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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1972:
Mahalia Jackson
    Mahalia Jackson was an American gospel singer. Possessing a powerful contralto voice, she was referred to as "The Queen of Gospel." She became one of the most influential gospel singers in the world and was heralded internationally as a singer and civil rights activist.

    She was described by entertainer Harry Belafonte as "the single most powerful black woman in the United States". She recorded about 30 albums (mostly for Columbia Records) during her career, and her 45 rpm records included a dozen "golds"—million-sellers.

    "I sing God's music because it makes me feel free," Jackson once said about her choice of gospel, adding, "It gives me hope. With the blues, when you finish, you still have the blues.

    She was born as Mahala Jackson and nicknamed "Halie". Jackson grew up in the Black Pearl section of the Carrollton neighborhood of uptown New Orleans. Her mother died at an early age, leaving her in the care of Aunt Duke which was her mother's sister.

    In 1927, at the age of sixteen, Jackson moved to Chicago, Illinois, in the midst of the Great Migration. After her first Sunday church service, where she had given an impromptu performance of her favorite song, "Hand Me Down My Silver Trumpet, Gabriel," she was invited to join the Greater Salem Baptist Church Choir. She began touring the city's churches and surrounding areas with the Johnson Gospel Singers, one of the earliest professional gospel groups.

    In 1929, Jackson met the composer Thomas A. Dorsey, known as the Father of Gospel Music. He gave her musical advice, and in the mid-1930s they began a 14-year association of touring, with Jackson singing Dorsey's songs in church programs and at conventions. His "Take My Hand, Precious Lord" became her signature song.

    In 1936, Jackson married Isaac Lanes Grey Hockenhull ("Ike"), a graduate of Fisk University and Tuskegee Institute who was ten years her senior. She refused to sing secular music, a pledge she would keep throughout her professional life. She was frequently offered money to do so, and she divorced Isaac in 1941 because of his unrelenting pressure on her to sing secular music and his addiction to gambling on racehorses.

    In 1950, Jackson became the first gospel singer to perform at Carnegie Hallwhen Joe Bostic produced the Negro Gospel and Religious Music Festival. She started touring Europe in 1952 and was hailed by critics as the "world's greatest gospel singer." In Paris she was called the Angel of Peace, and throughout the continent, she sang to capacity audiences.

    With her mainstream success, Jackson was criticized by some gospel purists who complained about her hand-clapping and foot-stomping and about her bringing "jazz into the church". She had many notable accomplishments during this period, including her performance of many songs in the 1958 film St. Louis Blues, singing "Trouble of the World" in 1959's Imitation of Life, and recording with Percy Faith.

    She was the main attraction in the first gospel music showcase at the Newport Jazz Festival in 1957, which was organized by Joe Bostic and recorded by the Voice of America and performed again in 1958 (Newport 1958). She was also present at the opening night of Chicago's Old Town School of Folk Music in December 1957.

    In 1961, she sang at John F. Kennedy's inaugural ball. She recorded her second Christmas album Silent Night (Songs for Christmas) in 1962. By this time, she had also become a familiar face to British television viewers as a result of short films of her performing that were occasionally shown.

    At the March on Washington in 1963, Jackson sang in front of 250,000 people "How I Got Over" and "I Been 'Buked and I Been Scorned." Martin Luther King, Jr. made his famous "I Have a Dream" speech there. She also sang "Take My Hand, Precious Lord" at his funeral after he was assassinated in 1968.

    She established the Mahalia Jackson Scholarship Foundation for young people who wanted to attend college. For her efforts in helping international understanding, she received the Silver Dove Award. Chicago remained her home until the end. She opened a beauty parlor and a florist shop with her earnings, while also investing in real estate ($100,000 a year at her peak).

    Jackson played an important role during the civil rights movement. In August 1956, she met Ralph Abernathy and Martin Luther King, Jr. at the National Baptist Convention. A few months later, both King and Abernathy contacted her about coming to Montgomery, Alabama, to sing at a rally to raise money for the bus boycott.

    They also hoped she would inspire the people who were getting discouraged with the boycott. Jesse Jackson said when King called on her, she never refused, traveling with him to the deepest parts of the segregated south. Jackson said that she hoped her music could "break down some of the hate and fear that divide the white and black people in this country." She also contributed financially to the movement

    Although Jackson was internationally known and had moved up to the northern states, she still encountered racial prejudice. One account of this was when she tried to buy a house in Chicago. Everywhere she went, the white owners and real estate agents would turn her away, claiming the house had already been sold or they changed their minds about selling. When she finally found a house, the neighbors were not happy. Shots were fired at her windows, and she had to contact the police for protection. White families started moving out, and black families started moving in.

    Mahalia Jackson used her majestic voice to inspire people. She had been a very religious person from childhood who had made a dedication to singing gospel. She would not compromise her beliefs in singing secular music, (which back then they called it devil music) but held fast to her signature gospel sound. When we heard, her sing it gave up hope. We would like to take this opportunity to honor Mahalia Jackson with our 1972 Hamite Award, which is an annual award given to those who have inspired and helped to further the Negro cause.

    Jackson died in Chicago on January 27, 1972, at Little Company of Mary Hospital in Evergreen Park, Illinois, of heart failure and diabetes complications.

Mahalia Jackson
Mahalia Jackson - Photography by William P. Gottlieb
photo #108-yr-1948


Mahalia Jackson
Mahalia Jackson - Photography by William P. Gottlieb
photo #108-yr-1972


RIP MAHALIA JACKSON
RARE FUNERAL FOOTAGE






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How were blacks feeling in 1972?
happy mood of blacks



cost of living in 1972


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Tommie Smith  and John Carlos black power salute
Tommie Smith and John Carlos
Three Proud People mural in Newtown photo #109

DID YOU KNOW?
    Ever wonder how the term "African American" came into existence? After the civil rights movement, blacks felt the need for a more accurate term to describe the race than colored or Negro, which was associated with much pain and suffering. In the late 1960s, and early 1970s, blacks no longer approved of the term Negro. In its experimental stages, the term Afro-American was used for a while but didn't last. Later the Black Power movement made us feel proud using black as the term in describing our race.

    The song, "Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud" by James Brown became an unofficial anthem of the Black Power movement. But it wasn't until the 1980s the term African American was advanced on the model of, for example, German-American or Irish-American to give descendants of American slaves and other American blacks who lived through the slavery era a heritage and a cultural base. The term was popularized in black communities around the country via word of mouth and ultimately received mainstream use after Jesse Jackson publicly used the term in front of a national audience. Subsequently, major media outlets adopted its use.

