Blast From The Past:
OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1988:
Henry Jackson Jr. was an American professional boxer and a world boxing champion who fought under the name Henry Armstrong. He is regarded as one of the greatest fighters of all time by many boxing critics and fellow professionals.
A native of Columbus, Mississippi, Armstrong was born December 12, 1912, and moved as a youngster with his family to St. Louis, Missouri, where he developed his boxing skills.
Henry Jr. was a boxer who not only was a member of the exclusive group of fighters that have won boxing championships in three or more different divisions (at a time when there were only 8 universally recognized World Titles), but also has the distinction of being the only boxer to hold three world championships at the same time, holding the featherweight, lightweight, and welterweight world titles for a brief period in 1938.
Armstrong defended his welterweight title nineteen times. His streak of 27 knockout wins in a row qualifies as one of the longest knockout win streaks in the history of boxing, according to The Ring.
In 2007, The Ring ranked Armstrong as the second-greatest fighter of the last 80 years. Bert Sugar also ranked Armstrong as the second-greatest fighter of all time.
Courageous, tough as nails and durable, Henry Armstrong was the man of his day. Just by looking at him, you wouldn't think that he could knock your head off if he wanted to. I'm sure that wasn't his nature though because shortly after retiring from boxing he went into preaching.
Everyone can't be a scientist, doctor or lawyer. Henry Armstrong was an inspiration for our sports lovers. He proved it was possible for us to achieve in athletics and did it very well, and for this reason, we honor his memory with the 1988 Hamite Award.
After retiring from boxing, in 1946, Armstrong briefly opened a Harlem nightclub, the Melody Room, but later became a Baptist minister and youth advocate. He died on October 22, 1988 and is interred in the Rosedale Cemetery in Los Angeles, California. He was 75.
|How were blacks feeling in 1988?
Tommie Smith and John Carlos
Three Proud People mural in Newtown
DID YOU KNOW?
Ever wonder how the term "African American" came into existence? After the civil rights movement, blacks felt the need for a more accurate term to describe the race than colored or Negro, which was associated with much pain and suffering. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, blacks no longer approved of the term Negro. In its experimental stages, the term Afro-American was used for a while but didn't last. Later the Black Power movement made us feel proud using black as the term in describing our race.
The song, "Say It Loud – I'm Black, and I'm Proud" by James Brown became an unofficial anthem of the Black Power movement. But it wasn't until the 1980s the term African American was advanced on the model of, for example, German-American or Irish-American to give descendants of American slaves and other American blacks who lived through the slavery era a heritage and a cultural base. The term was popularized in black communities around the country via word of mouth and ultimately received mainstream use after Jesse Jackson publicly used the term in front of a national audience. Subsequently, major media outlets adopted its use.
Double Dutch is a rope skipping exercise played when two ropes are turned in eggbeater fashion.
While the ropes are turned, a third person jumps within. Early Dutch immigrants introduced
it to America, and it later became a favorite game for black American girls to play.
| Sports in 1988 |
- 1988 - Zina Garrison was a women's doubles gold medalist at the 1988 Olympic Games.
- January 16, 1988 - Jimmy "The Greek" Snyder was fired by the CBS network after commenting that African Americans were naturally superior athletes at least in part because they had been bred to produce stronger offspring during slavery.
- January 22, 1988 - Boxer Mike Tyson knocks out Larry Holmes in the fourth round for the heavyweight boxing title
- June 27, 1988 - Boxer Mike Tyson knocks out a smart Michael Spink in 91 seconds of the first round. Big payday for both fighters.
- July 11, 1988 - Boxer Mike Tyson hires businessman Donald Trump as an expensive financial advisor.
- July 16, 1988 - Track and Field's Carl Lewis runs a the 100 meters in 9.78 seconds.
- July 16, 1988 - Track and Field's Florence Joyner runs a 100 meters world record in 10.49 seconds.
- July 16, 1988 - Track and Field's Jackie Joyner-Kersee sets the women's heptathlete record with an amazing 7,215 points.
- July 31, 1988 - Baseball's Willie Stargell became the 200th person inducted in the Baseball's Hall of Fame.
- August 23, 1988 - Boxer Mike Tyson and fighter Mitch Green brawl after exchanging words.
- September 24, 1988 - Track and Field's Carl Lewis runs world record 100 meters in 9.92 seconds.
- October 26, 1988 - Businessman and billionaire Donald Trump bills Boxer Mike Tyson a whopping $2,000,000 for 4 months of advice.
- November 7, 1988 - Boxer Sugar Ray Leonard knocks out a much larger Donnie LaLonde for the middleweight boxing title.
|WAR ON BLACKS, OR ALSO KNOWN AS WAR ON DRUGS |
The more things change, the more they stay the same
Shortly after slavery, blacks were thrown into prison for petty and minor offenses which resulted in long sentences. It was big business for the penitentiary because they would hire these convicts out for various jobs and keep blacks off the streets at the same time. They killed two birds with one stone.
