Tell" Peabo Bryson

  • "Keep on Movin'" Soul II Soul

  • "Turned Away" Chuckii Booker

  • "Shower Me With Your Love" Surface

  • On Our Own" Bobby Brown

  • "Batdance" Prince

  • "Something in the Way (You Make Me Feel)" Stephanie Mills

  • "It's No Crime" Babyface

  • "My Fantasy" Teddy Riley featuring Guy

  • "Remember (The First Time)" Eric Gable

  • "Can't Get Over You" Maze featuring Frankie Beverly

  • "Back to Life (However Do You Want Me)" Soul II Soul featuring Caron Wheeler

  • "Miss You Much" Janet Jackson

  • "Baby Come to Me" Regina Belle

  • "You Are My Everything" Surface

  • "Don't Take It Personal" Jermaine Jackson

  • "Home" Stephanie Mills

  • "Here and Now" Luther Vandross

  • "Ain't Nuthin' in the World" Miki Howard

  • "All of My Love" The Gap Band

  • "Tender Lover" Babyface



  Popular Soul Dances:
  • Break-dancing

  • The Macarena

  • The Robot

  • The Electric Slide

  • The MC Hammer

  • The Worm

  • Hip Hop

  • Moonwalk

  • Voguing

  • Crip Walk

  • Cabbage patch

  • Running Man

  • Chicago stepping

  • KC Two-Step

  • Detroit Ballroom




  Musical Happenings in 1989:
  • MTV's Yo! MTV Raps debuts; the show will lead to many hip hop artists finding new audiences.

  • 2 Live Crew's Nasty As They Wanna Be is accused of obscenity, resulting in a legal battle that gained national attention. N.W.A.'s "F..k Tha Police" similarly becomes the target of protest from law enforcement officers.

  • The first compact disc jukebox is introduced.

  • Milli Vanilli wins the Grammy Award for Best New Artist, even as a Rolling Stone poll of rock critics results in the group being voted the worst new band of the year. After it is revealed that members of the group did not sing on the hit songs, Milli Vanilli becomes the first performers to return their Grammy.



 Blues Hall of Fame for 1989:
    The Blues Hall of Fame is a music museum located in Memphis, Tennessee. Until recently, the "Blues Hall of Fame" was not a physical building, but a listing of people who have significantly contributed to blues music. Started in 1980 by the Blues Foundation, it honors those who have performed, recorded, or documented blues. The actual building for the hall opened to the public on May 8, 2015

  • Clifton Chenier
  • Robert Lockwood, Jr.
  • Memphis Slim


 American Music Awards winners in 1989:
    The American Music Awards was created by Dick Clark to compete with the Grammy Awards. Michael Jackson and Donny Osmond co-hosted the first award show with Rodney Allen Rippy and Ricky Segall in 1974. Unlike the Grammys, which are awarded on the basis of votes by members of the Recording Academy, the AMAs are determined by a poll of the public and fans, who can vote through the AMAs website.

    Favorite Pop/Rock Female Artist
  • Whitney Houston

  • Favorite Pop/Rock New Artist
  • Tracy Chapman

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Male Artist
  • George Michael

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Female Artist
  • Whitney Houston

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Band, Duo, or Group
  • Gladys Knight & The Pips

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Album
  • Faith - George Michael

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Single
  • "Nice 'N' Slow" - Freddie Jackson

  • Favorite Soul/R&B New Artist
  • Al B. Sure!

  • Favorite Rap/Hip-Hop Artist
  • DJ Jazzy Jeff & the Fresh Prince

  • Favorite Rap/Hip-Hop Album
  • "He's the DJ, I'm the Rapper" - DJ Jazzy Jeff & the Fresh Prince

  • Special Achievement Award
  • Michael Jackson



 Grammy winners in 1989:
    The 31st Annual Grammy Awards were held on February 22, 1989 at Shrine Auditorium, Los Angeles. They recognized accomplishments by musicians from the previous year.