Proud to be African American


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blacks and basketball

Josh Gibson
Negro League legend Josh Gibson's plaque at the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York.
photo #115-yr-1943

      Sports in 1972
  • 1972 - Josh Gibson's accomplishments were recognized, along with Buck Leonard's. Gibson and Leonard became the second and third players, respectively, behind Satchel Paige, inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame for their outstanding careers in the Negro leagues. Gibson's Hall of Fame plaque claims "almost 800" home runs for his career.

  • January 15, 1972 - Heavyweight champ Smokin Joe Frazier knocks outs Terry Daniels.

  • March 1, 1972 - Basketball great Wilt Chamberlain is the first NBA player to score 30,000 points.

  • February 29, 1972 - Slugger Hank Aaron becomes the first baseball player to sign a contract for $200,000 a year.

  • March 22, 1972 - Kareem Abdul-Jabbar is named the NBA Most valuable Player for 1972.

  • May 25, 1972 - Heavyweight champ Smokin Joe Frazier knocks outs Ron Stander.

  • September 8, 1972 - Chicago Cubs Ferguson Jenkins wins his 20th game for an incredible 6th straight year.

  • September 18, 1972 - Art Williams is America's first African American National League umpire.



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african american first

 For the year 1972:
  • September 18, 1972 - Art Williams is America's first African American National League umpire.


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What Was The Jonestown Massacre?


cult leader jim jones

The Peoples Temple, the organization at the center of the Jonestown incident, was headquartered in San Francisco, California, from the early to mid-1970s until the Temple's move to Guyana.

While the Temple originated in Indiana in the 1950s, after leader Jim Jones predicted an apocalypse that would create a socialist Eden on earth, it moved to Redwood Valley, California in the late 1960s. Its headquarters later moved into San Francisco, where Jones remained until July 1977, when Jones fled with almost 1,000 Temple members to Jonestown, Guyana following investigations by local media.

On the evening of November 18, 1978 in Jonestown, Jones ordered his congregation to drink cyanide-laced Flavor Aid. In all, 918 people died, including over 270 children, resulting in the greatest single loss of American civilian life in a non-natural disaster until the incidents of September 11, 2001. Congressman Leo Ryan was among those killed at the airstrip.




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Congressional Black Caucus
Founding members of the Congressional Black Caucus. Standing L-R: Parren Mitchell, Charles Rangel,
Bill Clay, Ron Dellums, George W. Collins, Louis Stokes, Ralph Metcalfe, John Conyers, and Walter Fauntroy.
Seated L-R: Robert N.C. Nix, Sr., Charles Diggs, Shirley Chisholm, and Augustus F. Hawkins. (Formation - 1971)

photo #111-yr-1971

ballot box

Richard M. Nixon
Richard M. Nixon
photo #106-yr-1969

Charles Rangel
Charles Rangel - member of the Congressional Black Caucus
photo #125-yr-1970

Shirley Chisholm
Shirley Chisholm
photo #109-yr-1972

Barbara Jordan
Barbara Jordan
photo #110-yr-1972

Andrew Young
Andrew Young
photo #111-yr-1972

Black Liberation Army


Weather Underground

     Political Scene in 1972
  • 1972 - Richard M. Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974 when becaue of the Watergate scandal became the only U.S. president to resign the office. Nixon had previously served as a U.S. Representative and Senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961. Note: This website has judged the performance of every U.S. president in regards to the Civil Rights of African Americans. We started in the year 1863 with Abraham Lincoln all the way to 1969 with the out-going president Lyndon Baines Johnson.

    It's weird because these two men shared many of the same real American qualities.

    The 50s-60s marked the beginning of a new era for blacks with victories (FINALLY) in the Supreme Courts for African American citizens.( Which is all the black people ever wanted, was a level playing field) Sadly many of our fellow Americans were participants in illegal activities with Jim Crow laws throughout our great nation, and most ignored and disobeyed the law of the U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence in regards to the citizenship rights of the Negro for their own advancement and enjoyment of American success. With each US President, this website always thought positive and hoped for the best we would find one leader who would exercise his duties as Commander in Chief by enforcing our rights. We were looking for a courageous and brave person to set the moral tone of our great nation for all Americans, because like it or not we are all in this together. Now with our successes with Civil Rights and with blacks being so far behind socially, educationally and mentally, will a new movement be started to lift ourselves up? We have the level playing field now, and we can see the goal line, but there are still small lumps along the way that must be worked out in the courts. How will the black community stand up to this challenge? Each president was rated at the end of his term on how he performed which you will find on this site. (1863-1960s)

  • March 10, 1972 - The first National Black Political Convention opens in Gary, Indiana. Note:The National Black Political Convention delegates created a National Black Political Agenda with stated goals including the election of a proportionate number of black representatives to Congress, community control of schools, national health insurance, etc. Though the convention did not result in any right policy, the convention advanced goals of the Black Power movement and left participants buoyed by a spirit of possibility and themes of unity and self-determination. This was a big moment in black history. There were black people from all across America who took part in this event from Black Panther's Bobby Seale, Coretta Scott King, Gary Ind. Mayor Richard Hatcher, Carl Stokes, Jesse Jackson, NAACP's Roy Wilkins, Malcolm X, delegates from ghettos all across America, Civil Rights lawyers, and many more who were interested in making the lives of African Americans better. I believe they made an error when they excluded white people from attending simply because many had helped the cause and some even gave their lives for it. Many questioned themselves as to whether they should just give up supporting blacks at all. NAACP's Roy Wilkins was strongly against excluding whites.

  • June 17, 1972 - Five people were arrested for burglarizing the Democratic Party headquarters at Watergate.

  • New York Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm had a unsuccesful campaign bid for the Democratic presidential nomination.

  • 1972 - Barbara Jordan was elected to Congress, the first woman to represent Texas in the House in her right. She received extensive support from former President Lyndon B. Johnson, who helped her secure a position on the House Judiciary Committee.

  • 1972 - Andrew Young was elected to Congress from Georgia. He later was re-elected in 1974 and in 1976.

  • 1972 - The Black Liberation Army was an underground, black nationalist militant organization that operated in the United States from 1970 to 1981. Composed largely of former Black Panthers (BPP), the organization's program was one of "armed struggle" against the oppression and tyranny of the U.S. Government, and its stated goal was to "take up arms for the liberation and self-determination of black people in the United States." The BLA carried out a series of bombings, murders, robberies (which participants termed "expropriations"), and prison breaks.