It was a form of bondage that did not last a lifetime and did not automatically extend from one generation to the next. But it was nonetheless slavery – a system in which armies of free men, guilty of no crimes and entitled by law to freedom, were compelled to labor without compensation, were repeatedly bought and sold, and were forced to do the bidding of white masters through the regular application of extraordinary physical coercion.
This form of slavery was abolished by President Franklin D. Roosevelt December 12, 1941.
Is the criminal justise system much different today?
President Richard Nixon started the modern day Law and Order campaign of the War on Drugs. President Ronald Reagan would continue with the program in his administration, and later President Bill Clinton during his term created tough mandatory sentencing that unfairly affected blacks.
Crack cocaine was associated with poor blacks because it was a cheap drug and in contrast with powder cocaine which was considered a white man's drug because it was more expensive. Neither drug was more deadly than the other, but crack was demonized because it was associated with black people.
While a person found with five grams of crack cocaine faced a five-year mandatory minimum prison sentence, a person holding powder cocaine could receive the same sentence only if he or she held five hundred grams. Similarly, those carrying ten grams of crack cocaine faced a ten-year mandatory sentence, while possession of one thousand grams of powder cocaine was required for the same sentence to be imposed.
Don't get it wrong, these were very well ORGANIZED methods from anti-Americans in control of our country to hold blacks down and is very well documented. It seems these anti-Americans are always reinventing themselves in ways of oppressing black citizens. Perhaps they should show some love for a change instead of acting on their imagined fear.
WHO IS THIS MAN? |
John Ehrlichman who was counsel to President Richard Nixon and would later become a criminal himself with his involvement in the Watergate scandal made the following comment about the reason for Nixon's war on drugs:
“The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course, we did.”
Check these statistics out
One of every three black American males born today can expect to go to prison in his lifetime. While black defendants account for roughly 80% of those arrested for crack-related offenses, public health data has found that two-thirds of crack cocaine users are white or Hispanic. The leading cause of incarceration of an African American male is a non-violent drug offense. Most black men in prisons are not monsters but just got caught up in the system for a non-violent mistake they may have made.
These stats are for the years 1970 - 2010
1 in every 106 White males age 18 or older is incarcerated
1 in every 36 Hispanic males age 18 or older is incarcerated
1 in every 15 Black males age 18 or older is incarcerated
We have to help our black boys because nobody else cares. Wouldn't it be nice if today's blacks possessed the same gumption our African American ancestors had by taking control of our destiny as a race of people? It seems ever since the end of slavery we are always pointing out to the white man how unfair and unjust he has treated us. Don't you think he knows that? What do we expect them to do, start crying and say I'm sorry and start treating us like fellow Americans by sharing freely? Don't hold your breath.
At this point in history, it's clear we must begin to work on ourselves more than anything else. We've probably gone just about as far as we can go with the protesting/marching strategy which was an excellent choice over the decades, but now it's time for action on our part. MLK would have likely said the same thing.
A very unpopular message for many blacks who live with the self-pity attitude but the only avenue available for American success. Can you imagine how much it would lift our race if every single black boy possessed a college degree? It's a dream that could become a reality if we believed it.
Education plays the significant role in American success for blacks and any group of blacks in a position of authority such as sports figures, entertainers, singers, etc. that teaches the opposite by their examples we should run away from them as fast as possible. Sadly, these groups are the ones that many blacks look up to for guidance instead of our black educators.
When one of us climbs the very challenging and racist ladder of success in the American power structure by using our God-given brain power we will not forget about those we left behind, but instead will help other blacks do the same by extending a hand until we find ourselves in a position of directing instead of always asking and begging.
Our ancestors knew we could do it and we have to believe it too. We are from some of the strongest and finest stock that is known to humankind and should set the example for all dark skinned people over the entire earth simply because we are in a position to do so and live in the greatest country in the world. Our story is one of the greatest ever told. We are AmazingBlacks.
President Ronald Reagan
| Political Scene in 1988 |
- 1988 - Ronald Reagan was an American politician, commentator, and actor, who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he served as the 33rd Governor of California from 1967 to 1975, following a career as an actor and union leader in Hollywood.
- 1988 - Democratic Presidential contender Jesse L. Jackson receives 1,218 delegate votes at the Democratic National Convention. Michael Dukakis wins the nomination with 2,082 votes.
Liberty, Justice and Freedom For All
It's true at one time in history; America was intended solely for white people, but not all white people. Most of America's founders desired only the fittest and smartest whites to settle here. The Irish, Italians and many more ethnic groups were considered low-life and not worthy to intermingle with the self-proclaimed superior whites, in fact, they were treated as harshly as the black slaves.
But within the time they changed their views and allowed lower class whites to have an equal say in the building of America, and of course being similar in color made it easy for these people to blend in with one another, and in time you couldn't tell the difference. A luxury that was impossible for blacks to attain.
But on the other hand, Black slaves were considered savage beast without the capabilities to learn and contribute to America, other than with their back-breaking labor.