    Record of the Year
  • Linda Goldstein (producer) & Bobby McFerrin for "Don't Worry, Be Happy"


  • Song of the Year
  • Bobby McFerrin for "Don't Worry, Be Happy"


  • Best New Artist
  • Tracy Chapman


  • Best Traditional Blues Recording
  • Willie Dixon for Hidden Charms


  • Best Contemporary Blues Recording
  • The Robert Cray Band for Don't Be Afraid of the Dark


  • Best Opera Recording
  • Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, Siegmund Nimsgern, Jessye Norman, Eva Randova, Hans Sotin


  • Best Contemporary Folk Recording
  • Tracy Chapman for Tracy Chapman


  • Best Gospel Performance, Male
  • Larnelle Harris for Christmas


  • Best Gospel Performance by a Duo or Group, Choir or Chorus
  • The Winans for The Winans Live at Carnegie Hall


  • Best Soul Gospel Performance, Female
  • Aretha Franklin for One Lord, One Faith, One Baptism


  • Best Soul Gospel Performance, Male
  • BeBe Winans for "Abundant Life"


  • Best Soul Gospel Performance by a Duo or Group, Choir or Chorus
  • Take 6 for Take 6


  • Best Jazz Vocal Performance, Female
  • Betty Carter for Look What I Got!


  • Best Jazz Vocal Performance, Male
  • Bobby McFerrin for Brothers


  • Best Jazz Vocal Performance, Duo or Group
  • Take 6 for "Spread Love"


  • Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Group
  • Roy Haynes, Cecil McBee, David Murray, Pharoah Sanders & McCoy Tyner for Blues for Coltrane: A Tribute to John Coltrane


  • Best Jazz Fusion Performance
  • Yellowjackets for Politics


  • Best Pop Vocal Performance, Female
  • Tracy Chapman for "Fast Car"


  • Best Pop Vocal Performance, Male
  • Bobby McFerrin for "Don't Worry, Be Happy"


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Female
  • Anita Baker for "Giving You the Best That I Got"


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male
  • Terence Trent D'Arby for Introducing the Hardline According to Terence Trent D'arby


  • Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal
  • Gladys Knight & The Pips for "Love Overboard"


  • Best Rhythm & Blues Song
  • Anita Baker, Randy Holland & Skip Scarborough (songwriters) for "Giving You the Best That I Got" performed by Anita Baker


  • Best Rap Performance
  • "Parents Just Don't Understand"-DJ Jazzy Jeff & the Fresh Prince


  • Best Reggae Recording
  • Ziggy Marley & the Melody Makers for Conscious Party


  • Best Rock Vocal Performance, Female
  • Tina Turner for Tina Live in Europe


  • Best Spoken Word or Non-musical Recording
  • Jesse Jackson for Speech by Rev. Jesse Jackson


  • Controversy:
    The first award for Best Rap Performance was first presented to DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince for "Parents Just Don't Understand". The ceremony was not without controversy; nominees Jeff and Smith led a boycott in protest of the award presentation not being televised, and some members of the rap community felt that more qualified artists were overlooked.



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 american standards
 american standards

"all men are created equal"
The cornerstone of American Principles
But is it true, or just empty words?



Well, once again we have to go back in history to get the likely answer.

Just imagine in your mind what America was going through in it's beginning. Poor European immigrants from around the world braved the mighty oceans traveling to the "New World" for a better life. Anything was better than where they were leaving.

The church had dominated the thinking of Europeans for many years but with the invention of the printing press and sharing of information they slowly began forming their ideas and belief systems independent of the church. One of these beliefs was in social science which taught the Negro was an inferior ape-like creature with no prospect for advancement and whites were superior to them.

Sounds silly I know, but Europeans believed it (and some still do today). They brought these beliefs with them to America. This is the reason whites didn't want anything whatsoever to do with blacks because in their superior way of thinking it would be a step backward to intermingle and share America with people of African descent whom they considered beast like.


the negro is a beast
https://archive.org/stream/thenegrobeastori00carrrich/


Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than Africans. Africans were a tribal people lost in time practicing all sorts of superstitious traditions. Leaders didn't teach their citizens to read or write, and much of African history was lost forever because of this failure. Africans would pass their culture down to the next generation orally.