  • 1972 - Weather Underground was a white American militant radical left-wing organization founded on the Ann Arbor campus of the University of Michigan. In 1970 the group issued a "Declaration of a State of War" against the United States government, under the name "Weather Underground Organization". Their bombing campaign targeted mostly government buildings, along with several banks and called for a "white fighting force" to be allied with the "Black Liberation Movement" and other radical movements to achieve "the destruction of U.S. imperialism and achieve a classless world: world communism". The Weathermen began to disintegrate after the United States reached a peace accord in Vietnam in 1973 and became defunct by the mid seventies.



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Who is this man?

His name was George Kennan, who was an American diplomat and historian, who served as ambassador to the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. He was known best as an advocate of a policy of containment of Soviet expansion during the Cold War on which he later reversed himself. He lectured widely and wrote scholarly histories of the relations between USSR and the United States. He was also one of the groups of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men."

George  Kennan


If you've ever wondered how the world became such a hateful and dangerous place, this man George Kennan explains it for us. Kennan didn't have any great powers to implement his ideas and was a Cold War strategist to various leaders in American history who obviously listened to much of what he had to say.

Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974

We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population. This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia.

In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming; and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.

In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism.

We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.

Do you think leaders of America are overstepping their boundaries with these strategies?



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black feminist movement


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get your drink on
Getting Faded in the 70s

Long Islands Iced Tea
The Long Island Iced Tea was named for its resemblance to non-alcoholic Iced tea.
photo #101-yr-1979

The Manhattans
Having fun with my peoples, getting faded and blastin The Manhattans
photo #105c-yr-1979

5th Dimension
5th Dimension
photo #112-yr-1972

having fun in the 70s
Eating, drinkin and having fun in the 70s
photo #library

     Getting Faded and Having Fun in 1972
    For some people back in the 70s, it was nothing better than hanging out with your peoples, talking smack or quietly listening, laughing and getting faded on the following feel good liquors:

    Wines:
  • Ripple
  • TJ Swan
  • Cisco
  • Wild Irish Rose
  • Boone's Farm

  • Thunderbird -- "What's the word? Thunderbird, How's it sold? Good and cold, What's the jive? Bird's alive, What's the price? Thirty twice."

  • Tingle
  • MD 20/20
  • Night Train
  • Tango
  • Cold Duck

  • MD 20/20
    photo#112

    Beers:
  • Colt 45
  • Rainier
  • Old English
  • Schlitz Malt


  • Hard Liquor:
  • Korbel Brandy
  • E & J Brandy
  • Gin and Grapefruit Juice
  • Tequila Sunrise
  • Screwdrivers
  • Bacardi Cocktail
  • Daiquiri
  • Pina Colada


  • Cigarettes:
  • Kool
  • Salem


  • Tequila Sunrise
    Tequila Sunrise garnished
    with orange & cherry
    photo#114a


    I still have a headache, but had a blast!


    Don't forget those wild and loud games of dominoes with folks slamming bones on the table and running off at the mouth. Here are some of the trash words being said:

    dominoes
    Dominoes
    photo#library


  • HEY! hit me five times
  • Who dat knocking at my door?
  • Fish and bread keep po' men fed
  • All money ain't good money
  • Beef steak and gravy
  • Ten keys, come and get some of these
  • 4 hoes and a pimp
  • 3 switchin bitches
  • Rock and I'm out


  • Can't have fun without those beats, these are the songs that were blasting on the turntable in 1972 while enjoying ourselves:

    music in the 70s
    Beats in the 70s   - photo#library

  • First Time I Saw Your Face, Roberta Flack
  • Alone Again (Naturally), Gilbert O'Sullivan
  • Lean On Me, Bill Withers
  • Let's Stay Together, Al Green
  • Oh Girl, The Chi-Lites
  • (If Loving You Is Wrong) , Luther Ingram
  • Betcha By Golly, Wow, The Stylistics
  • I'll Take You There, The Staple Singers
  • Ben, Michael Jackson
  • Outa-Space, Billy Preston
  • Slippin' Into Darkness, War
  • Everybody Plays the Fool, Main Ingredient
  • Didn't Get to Sleep At All, 5th Dimension
  • In the Rain, The Dramatics
  • Look What You Done for Me, Al Green
  • I'm Still In Love With You, Al Green
  • Kiss an Angel Good Morning, Charlie Pride


  • WOW! I miss 1972



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slang and memorable quotes
slang african americans      sLANG tALK in 1972
  • Do Your Own Thing!  - whatever pleases you
  • Be yourself!  - don't be a fake
  • Do what you want to do  - whatever pleases you
  • Laid Back  - taking it easy, relaxed
  • Psyche  - excited, energized
  • The Crib and going to the Gig  - home
  • The Gig  - job
  • Dream On  - hopeful
  • Kicks   - shoes
  • Mackin   - gettin the girls
  • Off The Hook  - extra cool
  • Old School   - old fashioned
  • Pad  - home
  • In Your Face!  - victory
  • That's Sick!  - awesome
  • The Man  - police
  • To The Max  - maximum
  • Yo Mama  - term of endearment, joking around
  • Chill   - take it easy
  • Feel Tha Funk   - groove and feel the music
  • Catch My Drift   - do you understand?
  • Chillaxin   - relaxing
  • Chump  - punk
  • Copasetic   - something cool, hip
  • Don't Bogart  - don't hold the joint too long, pass it around
  • Doobie   - a joint
  • Dude   - a guy
  • For Rizzle   - I didn't know that
  • Foxy   - sexy girl
  • Gimme Five  - cool handshake
  • Hood   - a ghetto person
  • Trippin   - going wacko
  • Pig  - police
  • Pimpin   - a guy good with the ladies
  • Dig It  - understand
  • Backatcha!   - you too
  • Brick House  - super fine woman
  • Can You Dig It  - you understand?
  • Right On   - agree
  • Stone Groove  - extra cool and fun


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black Movies in America

Rodney Allen Rippy
Rodney Allen Rippy who starred in Jack in the Box television commercials in the 1970s.
- photo #116-yr-1970

Willie Tyler & Lester
Willie Tyler & Lester has appeared in many television commercials, sitcoms, and movies. He got his first big break in 1972 on Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In.
- photo #106-yr-1972

Clarence Williams III of Mod Squad
Clarence Williams III of Mod Squad fame
photo #110-yr-1968

Barbara McNair
Barbara McNair, was always a great presence on television
photo #105-yr-1934

Gail Fisher
Gail Fisher as Peggy Fair and Mark Stewart as her son, Toby, from the television program Mannix.
photo #113-yr-1968

Room 222
Lloyd Haynes and Michael Constantine from the television program Room 222
photo #103-yr-1969

 Sanford and Son
Sanford and Son
photo #107-yr-1972

Isaac Hayes
Isaac Hayes
photo #104-yr-2005

The Flip Wilson Show
The Flip Wilson Show
photo #117-yr-1970

Curtis Mayfield
Curtis Mayfield
photo #118-yr-1942

     Television / Movies in 1972
    Movies:
  • Dynamite Chicken - Richard Pryor comedy film .