Why did whites feel this way abouts blacks?
Before their arrival to America as slaves, they were very far behind in development and intelligence. There were great African Kingdoms, but they were no match for the ruthless Europeans. African rulers failed to educate their citizens which would have been a huge undertaking because there were thousands upon thousands of different tribes and clans with their distinct language and customs.
Most Africans didn't know how to read and write and would pass their history down from generation to the next orally. They also believed profoundly in superstition and all sorts of foolish beliefs that didn't help them once the Europeans arrived allowing them to ravage and dominate the African populations completely. Whites were very competitive and chose to proclaim themselves superior to the blacks, instead of sharing their knowledge to help these uneducated Africans.
So from the beginning, the Europeans made this a race issue. Africans were so far behind in human development, whites thought very lowly of them, and since they didn't have examples and scientific techniques we have today to prove otherwise they did as they pleased with little protest from the majority of the white population. In fact, most whites believed blacks were half human/beast only because they didn't know any better.
But in time things would change, and there would become many free blacks and also blacks in slavery who would achieve against all the odds of racism. Many whites began to realize that blacks were human beings and if given a chance could be just as intelligent as white people. The movement was started to get blacks equality in America to the dismay of hardcore white supremacist who refused to accept this undeniable evidence that all men are equal in ability.
Scientific discoveries would later determine there was no genetic proof that blacks were inferior to other races which would utterly destroy the superior white theory that had been preached for centuries. All that blacks needed was an education and an opportunity to compete and could do just as well as other races.
Although African-Americans were not immigrants but brought here as slaves, they had things in common because they also yearned for liberty, justice, and freedom. In time what made America so great was it realized it was wrong and attempted to change it's view so it could live up to the true meaning of liberty and justice for all.
But this wouldn't be easy because of many white people who refused to change their views and progress to a new era of love and cooperation for all humanity. They choose to live in the past where they enjoyed a comfortable, privileged life without blacks in the loop.
Since the races were compared to an inferior versus superior issue, many centuries ago white superior beliefs may have been a reasonable belief, with the Africans so far behind in human development and Europeans much more advanced. But with the successes of countless black Americans and other dark-skinned people around the world today, racism and hate have become an archaic, unreasonable and ignorant belief.
Is America at the crossroad?
Well if so, it had to happen one day. For generation after generation, whites have either consciously or unconsciously enjoyed special privilege in America. They control the purse strings not only in America but around the world in dictating a perverted version of justice and liberty for all. Other groups at home and abroad are growing weary and are fighting back.
Now the questions become, what will America do next? Will she attempt in becoming a true America of tolerance, justice, and liberty for all people or retreat to her lily white past where there is undoubtedly much danger awaiting for all who reside in her? Britain must answer the same questions.
Simply put, for people who say they love America but hate certain ethnic groups who reside in her are lying to themselves. Their hatred is not based on anything factual. They hate America. They're not true Americans and ultimately fail to understand the real meaning of her and seek to destroy the last great empire in world history with their foolish hate.
| Movies in 1988 |
- Moving - a comedy film starring Richard Pryor as Arlo Pear, a father moving his family cross-country.
- Moonwalker - is an American anthology film released in 1988 by singer Michael Jackson.
- I'm Gonna Git You Sucka: is a comedic spoof of the classic 1970's Blaxploitation movie which features many of its stars: Jim Brown, Bernie Casey, Antonio Fargas, Isaac Hayes etc.
Academy Award Winners:
- 1988 - Willie D. Burton for Bird. Academy Award for Best Sound.
| Famous Birthdays in 1988 |
- February 20, 1988 - Rihanna is a Barbadian singer, actress, and fashion designer.
- June 5, 1988 - Steelo is an American television personality, host, and actor. He is known for being the co-host of MTV's Ridiculousness.
- August 26, 1988 - Evan Ross an American actor and musician. He is the son of entertainer Diana Ross and businessman and mountaineer Arne Nćss, Jr.
- September 23, 1988 - Bryan Christopher Hearne an American actor from Staten Island, New York.
- October 17, 1988 - Dee Jay Daniels an American television actor.
- December 5, 1988 - Ross Elliot Bagley is an American actor.
Romare Bearden photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, photographer
Duane L. Jones
| Famous Deaths in 1988 |
- March 12, 1988 - Romare Bearden was an American artist and writer who depicted African-American life. He has worked with many types of media including cartoons, oils and collages.
- April 9, 1988 - Benjamin Franklin Peay singer and songwriter who was popular with rock and roll, rhythm and blues, and pop music audiences.
- April 26, 1988 - Frederick Douglass Patterson president of what is now Tuskegee University (1935–1953) and founder of the United Negro College Fund.
- May 21, 1988 - Sammy Davis, Sr. was an American dancer and the father of entertainer Sammy Davis, Jr.
- June 7, 1988 - Samuel Vernon Washington was an American actor who starred in film and television. He is best known for his roles in the 1984 science fiction movie The Last Starfighter.
