Whitney Moore Young, Jr. was an American civil rights leader. He spent most of his career working to end employment discrimination in the United States and turning the National Urban League from a relatively passive civil rights organization into one that aggressively used to work for equitable access to socioeconomic opportunity for the historically disenfranchised.
Young was born in Shelby County, Kentucky, on July 31, 1921, to educated parents. His father, Whitney M. Young, Sr., was the president of the Lincoln Institute and served twice as the chairperson of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association. Whitney's mother, Laura Young, was a teacher who served as the first female postmistress in Kentucky (second in the United States), being appointed to that position by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1940.
During World War II, Young was trained in electrical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was then assigned to a road construction crew of black soldiers supervised by Southern white officers. After just three weeks, he was promoted from private to the first sergeant, creating hostility on both sides. Despite the tension, Young was able to mediate effectively between his white officers and black soldiers angry at their poor treatment. This situation propelled Young into a career in race relations.
In 1950, Young became president of the National Urban League's Omaha, Nebraska chapter. In that position, he helped get black workers into jobs previously reserved for whites. Under his leadership, the chapter tripled its number of paying members. While he was president of the Omaha Urban League, Young taught at the University of Nebraska from 1950 to 1954, and Creighton University from 1951 to 1952.
In 1954, he took up his next position, as the first dean of social work at Atlanta University. There, Young supported alumni in their boycott of the Georgia Conference of Social Welfare in response to low rates of African-American employment within the organization.
Young and his wife Margaret were the first blacks to join the United Liberal Church (since 1965, named the Unitarian Universalist Congregation of Atlanta), and Whitney would eventually join its Board of Trustees. Due in part to the Youngs' influence, the church stopped having its annual picnics at segregated parks and became "integrated not just desegregated."
Many in the congregation were active in the civil rights movement, and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., then assistant to his father at nearby Ebenezer Baptist Church, was a pulpit guest.
In 1960, Young was awarded a Rockefeller Foundation grant for a postgraduate year at Harvard University. In the same year, he joined the NAACP and rose to become state president, where he was also a close friend of Roy Wilkins, its executive director.
In 1961, at age 40, Young became Executive Director of the National Urban League. He was unanimously selected by the National Urban League's Board of Directors, succeeding Lester Granger on October 1, 1961. Within four years he expanded the organization from 38 employees to 1,600 employees, and from an annual budget of $325,000 to one of $6,100,000. Young served as President of the Urban League until his death in 1971.
The Urban League had traditionally been a cautious and moderate organization with many white members. During Young's ten-year tenure at the League, he brought the organization to the forefront of the American Civil Rights Movement. Young expressed the mission of the Urban League not as ground-level activism in itself but as the supplement and complement of the activities of all other organizations; he states,
"we are the social engineers, we are the strategists, we are the planners, we are the people who work at the level of policy-making, policy implementation, the highest echelons of the corporate community, the highest echelons of the governmental community – both at the federal, state and local level – the highest echelons of the labor movement."
As executive director of the League, Young pushed major corporations to hire more blacks. In doing so, he fostered close relationships with CEOs such as Henry Ford II, leading some blacks to charge that Young had sold out to the white establishment.(we speechless) Young denied these charges and stressed the importance of working within the system to effect change.
Still, Young was not afraid to take a bold stand for civil rights. For instance, in 1963, Young was one of the organizers of the March on Washington despite the opposition of many white business leaders.
Despite his reluctance to enter politics himself, Young was an influential advisor to Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon. In 1968, representatives of President-elect Richard Nixon tried to interest Young in a Cabinet post, but Young refused, believing that he could accomplish more through the Urban League.
Young, in turn, was impressed by Johnson's commitment to civil rights.
The NASW News, May 1971, tribute to Young noted that:
"As usual Whitney Young was preparing to do battle on the major issues and programs facing the association and the nation. And he was doing it with his usual aplomb-dapper, self-assured, ready to deal with the "power" people to bring about change for the powerless."
This man could have easily been the first African American president with his impressive resume and the warm way he had dealing with all races. Everybody loved him, and he got the job done. Isn't it heartwarming to see the positive events unfold for the American black person? Most have always had the spirit and motivation to succeed, but now we have open doors thanks to individuals like Whitney Young.
We just have to get everyone on board, especially the demoralized and lost. Thanks Whitney for your commitment to (correct) American ideals, a true inspiration indeed. We honor your memory with the 1971 Hamite Award.