The Sahara Desert kept these Sub Saharan Africans landlocked away from the rest of the world and because of this fact were not able to share in the worlds new love for education and science. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15735/15735-h/15735-h.htm


When Africans finally collided with the Europeans through the slave trade, they were shocked at the degree of hate these people had against them. Europeans loved science because it excused them from a moral conscience they had been burdened with in their practice of religion. So when they raped, pillaged, and murdered they did so in the name of science or white superiority which made it perfectly O.K. with their hearts.


After the Africans made it to America and were forced to work as slaves, it took many years until white people began to feel they were wrong about the mistreatment of blacks and started movements to free them. After slavery was finally abolished in 1863, another form of hate and discrimination would appear on the scene named Jim Crow.


After Abraham Lincoln had died, every single U.S. President up unto Lyndon Baines Johnson would ignore the Declaration of Independence principle that "All men are created equal" and violated the law of the land by disobeying our U.S. Constitution that guaranteed Negroes first class citizenship with Jim Crow laws. They just refused to accept blacks as equals. Throughout history this was referred to as the "Negro Problem"


It would remain this way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement.

Some of the early Americans who penned the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution which was essentially a moral roadmap for all Americans to live by were honest to true goodness Americans who understood the vision for the United States.


But on the other hand, this true vision of America was too lofty for most whites to follow. They sought only to take from our country for their selfish gains. They considered themselves privileged ones.


But not all were anti-American.


Great men such as Wiliam Whipple who was a signer of the Declaration of Independence was a true American.


During the Revolutionary War period Whipple wrote as follows to Josiah Bartlett, “The last accounts from South Carolina were favorable. A recommendation is gone thither for raising some regiments of blacks. This, I suppose, will lay a foundation for the emancipation of those wretches in that country. I hope it will be the means of dispensing the blessings of Freedom to all the human race in America.”  William Whipple


Even though these true Americans like William Whipple didn't particularly like blacks, they were special people because they put their personal feelings on the back burner and American ideals and principles first. William Whipple could not sign the Declaration of Independence and own slaves at the same time, so what did he do? He set his slave free. Many other true early Americans did the same thing.


william whipple
William Whipple, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and a true American
photo#105-yr-2015

But most American leaders chose to ignore American ideals and principles for their advantage and held on to their slaves, and after slavery was outlawed created illegal laws that made a joke of the U.S. Constitution, and trashed the Declaration of Independence which was anything but being true American and this is the way it remained until the 1960s Civil Rights movement.


Not much has changed. We still have a strong racist element in America and will continue to do so until this dark period in America's history is talked about and hashed out between the races. Many white Americans will probably never change their negative view of blacks which was initiated by erring scientist years ago and continue to pass their hate down from generation to generation.


So what does this have to do with American standards?


America in its infancy was slowly creating a standard that would become admired over the world. Although quickly fading from practice in our day the American standard consisted of honesty in business dealings, promoting fairness, practicing proper relationships, justice, civility, right dress, speech, eating, and anything positive that enriched the community as a whole. Yes, even racist anti-Americans understood and lived by these standards when it didn't conflict with their hate.


Now here's the problem.


With blacks finally attaining enforcement of their civil rights in the 1960s, many didn't quite know which standard to live. Many wondered to themselves, "Should we live under the American standard where many were unkind to us and made us feel unwelcome or continue living under the old Negro standard that was adopted during and after slavery?"


In the following movie, great black filmmaker Oscar Micheaux created a film entitled "Birthright" which was about a well spoken black man named (Peter) who left his Southern roots to go to Harvard and obtain his education. He returned to the south with the hopes of opening up schools to teach the young black kids. He met a beautiful woman (Sissy), and both shared a mutual love interest, and while at a house he was living they had a conversation where she mentioned that since he had an education, he now lived under a different code or (standard) than the other black people in the Southern town. Sissy tells him that since he changed his code (standard) and returned to judge the residents, it wasn't fair. Blacks in the city still lived by the old Negro code or standard. This movie can be found in its entirety on Netflix under (Pioneers of African-American Cinema) There are still many blacks today who live by this old Negro code or standard.