- July 2, 1988 - Eddie "Cleanhead" Vinson was an American jump blues, jazz, bebop and R&B alto saxophonist and blues shouter. He was nicknamed Cleanhead after an incident in which his hair was accidentally destroyed by lye contained in a hair straightening product.
- July 22, 1988 - Duane L. Jones was an American actor, best known for his leading role as Ben in the 1968 horror film Night of the Living Dead.
- October 7, 1988 - Billy Daniels was an African American singer active in the United States and Europe from the mid-1930s to 1988.
- October 22, 1988 - Henry Armstrong was an American professional boxer and a world boxing champion. He is regarded as one of the greatest fighters of all time by many boxing critics and fellow professionals.
- December 20, 1988 - Max Robinson was an African American broadcast journalist.
Actor Duane Jones as Ben gives actress Judith O'Dea, playing Barbra, her slippers
in a scene from the "classic" movie Night of the Living Dead
| Famous Weddings in 1988 |
- February 7, 1988 - Mike Tyson and Robin Givens are wed.
- June 9, 1988 - Tamela Mann and David Mann are wed.
- December 24, 1988 - Anita Baker and Walter Bridgeforth are wed.
- 1988 - Clyde Drexler and Gaynell Floyd are wed.
- 1988 - James Avery and Barbara Avery are wed.
- 1988 - Debi Thomas and Brian Vanden Hogen are wed.
- 1988 - Barry Bonds and Susann Margreth are wed.
- 1988 - Neil deGrasse Tyson and Alice Young are wed.
| Famous Divorces in 1988 |
- 1988 - Jermaine Jackson and Hazel Gordy were divorced.
- 1988 - Miles Davis and Cicely Tyson were divorced.
- 1988 - Tito Jackson and Delores V. Martes were divorced.
- 1988 - Ruth Pointer and Donald Boyette were divorced.
Public Enemy performing at Vegoose music festival in Las Vegas, Nevada on October 27, 2007
Soul Train ran from 1971-2006
Gladys Knight and the Pips
| Music in 1988 |
Billboard Top Soul Hits:
- "The Way You Make Me Feel" Michael Jackson
- "Love Overboard" Gladys Knight & the Pips
- "I Want Her" Keith Sweat
- "Girlfriend" Pebbles
- "You Will Know" Stevie Wonder
- "Fishnet" Morris Day
- "Man in the Mirror" Michael Jackson
- "Wishing Well" Terence Trent D'Arby
- Ooo La La La" Teena Marie
- "Get Outta My Dreams, Get into My Car" Billy Ocean
- "Da Butt" E.U.
- "Nite and Day" Al B. Sure!
- "Mercedes Boy" Pebbles
- "Just Got Paid" Johnny Kemp
- "Little Walter" Tony! Toni! Toné!
- "One More Try" George Michael
- "Joy" Teddy Pendergrass
- "Paradise" Sade
- "Roses Are Red" The Mac Band featuring the McCampbell Brothers
- "Don't Be Cruel" Bobby Brown
- "Off on Your Own (Girl)" Al B. Sure!
- "Loosey's Rap" Rick James featuring Roxanne Shanté
- "Nice 'N' Slow" Freddie Jackson
- "Another Part of Me" Michael Jackson
- "She's On the Left" Jeffrey Osborne
- "Addicted to You" LeVert
- "My Prerogative" Bobby Brown
- "The Way You Love Me" Karyn White
- "Any Love" Luther Vandross
- "Giving You the Best That I Got" Anita Baker
- "Thanks for My Child" Cheryl "Pepsii" Riley
- "Hey Lover" Freddie Jackson
- "Dial My Heart" The Boys
- "Everything I Miss at Home" Cherrelle
- "Tumblin' Down" Ziggy Marley & the Melody Makers
Popular Soul Dances:
- The Macarena
- The Robot
- The Electric Slide
- The MC Hammer
- The Worm
- Hip Hop
- Crip Walk
- Cabbage patch
- Running Man
- Chicago stepping
- KC Two-Step
- Detroit Ballroom
Musical Happenings in 1988:
- Jazz musician Wynton Marsalis becomes the artistic director of the Jazz at Lincoln Center program.
- Public Enemy's It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back establishes their style and message, advancing the "cause of black nationalism and Afrocentricity".
- Salt-N-Pepa's debut Hot, Cool & Vicious goes double-platinum, leading to hip hop record labels scouting female acts for the first time.
- The first hip hop Grammy Award is given out.
- Henry Louis Gates' The Signifyin' Monkey is a seminal work on signifying, an African American verbal folk practice that influenced hip hop.
- The success of MC Hammer's Let's Get It Started makes him the first hip hop "superstar".