  • Lady Sings the Blues - Richard Pryor as Piano Man.

  • Super Fly - Ron O'Neal as Youngblood Priest.   Superfly Trivia: Superfly was a hero to many back in the day. His life was glamorized by drugs, fast cash, and beautiful women. Everybody loved that movie. Of course, we now know that's not the way to achieve, but you couldn't tell us that back then. Curtis Mayfield showed out with his tunes, (Freddie's Dead) and in fact, they are still popular today. Did you know Superfly was one of the few films ever to have been outgrossed by its soundtrack which was sung by the great Curtis Mayfield?



  • Television:
  • The Mod Squad which aired from 1968-1973 was a show we wouldn't dare to miss. It felt good to see a cool black character such as an undercover cop, Linc Hayes taking care of business. It was also pretty cool the way Julie (Peggy Lipton) and Pete (Michael Cole) included him in all of their adventures. It made us feel like maybe one-day racism would be stamped out and we could all work and live together peacefully because of this show.

  • The Flip Wilson Show was so funny. The show aired from 1970-1974 and won numerous awards. Flip made the black community feel proud that a person of color could be so successful. He inspired many. He was a truly talented comedian. He had us in tears with his character Geraldine Jones, who would dress up like a woman and brag about her boyfriend Killa, and whose line "The devil made me do it" became a national catchphrase. Older people in the community especially got a big laugh from this character; he was amusing and convincing!

  • Room 222 was a comedy-drama television series which aired on ABC from September 17, 1969 until January 11, 1974. The series focused on an American history class at the fictional Walt Whitman High School in LA, California. The class was taught by Pete Dixon (Lloyd Haynes), an idealistic African-American schoolteacher. Other characters featured in the show were the school's compassionate guidance counselor, Liz McIntyre (Denise Nicholas), who was also Pete's girlfriend; the dryly humorous school principal, Seymour Kaufman (Michael Constantine); and the petite and enthusiastic Alice Johnson (Karen Valentine), a student teacher.

  • Mission: Impossible series aired on the CBS network from September 1966 to March 1973. It chronicles the missions of a team of secret government agents known as the Impossible Missions Force (IMF). Barnard "Barney" Collier (Greg Morris), a mechanical and electronics genius and owner of Collier Electronics was a true inspiration to blacks back in the 70s, finally a black man that used his brains in a television role.

  • The Barbara McNair Show which aired from 1969 - 1972 starred Barbara McNair in her 1969 television variety series, one of the first black women to host her musical variety show. The show was produced in Canada by CTV (at CFTO/Toronto).

  • Mannix was an American television detective series that ran from 1967 to 1975 on CBS. Gail Fisher was best known for playing the role of the secretary "Peggy Fair" on the television detective series, a role for which she won two Golden Globe Awards and an Emmy Award.

  • Sanford and Son which aired from 1972-1977 was a show we could go to to get our laugh on. We grew up with Redd Foxx, so we knew of his reputation and raw delivery with comedy. Poor Lamont, always getting the worst hand when dealing with his dad, but dad did it all with love. In 2007, Time magazine included the show on their list of the "100 Best TV Shows of All Time". The Sanford and Son show is dearly missed.



  • Blaxploitation Films:
    movies that emerged in the United States in the 1970s targeted for black audiences

  • Hit Man: The story of an Oakland hit man, played by former NFL player Bernie Casey who comes to Los Angeles after his brother is murdered.

  • Super Fly: Directed by Gordon Parks, Jr., this film features a soundtrack by Curtis Mayfield and is considered to be one of the most controversial, profitable, and popular 'classics' of the genre.

  • The Legend of Nigger Charley: Written, co-produced, and stars Fred Williamson.

  • Hammer: Stars Fred Williamson as B.J. Hammer, a boxer who gets mixed up with a crooked manager who wants him to throw a fight for the Mafia.

  • Across 110th Street: A crime thriller about two detectives (played by Anthony Quinn and Yaphet Kotto) who tries to catch a group of robbers who stole $300,000 from the Mob before the Mob catches up with them.

  • Black Mama, White Mama: A women in prison exploitation movie partly inspired by The Defiant Ones (1958) starring Pam Grier and Margaret Markov.

  • Blacula: A take on Dracula featuring an African prince (played by William H. Marshall) who is bitten and imprisoned by Count Dracula and once freed from his coffin, spreads terror in modern day Los Angeles.

  • Slaughter: Stars Jim Brown as an ex-Green Beret who seeks revenge against a crime syndicate for the murder of his parents.

  • Trouble Man: Stars Robert Hooks as "Mr. T.": A hard-edged private detective who tends to take justice into his own hands.



  • Awards:
  • Isaac Hayes was awarded the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1972



  • Famous Commercials:
  • Remember the kid that was trying to wrap his mouth around the super-sized Jumbo Jack hamburger? His name is Rodney Allen Rippy who appeared in TV commercials for the fast-food chain Jack in the Box in the early 1970s, as well as in numerous roles in television and movies.





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famous african american birthdays


Shaquille ONeal
Shaquille O'Neal
photo #106-yr-2000

     Famous Birthdays in 1972
  • February 7, 1972 - Essence Atkins African American actress.

  • March 6, 1972 - Shaquille O'Neal nicknamed Shaq, retired basketball great for the L.A. Lakers.

  • March 13, 1972 - Common rapper and actor.

  • April 1972 - Kwame Nkrumah was the leader of Ghana and its predecessor state, the Gold Coast, from 1951 to 1966.

  • May 20, 1972 - Busta Rhymes is an American rapper, producer, and actor from Brooklyn.

  • May 21, 1972 - Notorious B.I.G. was one of the greatest rappers of all times.

  • June 2, 1972 - Wayne Brady is an American actor, singer, comedian, and television personality.

  • September 6, 1972 - Idris Elba is a British actor, producer, singer, rapper, and DJ.

  • October 28, 1972 - Terrell Lamar Davis is a former American football running back who played for the Denver Broncos of the National Football League.