On March 11, 1971, Whitney Young died of a heart attack after swimming with friends in Lagos, Nigeria, where he was attending a conference sponsored by the African-American Institute. President Nixon sent a plane to Nigeria to collect Young's body and traveled to Kentucky to deliver the eulogy at Young's funeral.
Whitney Young at the White House
President Lyndon B. Johnson meeting with Civil Rights leader Whitney Young What a character LBJ was, being right in Whitney's face getting his point across.
How were blacks feeling in 1971?
We are so happy that we finally have a chance to achieve in America. Most of us are up to the challenge and at this very minute are seeking ways to improve their station in life. But there are also the ones who just don't give a crap and will waste their entire lives by trying to get rich quick with dangerous acts like selling drugs, prostitution, gambling, etc.
We will always encourage this one to change but must not get too close to them because they may snag us into their traps. We've had too many great and courageous black ancestors who have fought and died for the rights we now have in America. So every black person should honor their memory by living a fruitful, balanced and active life instead of one seeking pleasure only.
The door is open and getting wider, thanks to our incredible Civil Rights leaders who are attempting to walk in the big shoes left by our great leader Martin Luther Kings death. They are sincerely trying to fill the void. Let's help them people.
ACHIEVE ACHIEVE ACHIEVE NEGROES,
oh, I forgot we don't like to be called Negroes anymore, but now prefer African-American.
For the year 1971:
George Garner was the first African-American to solo at the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. He was also the first African-American lead in a production at the Pasadena Playhouse in Pasadena, California.
April 28, 1971 - Samuel Lee Gravely Jr. becomes the first African American admiral in the United States Navy.
October 10, 1971 - At the 5th Country Music Association Award, African American Charlie Pride becomes the first to win.
1971 - Beautiful model Beverly Johnson is the first African American woman to appear on the cover of a major fashion magazine (Glamour magazine).
Professional basketball players Elmore Smith (left) and Wilt Chamberlain (right) in 1971
Willie M. "Bill" Pickett
Theodore "Tiger" Flowers photo #109-yr-1927
Sports in 1971
January 5, 1971 - The body of United States former heavyweight champion Charles "Sonny" Liston is found.
February 10, 1971 - Bill White becomes the first black baseball announcer of the New York Yankees.
March 8, 1971 - Smokin Joe Frazier beats the great Muhammad Ali in 15 rounds to retain his heavyweight boxing title.
June 28, 1971 - Ali, Ali, Ali The United States Supreme Court overturns Muhammad Ali's draft evasion conviction by 8-0.
1971 - Willie M. "Bill" Pickett was inducted into the National Rodeo Cowboy Hall of Fame.Trivia: Bill invented the technique of bulldogging, the skill of grabbing cattle by the horns and wrestling them to the ground. We see this on television all the time when watching rodeo.
Satchel Paige was the first player from the Negro leagues to be inducted in the National Baseball Hall of Fame, in 1971.
Tiger Flowers was inducted into the Ring Magazine Hall of Fame in 1971.
What Was The Jonestown Massacre?
The Peoples Temple, the organization at the center of the Jonestown incident, was headquartered in San Francisco, California, from the early to mid-1970s until the Temple's move to Guyana.
While the Temple originated in Indiana in the 1950s, after leader Jim Jones predicted an apocalypse that would create a socialist Eden on earth, it moved to Redwood Valley, California in the late 1960s. Its headquarters later moved into San Francisco, where Jones remained until July 1977, when Jones fled with almost 1,000 Temple members to Jonestown, Guyana following investigations by local media.
On the evening of November 18, 1978 in Jonestown, Jones ordered his congregation to drink cyanide-laced Flavor Aid. In all, 918 people died, including over 270 children, resulting in the greatest single loss of American civilian life in a non-natural disaster until the incidents of September 11, 2001. Congressman Leo Ryan was among those killed at the airstrip.
The more things change, the more they stay the same
Shortly after slavery, blacks were thrown into prison for petty and minor offenses which resulted in long sentences. It was big business for the penitentiary because they would hire these convicts out for various jobs and keep blacks off the streets at the same time. They killed two birds with one stone.
It was a form of bondage that did not last a lifetime and did not automatically extend from one generation to the next. But it was nonetheless slavery – a system in which armies of free men, guilty of no crimes and entitled by law to freedom, were compelled to labor without compensation, were repeatedly bought and sold, and were forced to do the bidding of white masters through the regular application of extraordinary physical coercion.
This form of slavery was abolished by President Franklin D. Roosevelt December 12, 1941.
Is the criminal justise system much different today?
President Richard Nixon started the modern day Law and Order campaign of the War on Drugs. President Ronald Reagan would continue with the program in his administration and later President Bill Clinton during his term created tough mandatory sentencing that unfairly affected blacks.