- Lead Belly was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
Blues Hall of Fame for 1988:
The Blues Hall of Fame is a music museum located in Memphis, Tennessee. Until recently, the "Blues Hall of Fame" was not a physical building, but a listing of people who have significantly contributed to blues music. Started in 1980 by the Blues Foundation, it honors those who have performed, recorded, or documented blues. The actual building for the hall opened to the public on May 8, 2015
- Mississippi John Hurt
- Little Milton
- Jay McShann
- Johnny Winter
American Music Awards winners in 1988:
The American Music Awards was created by Dick Clark to compete with the Grammy Awards. Michael Jackson and Donny Osmond co-hosted the first award show with Rodney Allen Rippy and Ricky Segall in 1974. Unlike the Grammys, which are awarded on the basis of votes by members of the Recording Academy, the AMAs are determined by a poll of the public and fans, who can vote through the AMAs website.
Favorite Pop/Rock Female Artist
- Whitney Houston
Favorite Pop/Rock Single
- "I Wanna Dance with Somebody (Who Loves Me)" - Whitney Houston
Favorite Pop/Rock Video
- "When I Think of You" - Janet Jackson
Favorite Soul/R&B Male Artist
- Luther Vandross
Favorite Soul/R&B Female Artist
- Anita Baker
Favorite Soul/R&B Band, Duo, or Group
Favorite Soul/R&B Album
- Rapture - Anita Baker
Favorite Soul/R&B Single
- "Bad" - Michael Jackson
Favorite Soul/R&B Video
- "When I Think of You" - Janet Jackson
Grammy winners in 1988:
The 30th Annual Grammy Awards were held March 2, 1988 at Radio City Music Hall, New York. They recognized accomplishments by musicians from the previous year.
Best New Artist
- Jody Watley
Best Traditional Blues Recording
- Professor Longhair for Houseparty New Orleans Style
Best Contemporary Blues Recording
- The Robert Cray Band for Strong Persuader
Best Recording for Children
- Tom Bradshaw, Mark Sottnick (producers), Bobby McFerrin (producer & artist) & Jack Nicholson for The Elephant's Child
Best Classical Vocal Soloist Performance
- Kathleen Battle for Kathleen Battle - Salzburg Recital
Best Opera Recording
- Cord Garben (producer), James Levine (conductor), Agnes Baltsa, Kathleen Battle, Gary Lakes, Hermann Prey, Anna Tomowa-Sintow, & the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra for R. Strauss: Ariadne Auf Naxos
Best Instrumental Composition
- Ron Carter, Herbie Hancock, Billy Higgins & Wayne Shorter (composers) for Call Sheet Blues performed by various artists
Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or Television
- James Horner, Barry Mann & Cynthia Weil (songwriters) for Somewhere Out There performed by Linda Ronstadt & James Ingram
Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocal(s)
- Frank Foster (arranger) for Deedles' Blues performed by Diane Schuur & the Count Basie Orchestra
Best Traditional Folk Recording
- Ladysmith Black Mambazo for Shaka Zulu
Best Gospel Performance, Female
- Deniece Williams for I Believe In You
Best Gospel Performance, Male
- Larnelle Harris for The Father Hath Provided
Best Soul Gospel Performance, Female
- CeCe Winans for For Always
Best Soul Gospel Performance, Male
- Al Green for Everything's Gonna Be Alright
Best Soul Gospel Performance by a Duo or Group, Choir or Chorus
- The Winans & Anita Baker for Ain't No Need to Worry
Best Historical Album
- Orrin Keepnews (producer) for Thelonious Monk - The Complete Riverside Recordings
Best Jazz Vocal Performance, Male
- Bobby McFerrin for What Is This Thing Called Love
Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Soloist
- Dexter Gordon for The Other Side of Round Midnight
Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Group
- Wynton Marsalis for Marsalis Standard Time - Volume I
Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Big Band
- Mercer Ellington for Digital Duke
Best New Age Performance
- Yusef Lateef for Yusef Lateef's Little SymphonyL
Best Album Notes
- Orrin Keepnews (notes writer) for Thelonious Monk - The Complete Riverside Recordings performed by Thelonious Monk
Best Pop Vocal Performance, Female
- "I Wanna Dance With Somebody (Who Loves Me)"-Whitney Houston
Best Engineered Recording, Non-Classical
- Bruce Swedien & Humberto Gatica (engineers) for Bad performed by Michael Jackson
Best R&B Vocal Performance, Female
- Aretha Franklin for Aretha
Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male
- Smokey Robinson for "Just to See Her"
Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal
- Aretha Franklin & George Michael for "I Knew You Were Waiting (For Me)"
Best Rhythm & Blues Song
- Bill Withers (songwriter) for "Lean on Me" performed by Club Nouveau
Best Reggae Recording
- No Nuclear War-Peter Tosh
Hall of Fame Award
- Charlie Parker with Strings Charlie Parker
"It is worthy of emphasis, that the antiquity of the Negro race is beyond dispute. His brightest days were when history was an infant; and, since he early turned from God, he has found the cold face of hate and the hurtful hand of the Caucasian against him."
George Washington Williams
How did it begin?
It's a worldwide negative perception of blacks.