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black american deaths

Mahalia Jackson
Mahalia Jackson - Photography by William P. Gottlieb
photo #108-yr-1948

 Adam Clayton Powell
Adam Clayton Powell
photo #105-yr-1944

Bill
William Manuel "Bill" Johnson
photo #108-yr-1872

Jimmy Rushing
Jimmy Rushing
photo #112-yr-1901

Clyde McPhatter
Clyde McPhatter
photo #111-yr-1932

     Famous Deaths in 1972
  • January 27, 1972 - Mahalia Jackson was an American gospel singer. Possessing a powerful contralto voice, she was referred to as "The Queen of Gospel. Trivia: Soul singer Aretha Franklin sings at Mahalia Jackson's funeral.

  • February 19, 1972 - Lee Morgan  was an American jazz trumpeter. Known mainly as one of the key hard bop musicians of the 1960s, Morgan came to prominence in his late teens, recording on John Coltrane's Blue Train (1957) and with the band of drummer Art Blakey before launching a solo career. Morgan's career was cut short at the age of 33, when his common-law wife shot him at Slug's Saloon where he died of his injuries.

  • April 4, 1972 - Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. was a Baptist pastor and an American politician, who represented Harlem, New York City, in the United States House of Representatives.

  • June 8, 1972 - Jimmy Rushing was an American blues shouter, balladeer, and swing jazz singer from Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States, best known as the featured vocalist of Count Basie's Orchestra from 1935 to 1948.

  • June 13, 1972 - Clyde McPhatter  was an American rhythm-and-blues, soul and rock-and-roll singer. He was perhaps the most widely imitated R&B singer of the 1950s and early 1960s and was a key figure in the shaping of doo-wop and R&B. He is best known for his solo hit "A Lover's Question".

  • December 3, 1972 - William Manuel "Bill" Johnson was an American jazz musician, considered the father of the "slap" style of Double bass playing.



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famous african american weddings

Don Michael Mitchell
Don Michael Mitchell
photo #106-yr-1943

Barbara McNair
Barbara McNair
photo #107-yr-1934

     Famous Weddings in 1972
  • February 19, 1972 - Don Mitchell  weds Judy Pace

  • May 13, 1972 - Phylicia Rashad  weds William Bowles Jr.

  • June 16, 1972 - Tito Jackson  weds Delores V. Martes

  • 1972 - Barbara McNair  weds Rick Manzie



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famous african american divorces

William Caesar Warfield
Portrait of William Warfield
photo #111-yr-1920

Porgy and Bess 1953
Leontyne Price from Porgy and Bess 1953
photo #106-yr-1953

Isaac Hayes
Isaac Hayes
photo #104-yr-2005

Nichelle Nichols
Nichelle Nichols
photo #110-yr-1932

     Famous Divorces in 1972
  • 1972 - William Warfield  and Leontyne Price were divorced.

  • 1972 - Cleavon Little  and Valerie Wiggins were divorced.

  • 1972 - Roberta Flack and Novosel were divorced.

  • 1972 - James Earl Jones and Julienne Marie were divorced.

  • 1972 - Jim Brown and Sue Brown were divorced.

  • 1972 - Stevie Wonder and Syreeta Wright were divorced.

  • 1972 - August Wilson and Brenda Burton were divorced.

  • 1972 - Gail Fisher and John Levy were divorced.

  • 1972 - Isaac Hayes and Emily Ruth Watson  were divorced.

  • 1972 - Actress, singer and voice artist Nichelle Nichols  divorces  Duke Mondy.



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starting fresh in life


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famous black/african american singers
Slaves kidnapped from their homes years ago bascially belonged to tribes. Each tribe was as different as night and day to the next tribe.
famous black singers


They each had their individual languages and customs. So upon arriving in America they had to create a way to communicate with their master and each other, so over time they developed a spanking new and unique language called African American Vernacular English, and it didn't stop there.

Each group had their defined drum beat from their tribe that was added to the new way of life in the New World, but with a new American twist with musical instruments they didn't have in Africa.

So to put it simply, soul or black music is a mixture of many different African beats incorporated into a new American culture. Think about how exciting that is; it has to be African American music. It's admired all over the world.

We all originate from the same place so it doesn't matter if we're listening to early 1900s blues singer "Ma Rainey" or the great 1940s singers "Billie Holiday" and "Nat King Cole" down to the famous rappers of our time such as the two late greats, "Biggie Smalls" or "Tupac", it all sounds good to us because we can feel and hear that beat.

Many cultures have contributed to the American way of life such as German Americans who introduced the Christmas tree tradition, or Italian Americans with their delicious pizza, or Mexican Americans with the tacos and delicious burritos, or the English Americans with their mainstays such as baseball and apple pie. The list goes on and on, and to add to those contributions, and without a doubt, soul music has changed the American way of life, it is truly an original, and one of our many proud contributions to our home here in America.
famous african american singers


soul train
Soul Train ran from 1971-2006
photo #109-yr-1971

Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong
photo #109-yr-1901

Isaac Hayes
Isaac Hayes
photo #104-yr-2005

Charley Pride
Charley Pride
photo #114-yr-1977

Ben Vereen
Ben Vereen
photo #104-yr-1946

Curtis Mayfield
Curtis Mayfield
photo #118-yr-1942

     Music in 1972

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • If You Don't Know Me by Now, Harold Melvin
  • Me and Mrs. Jones, Billy Paul
  • Where Is the Love, Flack & Hathaway
  • Superfly, Curtis Mayfield
  • Love Train, O'Jays
  • Backstabbers, O'Jays
  • In the Rain, The Dramatics
  • I'll Be Around, Spinners


  Popular Soul Dances:
  • The Bump

  • Walking the dog

  • The Worm

  • The Rock Steady

  • The Breakdown

  • The Funky Chicken

  • Electric Slide

  • Locking - Roboting - Popping

  • Breakdancing - B-boying



  Musical Happenings in 1972:
  • Isaac Hayes was awarded the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1972

  • The earliest "rap musical events" are said to have been held in the Bronx.

  • "We Shall Overcome", a hymn-turned civil rights protest song becomes "a rallying cry, sung weekly at processions organized to mobilize the community in its fight against drugs".

  • Jimmy Cliff, one of the earliest Jamaican reggae singers to find success in the United States, reaches mainstream audiences with the movie The Harder They Come.

  • Soul Train was an American musical variety television program which aired in syndication from 1971 - 2006. In its 35-year history, the show primarily featured performances by R&B, soul, and hip hop artists, although funk, jazz, disco, and gospel artists also appeared. The series was created by Don Cornelius, who also served as its first host and executive producer.