What's a Negro standard?


Many blacks took pride in being different from white America, even down to this day. So during slavery we created our special language to communicate with each other (AAVE), our flashy style of dress, our own and unique way we dealt with one another, it's a standard white people just wouldn't understand, and we loved it because it belonged to us. It's how we survived for decades.


 american standards

Did blacks hold onto the old Negro standard
after the Civil Rights movement?


After the 60s, it wasn't easy trying to blend in and assimilate into the American way of doing things, especially when you know there are ones that hate you. It could be very discouraging. It was especially hard on our black men. But happily many blacks made the smart choice of choosing the American standard, even though they knew they would be called Uncle Toms or sellouts by members of our race for trying to act white or like the enemy as they saw it.


These people were wise because they understood just like the slaves of old what this country was founded on and this gave them strength to live as true Americans. They could care less about racist whites and their hate for us or the foolish blacks who would say bad things about them. They remembered true American brothers like William Whipple and made their mind to follow the American standard of living.


Now if these blacks had stayed in the old Negro standard, they would have been left behind. You cannot blend the American standard with the old Negro standard. It would never work, and that goes for others such as Mexicans, Chinese, Middle Eastern, etc. We all must live by one standard way of doing things in America, even if we may hate one another.


So, if one from the old Negro standard wants to achieve it would be a mistake to look at it as trying to be white. No, we are working to be better Americans, true Americans. Browse through this website and learn about the countless number of blacks who died so that we could attempt this.


After the Civil Rights movement when whites were finally able to have contact with blacks through the event of integration many came to the realization that blacks were not much different than themselves. We're all humans, not like those crazy racist scientists preached as fact years ago to ruin America. They have much blood on their hands.


We must achieve and become victorious even under the bad hand of white racist which without a doubt we will encounter on our American journey. The only difference is today; it's not out in the open like it once was.


But on the other hand, we will also encounter the William Whipple's of the world. How do you think we elected a black President? It couldn't have been accomplished without white people. That in a sense was William voting for our first black president. So when issues arise, don't hate America, if you must hate at all hate the actions of the anti-American racist who reside in her.


 american standards


We can't let anyone hold us back from achieving our dreams which wouldn't make any sense believing "I'm gonna waste my life away with selfish pleasure seeking because of the white man, and also my homies will call me a sellout if I attempt to better myself." which is the thinking from the old Negro standard.


We must all strive to be sharp, smart, successful and proud African Americans living under American standards because it's the best in the world and many of our ancestors died for the opportunity we have today.


So to answer the above question, are all men created equal? It depends on who point of view you take. If you look through the eyes of racist anti-American people, then we are not created equal, but if you look at it through the eyes of true Americans, yes without a doubt we are all created equal and share mutually in achieving in America which is the greatest country in the world.


I think I'll look at it through the eyes of true America, like our friend and American brother William Whipple.


images:
https://pixabay.com/en/businessman-male-business-avatar-310819/
https://pixabay.com/en/man-avatar-blue-people-black-297303/
https://pixabay.com/en/stick-figures-family-people-146965/
https://pixabay.com/en/person-sales-man-tie-avatar-312160/
https://pixabay.com/en/justice-scales-fairness-impartial-683942/



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Womens fashions in the 1980s
Womens fashions in the 1980s
photo #105-yr-1980

mens fashions in the 1980s
Mens fashions in the 1980s
photo #106-yr-1980

Womens fashions in the 1980s
The rah-rah skirt is a short flounced layered skirt that originated in cheerleading and became a popular fashion trend among teenage girls in the early 1980s. Later in the 1980s it was often worn with leather, denim or lace.
photo #107-yr-1980

hairstyles in the 1980s
Jheri curl hairstyle worn in the 1980s.
photo #108-yr-1980


A medium-length hi-top fade haircut
photo #100-yr-1985

     Fashions and Styles in 1989

  Popular Fashions:

    Women:
    The early 1980s were very different from the rest of the decade, with some carryovers from the late 1970s. Clothing colors were subdued, quiet and basic; varying shades of brown, tan, and orange were common. Fashionable clothing in the early 1980s included both unisex and gender-specific attire. Widespread fashions for women in the early 1980s included sweaters (including turtleneck, crew neck, and v-neck varieties); fur-lined puffer jackets; tunics; faux-fur coats; velvet blazers; trench coats (made in both fake and real leather); crop tops; tube tops; knee-length skirts (of no prescribed length, as designers opted for choice); loose, flowy, knee-length dresses (with high-cut and low-cut necklines, varying sleeve lengths, and made in a variety of fabrics including cotton, silk, satin, and polyester); high-waisted loose pants; embroidered jeans; leather pants; and designer jeans. Women's pants of the 1980s were, in general, worn with long inseams - a style carried over from the 1970s. Accessories for women included thin belts, knee-high boots with thick kitten heels, sneakers, jelly shoes (a new trend at the time), mules, round-toed shoes and boots, jelly bracelets (inspired by Madonna in 1983), shoes with thick heels, small, thin necklaces (with a variety of materials, such as gold and pearls), and small watches. The fitness craze of the 1970s continued into the early 1980s. General women's street-wear worn in the early 1980s included ripped sweatshirts, leotards, tights, sweatpants, and tracksuits (especially ones made in velour). Prior to the mid-1980s, it had been taboo to show a slip or a bra strap in public. A visible undergarment had been a sign of social ineptness. With the new fashion's most extreme forms, young women would forgo conventional outer-garments for vintage-style bustiers with lacy slips and several large crucifixes.


    Men:
    In the early 1980s, fashion had carried onward from the late 1970s. Athletic clothes were more popular than jeans during this period, as were more subdued colors. Looser pants remained popular during this time, being fairly wide but straight, and tighter shirts were especially popular. The general public, at this time, wanted to wear low-maintenance clothing with more basic colors, as the global recession going on at the time kept extravagant clothes out of reach. Popular clothing in the early 1980s worn by men includes tracksuits, v-neck sweaters, polyester and velour polo-neck shirts, sports jerseys, straight-leg jeans, polyester button-ups, cowboy boots, beanies, and hoodies. In the mid 1980s, popular trends included wool sport coats, Levi 501s, Hawaiian shirts, shell suits, hand-knit sweaters, sports shirts, hoodies, flannel shirts, reversible flannel vests, jackets with the insides quilted, nylon jackets, gold rings, spandex cycling shorts, cowboy boots, and khaki pants with jagged seams. T-shirts underneath expensive suit jackets with broad, padded shoulders, hawaiian shirts (complemented with sport coats, often with top-stitched lapels for a "custom-tailored" look), and (in counterpoint to the bright shirt) jackets that were often gray, tan, rust or white. Easy-care micro-suede and corduroy jackets became popular choices, especially those with a Western style.


    Rap and hip-hop:
    Athletic shoes had been worn as casual wear before, but for the first time they became a high-priced fashion item. Converse shoes were popular in the first half of the 1980s. Air Jordan basketball shoes (named for basketball player Michael Jordan) made their debut in 1984. The NBA banned these shoes from games when they debuted, which increased their cachet. Soon, other manufacturers introduced premium athletic shoes. Adidas sneakers took the decade by storm, becoming popular among teenage boys and young men; the Adidas sneaker was popularized by the Run-D.M.C. song My Adidas. Nike had a similar share of the market, with Air Max and similar shoes. High-tops, especially of white or black leather, became popular. In the early 1980s, long and white athletic socks, often calf-high or knee-high, were worn with sneakers. As the decade progressed, socks trended shorter, eventually topping out just above the height of the shoe. Ensembles featuring the colors of Africa (green, yellow and red) became wildly popular among African Americans, as did kente cloth. In the urban hip-hop communities, sneakers were usually worn unlaced and with a large amount of gold jewelry, as well as headwraps.