Well, a quick and straightforward trip back in history will get the likely answer. The Arab trade of Zanj (Bantu) slaves in Southeast Africa predated the European transatlantic slave trade by 700 years but it wasn't until the Portuguese sailed to West Africa in search of gold and discovered something much more valuable, (slaves) and shared with the world what they encountered that aided in the bad rap on blacks.
During the transatlantic slave trade the African empires of Benin, Dahomey, and Yoruba were very powerful. From these kingdoms, more than from any other part of Africa were the people sold into American slavery.
These kingdoms had many districts with different tribes and clans who always fought against each other. These tribes were illiterate without a written form, passing their history to the next generation orally. They were blissfully ignorant of the world around them. As with all people of a tribal nature, they lived within the limits and respect of the land and were very content in doing so.
Europeans considered the Africans pagans because most tribes were involved with witchcraft, idol worship, cannibalism, superstition, female genital mutilation, and human sacrifices just to name a few of their foolish practices. Europeans thought of themselves as being illuminators to the world made in the image of God which in their minds was white and holy.
Before Christianity took place in Europe, whites believed in a different form of worship which was called mythology, but in time came to their senses with the help of a man named Thales who would later become known as the father of science. Thales was the first person in human history to dispel mythology and would usher in a new way of thinking which was based on facts which in its beginning was called Natural philosophy, and later would be called science. Science would eventually take mythology's place in the way white people believed. Goodbye Jupiter and Neptune.
Thales studied, recorded and compared facts laying the foundation for science. In time, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle would go on to perfect the methods of science. Over the centuries with this wealth of new knowledge discoveries with the aid of science, you can probably imagine how this had to elevate the Europeans ego and self-worth in themselves.
Before long they would claim white superiority, and many began even to doubt the existence of a God. So by the time the Portuguese made their arrival to Africa, they were smarter and better educated than blacks and of course dominated as they pleased.
Africans were still living in the past in a fast changing world and were no match for the very greedy and violent Europeans. Africans had seen the last of their glory days. It's a documented fact the Africans were the beginning of human innovation. Other races would go on to copy and perfect their existing creations, scientifically.
If you study ancient history and technological achievements which were in many ways the equal of, or superior of, much that we have today, were founded and carried to a high technological proficiency by Hamitic (African) people. This is the role in history given by God to the descendants of Ham. The Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Mayans, the Aztecs, all were Hamitic people. They were the great inventors of mankind. http://www.ldolphin.org/ntable.html
Why were the African people a no-show in technological discoveries other nations around the world were experiencing?
It wasn't because Africans weren't capable of learning. Type the key phrase into Google "African immigrants in college" you will discover the same lineage of Sub-Saharan Africans today out-perform all races in America's colleges academically. Skin color doesn't matter when it comes to learning; it was because of conditions beyond their control.
Africans couldn't share and contribute information with other nations during this period because of one humongous roadblock. The Sahara Desert. The entire continental United States would fit inside the Sahara Desert with plenty of room to spare. This desert spanned from west to east of Northern Africa and continued to grow, making it very dangerous and challenging for travel.
Sub Saharan Africans were landlocked, lost in time away from all other humanity. The Sahara Desert wasn't always a desert, but slowly grew to be that way. Cave drawings have been discovered in parts of the Sahara that actually depict the flora as green and thriving. http://self.gutenberg.org/articles/history_of_west_africa
So with Portuguese arriving in Africa with their advanced knowledge they encountered a people lost in time and because of their tribal culture and erroneous Pre-Adamic belief the Portuguese had about black people, these people were labeled ignorant wild beast, incapable of learning and the world agreed.
The Africans had a reputation as a peaceful and lovable people and were considered easy pickings by ruthless and brilliant Europeans who extended no mercy.
With their love for science, whites would constantly compare themselves with blacks. They collectively studied the Negro from the kinks in his hair, size of his brain to the jam in his toenails and declared themselves superior to this lowly ape-like creature.
They believed Africans were the descendants of pre-Adamism races and that the White race was made in the image and likeness of God and that Adam gave birth to the White race only.
They also believed and taught that blacks are not human beings but pre-Adamite beasts and could not possibly have been made in God's image and likeness because they are beastlike, immoral and ugly. Whites also claimed that the pre-Adamite races such as blacks didn't have souls. The world would be satisfied with their scientific theory they learned with the help of a blatant and racist media. Whites accepted these lies as truth and raised their kids to do the same.
Science, pre-Adamite beliefs, and the media would go on to replace common sense. According to whites, it was the destiny of these black beast to serve whites, and they believed they had God's backing. Some of the things they wrote as fact about the Negro would go on to cause many innocent deaths.
Typical American Newspaper Article Of Yesteryear
The above article was an editorial reply to another editor that was published in the Cayton's weekly., January 25, 1919, (Seattle, Wash.)
More than anything else science, pre-adamite beliefs and the racist media played an enormous role which perpetuated the negative image of blacks all over the world. The saddest part was when many blacks would believe these false teachings and felt unworthy, ugly and completely worthless as human beings and lived their lives in a useless way and the process was reinforcing these negative views.