  • July 16, 1972 - - Smokey Robinson & Miracles perform their final live performance.



 Tony Award winners in 1972:
    Theatre World Award
  • Ben Vereen in Jesus Christ Superstar





 Grammy winners in 1972:
    The 14th Annual Grammy Awards were held March 15, 1972, and were broadcast live on television in the United States by ABC; the following year, they would move the telecasts to CBS. They recognized accomplishments by musicians from the year 1971.

    Best Recording for Children
  • Bill Cosby for Bill Cosby Talks to Kids About Drugs


  • Best Opera Recording
  • Richard Mohr (producer), Erich Leinsdorf (conductor), Grace Bumbry, Plácido Domingo, Sherrill Milnes, Leontyne Price, Ruggero Raimondi, the John Aldis Choir & the London Symphony Orchestra for Verdi: Aida


  • Best Original Score Written for a Motion Picture or a Television Special
  • Isaac Hayes (composer) for Shaft


  • Best Ethnic or Traditional Recording
  • Muddy Waters for They Call Me Muddy Waters


  • Best Gospel Performance(other than soul gospel)
  • Charley Pride for "Let Me Live"


  • Best Soul Gospel Performance
  • Shirley Caesar for Put Your Hand in the Hand of the Man From Galilee


  • Best Sacred Performance
  • Charley Pride for Did You Think to Pray


  • Best Jazz Performance by a Big Band
  • Duke Ellington for "New Orleans Suite"


  • Best Pop Instrumental Performance
  • Quincy Jones for Smackwater Jack


  • Best Engineered Recording, Non-Classical
  • Henry Bush, Ron Capone & Dave Purple (engineers) for "Theme From Shaft" performed by Isaac Hayes


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Female
  • Aretha Franklin for "Bridge Over Troubled Water"


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male
  • Lou Rawls for "A Natural Man"


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance by a Group
  • Ike & Tina Turner for "Proud Mary"


  • Best Rhythm & Blues Song
  • Bill Withers for "Ain't No Sunshine"


  • Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award
  • Louis Armstrong




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black women empowerment


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graduation fashion
Graduation fashion times in Stockton California - 1970s

hot pants of 1970s
Hot pants of the 1970s


billy preston afro
Singer Billy Preston in 1974 wearing an Afro hairstyle.
photo #122-yr-1970


afro hairstyle
Afro hairstyle of the late 60s/early 70s photo - pixabay.com


billy preston afro
African-American woman with short afro 1979 and silk scarves which were a popular fashion accessories for women.
photo #123-yr-1970


mini skirt
Fashionable miniskirt


graduation fashion
Graduation fashion times in Stockton California - 1970s


men fashion
Best friends fashions in Stockton California - 1970s


     Fashions and Styles in 1972

  Popular Fashions:

    Overview:
    The 1970's fashion, often called the "Me Decade", began with a continuation of the mini skirts, bell-bottoms, and the androgynous hippie look from the late 1960s and eventually became one of the most iconic decades for fashion ever.

    In the early 1970s, there was a trend for unisex men's and women's matching outfits with little to absolutely no differences. They often came together in matching sets.

    Generally the most famous silhouette of the mid and late 1970s for both genders was that of tight on top and loose on bottom. The 1970s also saw the birth of the indifferent, anti-conformist approach to fashion, which consisted of sweaters, t-shirts, jeans, and sneakers.


    Women:
    Popular early 1970s fashions for women included Tie dye shirts, Mexican peasant blouses, folk-embroidered Hungarian blouses, ponchos, capes, and military surplus clothing. Bottom attire for women during this time included bell-bottoms, gauchos, frayed jeansmidis" (which were unpopular), and ankle-length dresses called "maxis" were also worn in the early 1970s, thus offering women three different skirt lengths.

    Although the hippie look was widespread, it was not adopted by everyone. Many women still continued to dress up with more glamorous clothes, inspired by 1940s movie star glamour. Other women just adopted simple casual fashions. More simple early 1970s trends for women included fitted blazers (coming in a multitude of fabrics along with wide lapels), long and short dresses, mini skirts, maxi evening gowns, hot pants (extremely brief, tight-fitting shorts) paired with skin-tight t-shirts, his & hers outfits (matching outfits that were nearly identical to each other), and flared pants.

    Clean-cut, All-American active wear for women became increasingly popular from 1975 onwards. The biggest phenomenon of this trend was the jumpsuit, popular from 1975 onwards.

    Women's fashions in the late 1970s included cowl-neck shirts and sweaters, pantsuits, leisure suits, tracksuits, sundresses worn with tight t-shirts, strapless tops, lower-cut shirts, cardigans, velour shirts, tunics, robes, crop tops, tube tops, embroidered vests and jeans, knee-length skirts, loose satin pants, designer jeans, culottes, daisy dukes, and tennis shorts.

    In the early 1970s boots were at the height of their popularity, continuing onward from the mid 1960s. Women had boots for every occasion, with a wide variety of styles being sold in stores for affordable prices.

    Disco clothes worn by women included tube tops, sequined halterneck shirts, blazers, spandex short shorts, loose pants, form-fitting spandex pants, maxi skirts and dresses with long thigh slits, jersey wrap dresses, ball gowns, and evening gowns.


    Men:
    The early 1970s were a continuation of late 1960s hippie fashion. For men this particularly meant bell bottom jeans, tie dye shirts, and military surplus clothing. Other early 1970s clothes for men included matching outfits, sports jackets, khaki chinos, chunky sweaters, storm coats, battle jackets peacoats, flannel shirts, pleated pants, baseball jackets, corduroy pants, pullover sweaters and sweater vests, tassels, cardigans, and hip-huggers.

    Mens footwear in the early 1970s included flip-flops, oxfords, Birkenstocks, platform shoes, earth shoes, and cowboy boots.

    Fashion in the 1970s was generally informal and laid back for men. Most men simply wore jeans, sweaters, and T-shirts, which by then were being made with more elaborate designs. Men continued to wear flannel, and the Leisure suit became increasingly popular from 1975 onwards, often worn with gold medallions and oxford shoes. Vintage clothing, khaki chinos, workmens clothes, sweatshirts, leather coats, and all-denim outfits were also desired among young men.