Crack cocaine was associated with poor blacks because it was a cheap drug and in contrast with powder cocaine which was considered a white man's drug because it was more expensive. Neither drug was more deadly than the other but crack was demonized because it was associated with black people.
While a person found with five grams of crack cocaine faced a five-year mandatory minimum prison sentence, a person holding powder cocaine could receive the same sentence only if he or she held five hundred grams. Similarly, those carrying ten grams of crack cocaine faced a ten-year mandatory sentence, while possession of one thousand grams of powder cocaine was required for the same sentence to be imposed.
Don't get it wrong, these were very well ORGANIZED methods from anti-Americans in control of our country to hold blacks down and is very well documented. It seems these anti-Americans are always reinventing themselves in ways of oppressing black citizens. Perhaps they should show some love for a change instead of acting on their imagined fear.
WHO IS THIS MAN?
John Ehrlichman who was counsel to President Richard Nixon and would later become a criminal himself with his involvement in the watergate scandal made the following comment about the reason for Nixon's war on drugs:
“The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course we did.”
Check these statistics out
One of every three black American males born today can expect to go to prison in his lifetime. While black defendants account for roughly 80% of those arrested for crack-related offenses, public health data has found that two-thirds of crack cocaine users are white or Hispanic. The leading cause of incarceration of an African American male is a non-violent drug offense. Most black men in prisons are not monsters but just got caught up in the system for a non-violent mistake they may have made.
These stats are for the years 1970 - 2010
1 in every 106 White males age 18 or older is incarcerated
1 in every 36 Hispanic males age 18 or older is incarcerated
1 in every 15 Black males age 18 or older is incarcerated
We have to help our own black boys because nobody else cares. Wouldn't it be nice if today's blacks possessed the same gumption our African American ancestors had by taking control of our own destiny as a race of people? It seems ever since the end of slavery we are constantly pointing out to the white man how unfair and unjust he has treated us. Don't you think he knows that? What do we expect them to do, start crying and say I'm sorry and start treating us like fellow Americans by sharing freely? Don't hold your breath.
At this point in history, it's clear we must begin to work on ourselves more than anything else. We've probably gone just about as far as we can go with the protesting/marching strategy which was an excellent choice over the decades, but now it's time for action on our part. MLK would have likely said the same thing.
A very unpopular message for many blacks who live with the self-pity attitude but the only avenue available for American success. Can you imagine how much it would lift our race if every single black boy possessed a college degree? It's a dream that could become a reality if we really believed it.
Education plays the major role in American success for blacks and any group of blacks in a position of authority such as sports figures, entertainers, singers, etc that teaches the opposite by their examples we should run away from them as fast as possible. Sadly, these groups are the ones that many blacks look up to for guidance instead of our black educators.
When one of us climbs the very difficult and racist ladder of success in the American power structure by using our God-given brain power we will not forget about those we left behind, but instead will help other blacks do the same by extending a hand until we find ourselves in a position of directing instead of always asking and begging.
Our ancestors knew we could do it and we have to believe it too. We are from some of the strongest and finest stock that is known to mankind and should set the example for all dark skinned people over the entire earth simply because we are in a position to do so and live in the greatest country in the world. Our story is one of the greatest ever told. We are AmazingBlacks.
Founding members of the Congressional Black Caucus. Standing L-R: Parren Mitchell, Charles Rangel, Bill Clay, Ron Dellums, George W. Collins, Louis Stokes, Ralph Metcalfe, John Conyers, and Walter Fauntroy. Seated L-R: Robert N.C. Nix, Sr., Charles Diggs, Shirley Chisholm, and Augustus F. Hawkins. (Formation - 1971)
Richard M. Nixon
Charles Rangel - member of the Congressional Black Caucus
Political Scene in 1971
1971 - Richard M. Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974 when becaue of the Watergate scandal became the only U.S. president to resign the office. Nixon had previously served as a U.S. Representative and Senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Note: This website has judged the performance of every U.S. president in regards to the Civil Rights of African Americans. We started in the year 1863 with Abraham Lincoln all the way to 1969 with the out-going president Lyndon Baines Johnson.
It's weird because these two men shared many of the same real American qualities.