Once in America the following comment gives insight into how whites viewed the Negro in the 1700s during colonial days.
Speaking on the duties of missionaries in converting the Negro to Christianity in 1784, Bishop Porteus published an extensive plan for the most effectual conversion of the slaves contending that
"despicable as they are in the eyes of man they are, nevertheless, the creatures of God."
When slaves first arrived in America, it wasn't quite agreed what their social status would be because it was supposed to be only temporary until white immigrants could come from other countries to take their place, but it didn't happen that way. This is when slavery slowly became associated with dark skin. Everybody jumped on the bandwagon against the lowly Negro who was considered inhuman and a savage beast.
But because it was later discovered that blacks were capable of learning, it made some bright whites change their negative view, except for white slavemasters who had a financial interest in keeping the Negro uneducated and made it a felony for anyone caught teaching them.
Real Americans soon began to realize blacks were human beings just as they were and started movements to free them from the bondage of slavery.
Writers of that day cite desirable characteristics of blacks, saying they were deeply religious, cheerful, imaginative, patient, courageous, had high physical endurance, affectionate and without vindictiveness, even though living under a brutal slavery system. They hated slavery, but always kept hope alive, waiting for their Judgement Day.
When their Judgement day arrived, how did slaves act once freed?
Imagine if you spent your entire existence depending and working from dawn to dusk for someone else and suddenly set free.
How would you do?
Who would teach you to read and write, the importance of family, morality, open a bank account, manage your money, how to distinguish between necessity and want, how to keep your house maintained, the importance of honesty in personal and business dealings, how to think big and become self-reliant with confidence and the many more life skills that's needed in society? All would agree that these are crucial life skills to master that the Negro didn't have during slavery.
Well, needless to say, many former slaves didn't measure up after freedom, wasting their lives with pleasure seeking and absolutely no ambition at all. These people gave the whole race a bad rap and continued to do so until this day.
But most wanted to learn these life skills and progress. That's why the Reconstruction schools of the 1870s were so important; it was like a halfway or transition house for the blacks into American culture. But of course we know that the U.S. government did away with Reconstruction in 1877 because of pressure from white southerners who didn't want educated blacks in America.
Our achievements have been many since then, so why does the negative image of blacks persist?
It's simple. The negative image of blacks persists around the world because of a lack of compassion and love mainly from non-black people. Even though erroneous beliefs of science and pre-Adamic theories happened centuries ago, hard habits are hard to break. It's entrenched in the hearts of many.
That's really sad, but as American citizens today, how are blacks doing?
Well under the circumstances blacks are doing a fantastic job, and it's a wonder we are still around. We as African-Americans are honing our life skills with increasing precision without the same network or support groups that other races enjoy. We are a unique type of people that don't have a reference point but must learn as we go.
Quite frankly, we are true Americans who continue to accomplish our goals non-violently and completely understand what the U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence stands for. Would other races been able to do the same? We are love, always have been and always will be.
Historically, after being raped, tortured, lynched and murdered with perpetrators enjoying total impunity, the usual reply of blacks were these words, "I forgive you." Even though made out to be the violent savage beast, blacks seldom retaliated. It's true, check your history books. We live for today and as Americans realizing we have this excellent opportunity to excel and soar like the eagles, and we will!
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a white officer in the Union army had the task of training colored soldiers in the Civil War. He kept a diary for our enjoyment today. (click here)
George W. Williams - History of the Negro Race in America From 1619 to 1880. (click here)
Europeans Come to Western Africa -
The Characteristics of the Negro People -
Womens fashions in the 1980s
Mens fashions in the 1980s
The rah-rah skirt is a short flounced layered skirt that originated in cheerleading and became a popular fashion trend among teenage girls in the early 1980s. Later in the 1980s it was often worn with leather, denim or lace.
Jheri curl hairstyle worn in the 1980s.
A medium-length hi-top fade haircut
| Fashions and Styles in 1988 |
The early 1980s were very different from the rest of the decade, with some carryovers from the late 1970s. Clothing colors were subdued, quiet and basic; varying shades of brown, tan, and orange were common. Fashionable clothing in the early 1980s included both unisex and gender-specific attire. Widespread fashions for women in the early 1980s included sweaters (including turtleneck, crew neck, and v-neck varieties); fur-lined puffer jackets; tunics; faux-fur coats; velvet blazers; trench coats (made in both fake and real leather); crop tops; tube tops; knee-length skirts (of no prescribed length, as designers opted for choice); loose, flowy, knee-length dresses (with high-cut and low-cut necklines, varying sleeve lengths, and made in a variety of fabrics including cotton, silk, satin, and polyester); high-waisted loose pants; embroidered jeans; leather pants; and designer jeans. Women's pants of the 1980s were, in general, worn with long inseams - a style carried over from the 1970s. Accessories for women included thin belts, knee-high boots with thick kitten heels, sneakers, jelly shoes (a new trend at the time), mules, round-toed shoes and boots, jelly bracelets (inspired by Madonna in 1983), shoes with thick heels, small, thin necklaces (with a variety of materials, such as gold and pearls), and small watches. The fitness craze of the 1970s continued into the early 1980s. General women's street-wear worn in the early 1980s included ripped sweatshirts, leotards, tights, sweatpants, and tracksuits (especially ones made in velour). Prior to the mid-1980s, it had been taboo to show a slip or a bra strap in public. A visible undergarment had been a sign of social ineptness. With the new fashion's most extreme forms, young women would forgo conventional outer-garments for vintage-style bustiers with lacy slips and several large crucifixes.