    Hairstyles:
    In the mid-1960s, the Afro hairstyle began in a fairly tightly coiffed form, such as the hairstyle that became popular among members of the Black Panther Party. As the 1960s progressed towards the 1970s, popular hairstyles, both within and outside of the black African-American community, became longer and longer. As a result, the late 60s/early 70s saw an expansion in the overall size of Afros. Some of the entertainers and sociopolitical figures of the time known for wearing larger afros include political activist Angela Davis, actress Pam Grier, rock musician Jimi Hendrix, and the members of the musical groups The Jackson 5 and The Supremes. In the 1970s, making one of the popular hairstyles for a woman didn't take a lot of time. For Blacks in the United States and elsewhere, the afro was worn by both sexes throughout the decade. It was occasionally sported by whites as an alternative to the uniform long, straight hair which was a fashion mainstay until the arrival of punk and the"disco look" when hair became shorter and centre partings were no longer the mode.



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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1970s

Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller
Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller
photo #107-yr-1872

James Brown
James Brown
photo #103-yr-1933

 Romare Bearden
Romare Bearden photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, photographer
photo #112-yr-1912

Our Community in 1972
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

    Feb 17th - Sales of the Volkswagen Beetle model exceed those of Ford Model-T.
  • In the early 1970s, the American Psychiatric Association established a Solomon Carter Fuller award lecture at its annual meetings for his contributions to Alzheimer's disease research.


  • During the 1972 presidential election, James Brown openly proclaimed his support of Richard Nixon for reelection of the presidency over Democratic candidate George McGovern. The decision led to a boycott of his performances and, according to Brown, cost him a big portion of his black audience.


  • 1972 - Artist Romare Bearden was elected to the National Institute of Arts and Letters.


  • 1972 - Soul singer James Brown should have listened to his advisors who warned him to stay out of politics. Brown openly endorsed Richard Nixon in the 1972 presidential election. Many in the black community turned against Brown — "Has James Brown Sold Black People Out or Sold Them In?," reads one headline — with some going so far as to burn his albums. Nixon was cordial to Brown in public setting but less friendly in private. "No more black stuff," the president can be heard saying via vintage audio tapes. "Too much black stuff. No more blacks from now on; just don't bring them in here. James Brown apparently is very popular amongst young people; he is black. Well, what am I supposed to do, just sit and talk to him or what?"


  • 1970s - The United States Population is 204,765,770 with a total of 22,580,289 being African Americans. Negroes are making more love and having more babies since the last census.




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why do many dislike white people


“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise


How did it begin?

Actually, it's a worldwide negative perception of whites, but why? Well, a quick and simple trip back in history will get the probable answer.

The best way to describe European history would be wars, wars, and more wars.

good white americans
The Europeans wanted better and pursued a life of civilization as opposed to barbarism. They discovered a tool that would help them with that. It was called Science, which was a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In other words, every single thing would be studied and scrutinized.

Foolishly, church leaders of that day welcomed science, but it would eventually become a direct enemy of humanity's maker.

Why so?

Because science would teach the ordinary person to believe in themselves and the intellectual powers, they possess as opposed to an All Mighty Creator. Because the Creator of the universe is mathematically correct, once these early scientists were able to figure equations for themselves in regards to nature, they felt there were like a god. Science would also teach the world to exist because of a Big Bang theory and evolution, instead of being created.

Did these early Europeans belief in science affect the Negro?

Absolutely! It affected all tribal nature human beings. Whites collectively proclaimed themselves superior and this is where the trouble started for the rest of humankind. The Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than tribal communities. Millions of Negroes and other races lost their lives and suffered much because of science.

Before slavery, the Negro had been isolated from the rest of the world for many years due to the humongous Sahara Desert to the North and the Arab slave traders to the East made it tough if not impossible to travel. They weren't able to share in the new learning discoveries the world were experiencing. These people were a group lost in time, away from the modern world.

good black americans

Once the Portuguese got the slave trade started with the entire world, the scientist had an opportunity to scrutinize and evaluate the lowly Negro, and I have to warn you right now it wasn't pretty.

why do many dislike white people
An illustration from the influential American magazine Harper's Weekly shows an alleged similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to the higher "Anglo-Teutonic." The accompanying caption reads "The Iberians are believed to have been originally an African race, which thousands of years ago spread themselves through Spain over Western Europe. Their remains are found in the barrows, or burying places, in various parts of these countries. The skulls are of a small prognathous type. They came to Ireland and mixed with the natives of the South and West, who themselves are supposed to have been of small type and descendants of savages of the Stone Age, who, in consequence of isolation from the rest of the world, had never been out-competed in the healthy struggle of life, and thus made way, according to the laws of nature, for superior races."  (this is an Harper's Weekly assessment of race, not ours) photo#101-yr-2015


The following excerpts are scientist views of the Negro back then:

Charles White (1728–1813), an English physician and surgeon, believed that races occupied different stations in the "Great Chain of Being," and he tried to scientifically prove that human races have distinct origins from each other. He believed that Whites and Negroes were two different species. White was a believer in polygeny, the idea that different races had been created separately.

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) was a German philosopher who said "The yellow Indians do have a little talent. The Negroes are far below them, and at the lowest point are a part of the American people".

Franz Ignaz Pruner (1808–1882) was a medical doctor who studied the racial structure of Negroes in Egypt. In a book which he wrote in 1846, he claimed that Negro blood had a negative influence on the Egyptian moral character. He argued that the main feature of the Negro's skeleton is prognathism, which he claimed was the Negro's relation to the ape. He also argued that Negroes had very similar brains to apes and that Negros have a shortened big toe, which is a characteristic connecting Negroes closely to apes.

Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), the Swedish physician, botanist, and zoologist says The Afer or Africanus: black, phlegmatic, relaxed; black, frizzled hair; silky skin, flat nose, tumid lips; females without shame; mammary glands give milk abundantly; crafty, sly, careless; anoints himself with grease; and regulated by will.

Scottish lawyer Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696-1782) was a polygenist: he believed God had created different races on Earth in separate regions. In his 1734 book Sketches on the History of Man, Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks.

Charles Darwin (1809 – 19 April 1882) apparently believed that the struggle for existence among humans would result in racial extermination. In Descent of Man he asserted, "At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace throughout the world the savage races.

When comparing Caucasians to Negroes, Voltaire (1694 – 1778) compared them to different breeds of dog:
The Negro race is a species of men different from ours as the breed of spaniels is from that of greyhounds. The mucous membrane, or network, which Nature has spread between the muscles and the skin, is white in us and black or copper-colored in them.