    Hairstyles:
    The Jheri curl often spelled Jerry curl or Jeri Curl is a permed hairstyle that was common and popular among African American, Black Canadian, and Black British, especially during the 1980s and the 1990s. Invented by the hairdresser Jheri Redding, the Jheri curl gave the wearer a glossy, loosely curled look. It was touted as a "wash and wear" style that was easier to care for than the other popular chemical treatment of the day, the relaxer. A hi-top fade is a style of haircut where hair on the sides is cut off or kept very short while hair on the top of the head is very long (in contrast, a low fade is a style where hair on the top is kept shorter). It was common among young black people between 1985 and 1993.



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crack in the black communtiy



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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1980s

pac man game

Scott Joplin
Scott Joplin
photo #101-yr-1899

Asa Philip Randolph
Asa Philip Randolph
photo #103-yr-1889

Frederick D. Gregory
Frederick D. Gregory
photo #107-yr-1989

Our Community in 1989
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • 1989 - Frederick D. Gregory was the first person ever of African lineage to command any space mission with the launch of STS-33 in 1989 on the orbiter Discovery, which carried a classified payload. He then commanded STS-44 on Atlantis which in addition to deploying a Department of Defense satellite, DPS 15, also conducted extensive studies to evaluate medical countermeasures to long duration space flight. Analysis:  America is truly changing right before our eyes. This website has done a year by year of African American achievement which was usually without the participation of whites. But in Frederick D. Gregory case we have whites and blacks working together to accomplish a goal, an American goal. This was unheard of a few short years ago. Are we up to the challenge?

  • Ragtime Musician Scott Joplin received a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame.

  • February 3, 1989 - the United States Postal Service issued a 25 cent postage stamp in Civil Rights leader Asa Philip Randolph honor.

  • February 11, 1989 - Barbara C. Harris was the first woman ordained a bishop in the Anglican Communion.

  • HIV and without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years. Trivia:Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. AIDS was first clinically observed in 1981 in the United States. The initial cases were a cluster of injection drug users and gay men.

  • The 1980s - Pac-Man is considered one of the classics of the medium, virtually synonymous with video games, and an icon of 1980s popular culture. Pac-Man is an arcade game developed by Namco and first released in Japan on May 22, 1980.


  • 1980 - Less than a school year differentiated the years of schooling attained by African Americans and white Americans born after 1980.

  • 1980s - The United States Population is 226,504,825 with a total of 26,482,349 being African Americans.




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african americans and religion


How did religion begin for the American Negro?

Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.

What is fetishism you may ask?


 Traditional  Benin Voodoo Dance
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance

Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.

But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.

In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.


Religion definition:
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.



Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.

But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.

Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.

This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.

Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.

During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.

But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.


The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:


Pentacostal -
 Pentacostal Movement
    William Seymour
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015

Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.

Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.

So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.




The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
 The Church Of God in Christ baptism
Church Of God in Christ Baptism
photo#112-yr-2015

The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.



A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.



Baptists -
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.



Islam -
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.

But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.

Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.

So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.




Science -
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.


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RESOURCES:


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#100 -   Public Domain image - Carl Van Vechten [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons

#101 -   Public Domain image - By New York World-Telegram and the Sun staff photographer: Orlando Fernandez [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#102 -   Public Domain image - By New York World-Telegram and the Sun staff photographer: Orlando Fernandez [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#103 -   Public Domain image - This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work prepared by an officer or employee of the United States Government as part of that person’s official duties under the terms of Title 17, Chapter 1, Section 105 of the US Code. See Copyright. Note: This only applies to original works of the Federal Government and not to the work of any individual U.S. state, territory, commonwealth, county, municipality, or any other subdivision.

#104 -   Public Domain image - By SSgt. Randy Yackiel, USA [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#105 -   By Michael Borkson [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#106 -   By Karyn White (Karyn White PR Team) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#107 -   By NASA [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#108 -   By John Clifton [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#109 -   By Photo by Steve Mack/S.D. Mack Pictures.Sdmackpictures at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons

#110 -   By N/A, likely POTUS [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#111 -   [Public domain], By US Government [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


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