In the early 1980s, fashion had carried onward from the late 1970s. Athletic clothes were more popular than jeans during this period, as were more subdued colors. Looser pants remained popular during this time, being fairly wide but straight, and tighter shirts were especially popular. The general public, at this time, wanted to wear low-maintenance clothing with more basic colors, as the global recession going on at the time kept extravagant clothes out of reach. Popular clothing in the early 1980s worn by men includes tracksuits, v-neck sweaters, polyester and velour polo-neck shirts, sports jerseys, straight-leg jeans, polyester button-ups, cowboy boots, beanies, and hoodies. In the mid 1980s, popular trends included wool sport coats, Levi 501s, Hawaiian shirts, shell suits, hand-knit sweaters, sports shirts, hoodies, flannel shirts, reversible flannel vests, jackets with the insides quilted, nylon jackets, gold rings, spandex cycling shorts, cowboy boots, and khaki pants with jagged seams. T-shirts underneath expensive suit jackets with broad, padded shoulders, hawaiian shirts (complemented with sport coats, often with top-stitched lapels for a "custom-tailored" look), and (in counterpoint to the bright shirt) jackets that were often gray, tan, rust or white. Easy-care micro-suede and corduroy jackets became popular choices, especially those with a Western style.
Rap and hip-hop:
Athletic shoes had been worn as casual wear before, but for the first time they became a high-priced fashion item. Converse shoes were popular in the first half of the 1980s. Air Jordan basketball shoes (named for basketball player Michael Jordan) made their debut in 1984. The NBA banned these shoes from games when they debuted, which increased their cachet. Soon, other manufacturers introduced premium athletic shoes. Adidas sneakers took the decade by storm, becoming popular among teenage boys and young men; the Adidas sneaker was popularized by the Run-D.M.C. song My Adidas. Nike had a similar share of the market, with Air Max and similar shoes. High-tops, especially of white or black leather, became popular. In the early 1980s, long and white athletic socks, often calf-high or knee-high, were worn with sneakers. As the decade progressed, socks trended shorter, eventually topping out just above the height of the shoe. Ensembles featuring the colors of Africa (green, yellow and red) became wildly popular among African Americans, as did kente cloth. In the urban hip-hop communities, sneakers were usually worn unlaced and with a large amount of gold jewelry, as well as headwraps.
The Jheri curl often spelled Jerry curl or Jeri Curl is a permed hairstyle that was common and popular among African American, Black Canadian, and Black British, especially during the 1980s and the 1990s. Invented by the hairdresser Jheri Redding, the Jheri curl gave the wearer a glossy, loosely curled look. It was touted as a "wash and wear" style that was easier to care for than the other popular chemical treatment of the day, the relaxer. A hi-top fade is a style of haircut where hair on the sides is cut off or kept very short while hair on the top of the head is very long (in contrast, a low fade is a style where hair on the top is kept shorter). It was common among young black people between 1985 and 1993.
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1980s
James Weldon Johnson
photographed by Carl Van Vechten
| Our Community in 1988 |
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
- February 2, 1988 James Weldon Johnson, the United States Postal Service issued a 22-cent postage stamp in his honor.
- March 25, 1988 - Actress Robin Givens and Mike Tyson are finished.
Trivia: Newspapers reported that Givens received a divorce settlement of over $10 million from her marriage to Tyson. She later denied the report, stating: "I didn’t receive one dime". She received negative press following her split from Tyson, particularly within the African American community. One article, in particular, described her as "the most hated woman in America".
- November 4, 1988 - Comedian Bill Cosby donates $20 million dollars to Spelman College.
- HIV and without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years. Trivia:Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. AIDS was first clinically observed in 1981 in the United States. The initial cases were a cluster of injection drug users and gay men.
- the 1980s - Pac-Man is considered one of the classics of the medium, virtually synonymous with video games, and an icon of 1980s popular culture. Pac-Man is an arcade game developed by Namco and first released in Japan on May 22, 1980.
- 1980 - Less than a school year differentiated the years of schooling attained by African Americans and white Americans born after 1980.
- 1980s - The United States Population is 226,504,825 with a total of 26,482,349 being African Americans.
#100 - Public Domain image - https://pixabay.com/en/rihanna-singer-pop-star-musician-749861/
#101 - Public Domain image
By U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Andrew Meyers [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#102 - Public Domain image
By Direction and cinematography both by George A. Romero (Screenshot from badmovies.org) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#103 - Public Domain image
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