Benjamin Rush (1745–1813), a Founding Father of the United States and a physician, proposed that being black was a hereditary skin disease, which he called "negroidism," and that it could be cured. Rush believed non-whites were white underneath, but they were stricken with a non-contagious form of leprosy which darkened their skin color. Rush drew the conclusion that "Whites should not tyrannize over [blacks], for their disease should entitle them to a double portion of humanity. However, by the same token, whites should not intermarry with them, for this would tend to infect posterity with the 'disorder'... attempts must be made to cure the disease.

The German anatomist Johann Blumenbach (1752–1840) was a believer in monogenism, the concept that all races have a single origin. He also believed in the "degeneration theory" of racial backgrounds. He said that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors, such as the sun and poor dieting and believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race. According to Blumenbach, there are five races, all belonging to a single species: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay. Blumenbach said: I have allotted the first place to the Caucasian because this stock displays the most beautiful race of men.


O.K. O.K., enough already! I told you it wasn't going to be pretty.

The beliefs these so-called scholars had is the single most reason why millions of Negroes were tortured, murdered and raped throughout history. Scientist published their findings as fact and people all over the world believed them.

But we wonder what the scientist would say if alive today with access to a computer, and visit Google to type in the key phrase "African immigrants in college" they would discover that these same Africans out-perform academically every single race in America's colleges.

That's interesting, but what does it prove?

It proves that intelligence is not dependent on skin color or race, but instead access to education and a fertile mind to receive instruction. In America, slavery happened years ago but damaged and demoralized the fertile minds of many black Americans, and continues down to this day. There are some blacks who think of education and learning as a white thing and don't want anything to do with it, now if that's not an effect of slavery I don't know what is.

Doesn't It boggles the mind that these so-called superior, intelligent and civilized humans didn't for one time think to share their knowledge of enlightenment with the world so all could live a better life, be happy and progress? No, sadly these people chose to claim white superiority, to dominate and to kill weaker ones similar to the barbarian way of life they came. An example of this is with Colonialism.

What is Colonialism?
Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory. It is a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous population.

good whites Colonial rule in the Belgian Congo began in the late 19th century under King Leopold II of Belgium. Leopold exploited the Congo for its natural resources, first ivory and later rubber which was becoming a valuable commodity. The regime in the Congo was responsible for using forced labor, murder and mutilation to force native Congolese who did not fulfill quotas for rubber collections. It's estimated millions of Congolese died during this time.
In other words a much powerful nation sets up shop in a weaker nation by force and robs the resources and forces the natives to work as slaves for little or no pay while grossly benefiting from unequal trade activities while depositing profits to it's mother country.

Colonialism demoralized the native population making Europe stronger and Africa weaker. Even though many white nations participated, non-Europeans nations included, the United Kingdom was the king in this horrible act against humanity.

Because of whites belief in science aided with their secondary faith in religion, they felt they were obligated to save and civilize the world. Google "White man's Burden" for proof of this belief, and by the way our United States President Teddy Roosevelt loved the White Man's Burden theory.

Whites tend to have a poor memory in regards to their crimes against humanity, but the other nations who suffered through it haven't forgotten, because just like the effects of slavery still lingers for blacks in America, people who suffered through colonialism still feel the pain and can see with their literal eye the destruction it left behind.

There isn't any denying that science has also helped make our lives better, but the responsibility that goes along with it is simply too much for humans to handle. Whites did not temper science with love and common sense. Just look around the world today, and you would probably agree we are on the brink of destruction with pollution, nuclear weapons, degradation of the earth, etc. are all products of science. The bad far outweigh the good.

Early science also taught Europeans it was man's nature to compete. In fact, they felt it was healthy and natural to compete to create superior human beings, especially white ones. This erroneous belief about competition would go on to be the largest difference in European and African cultures.

Whites brought these competitive qualities and attitudes with them from Europe. Africans were totally opposite because in their homeland everything was shared and done for the tribal community. There wasn't an I in Africa, it was US.

Blacks played an enormous role in the building of this country, even with hands tied behind their backs but were not welcome to participate. Whites felt that it just didn't look and feel right for blacks to be associated with superior whites in the building of America. So white Americans kidnapped the U.S. Constitution and created laws (Jim Crow) to keep things entirely separate and achieved like crazy in all aspects of life, and boasting white superiority.

It has not been proven that competitiveness is better than teamwork. View this small list of words associated with competitiveness out of the dictionary and you'll have to agree this is the state of America today.

aggressive, brutal, cutthroat, every person for themselves, fierce, merciless, ruthless, unmerciful, vicious, voracious, without mercy, adverse, alien, argumentative, belligerent, bitter, cold, contentious, contrary, disapproving, dour, hateful, ill-disposed, inhospitable, inimical, malevolent, malicious, malignant, militant, nasty, ornery, pugnacious, rancorous, scrappy, sour, spiteful, unfriendly, unkind, unpropitious, unsociable, unsympathetic, unwelcoming, viperous, warlike.

More and more blacks have developed this competitive and lofty spirit and probably will soon look down on others as well, even within our race. Ole Blue Eyes, who was a great singer and real American who viewed each human being as equal had an incredible grip on the situation about the division between blacks and whites. Check out what he said below.

Frank Sinatra
photo#101-yr-1915

One of the greatest entertainers of all times, Frank Sinatra once made a quote about the damaging effects of ones who subscribe to white superiority whether covertly or overtly.

"We've got a hell of a long way to go in this racial situation. As long as most white men think of a Negro first and a man second, we're in trouble. I don't know why we can't grow up."


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RESOURCES:


Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License


#100 -   Public Domain image - Carl Van Vechten [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#101 -   By Newtown graffiti CC-BY-2.0, via Wikimedia Commons

#102 -   By Caartic (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#103 -   By AlMare (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#104 -   By Philosophygeek [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#114a -   By Evan Swigart from Chicago, USA (Tequila Sunrise) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#105c -   By Starday-King Records (Billboard, page 81, 26 August 1972) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#106 -   By International Management Company (personal management) (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#107 -   By Robert Garner Attractions, Denver, where the pair did a personal appearance and concert. (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#108-   Carl Van Vechten [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#109 -   By Thomas J. O'Halloran, U.S. News & World Reports [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#110 -   By U.S. Congress [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#111 -   By Andrew_Young,_bw_head-and-shoulders_photo,_June_6,_1977.jpg: O'Halloran, Thomas J.derivative work: Kwiki [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#112 -   By Soul City Records. (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#113 -  
https://pixabay.com/en/shopping-cart-grocery-animal-44640/
https://pixabay.com/en/woman-african-girl-black-hot-pink-312755/


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