The 50s-60s marked the beginning of a new era for blacks with victories (FINALLY) in the Supreme Courts for African American citizens.( Which is all the Negro ever wanted, was a level playing field) Sadly many of our fellow Americans were participants in illegal activities with Jim Crow laws throughout our great nation, and most ignored and disobeyed the law of the U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence in regards to the citizenship rights of the Negro for their own advancement and enjoyment of American success. With each US president, this website always thought positive and hoped for the best that we would find one leader who would exercise his duties as Commander in Chief in enforcing our rights. We were looking for a courageous and brave person to set the moral tone of our great nation for all Americans, because like it or not we are all in this together. Now with our successes with Civil Rights and with blacks being so far behind socially, educationally and mentally, will a new movement be started to lift ourselves up? We have the level playing field now, and we can see the goal line, but there are still small lumps along the way that must be worked out in the courts. How will the black community stand up to this challenge? Each president was rated at the end of his term on how he performed which you will find on this site.
January 4, 1971 - The Congressional Black Caucus organizes to lead blacks into the 1970s
May 18, 1971 - United States President Richard Nixon says heck noand rejects a total of sixty demands from the Congressional Black Caucus.Analysis: Rebel rousers, yeah that's right, keep the pressure up. We've waited much too long for this opportunity!
1971 - The Black Liberation Army was an underground, black nationalist militant organization that operated in the United States from 1970 to 1981. Composed largely of former Black Panthers (BPP), the organization's program was one of "armed struggle" against the oppression and tyranny of the U.S. Government, and its stated goal was to "take up arms for the liberation and self-determination of black people in the United States." The BLA carried out a series of bombings, murders, robberies (which participants termed "expropriations"), and prison breaks.
1971 - Weather Underground was a white American militant radical left-wing organization founded on the Ann Arbor campus of the University of Michigan. In 1970 the group issued a "Declaration of a State of War" against the United States government, under the name "Weather Underground Organization." Their bombing campaign targeted mostly government buildings, along with several banks and called for a "white fighting force" to be allied with the "Black Liberation Movement" and other radical movements to achieve "the destruction of U.S. imperialism and achieve a classless world: world communism". The Weathermen began to disintegrate after the United States reached a peace accord in Vietnam in 1973 and became defunct by the mid-seventies.
Liberty, Justice and Freedom For All
It's true at one time in history; America was intended solely for white people, but not all white people. Most of America's founders desired only the fittest and smartest whites to settle here. The Irish, Italians and many more ethnic groups were considered low-life and not worthy to intermingle with the self-proclaimed superior whites, in fact, they were treated as harshly as the black slaves.
But within the time they changed their views and allowed lower class whites to have an equal say in the building of America, and of course being similar in color made it easy for these people to blend in with one another, and in time you couldn't tell the difference. A luxury that was impossible for blacks to attain.
But on the other hand, Black slaves were considered savage beast without the capabilities to learn and contribute to America, other than with their back-breaking labor.
Why did whites feel this way abouts blacks?
Before their arrival to America as slaves, they were very far behind in development and intelligence. There were great African Kingdoms, but they were no match for the ruthless Europeans. African rulers failed to educate their citizens which would have been a huge undertaking because there were thousands upon thousands of different tribes and clans with their distinct language and customs.
Most Africans didn't know how to read and write and would pass their history down from generation to the next orally. They also believed profoundly in superstition and all sorts of foolish beliefs that didn't help them once the Europeans arrived allowing them to ravage and dominate the African populations completely. Whites were very competitive and chose to proclaim themselves superior to the blacks, instead of sharing their knowledge to help these uneducated Africans.
So from the beginning, the Europeans made this a race issue. Africans were so far behind in human development, whites thought very lowly of them, and since they didn't have examples and scientific techniques we have today to prove otherwise they did as they pleased with little protest from the majority of the white population. In fact, most whites believed blacks were half human/beast only because they didn't know any better.
But in time things would change, and there would become many free blacks and also blacks in slavery who would achieve against all the odds of racism. Many whites began to realize that blacks were human beings and if given a chance could be just as intelligent as white people. The movement was started to get blacks equality in America to the dismay of hardcore white supremacist who refused to accept this undeniable evidence that all men are equal in ability.
Scientific discoveries would later determine there was no genetic proof that blacks were inferior to other races which would utterly destroy the superior white theory that had been preached for centuries. All that blacks needed was an education and an opportunity to compete and could do just as well as other races.
Although African-Americans were not immigrants but brought here as slaves, they had things in common because they also yearned for liberty, justice, and freedom. In time what made America so great was it realized it was wrong and attempted to change it's view so it could live up to the true meaning of liberty and justice for all.
But this wouldn't be easy because of many white people who refused to change their views and progress to a new era of love and cooperation for all humanity. They choose to live in the past where they enjoyed a comfortable, privileged life without blacks in the loop.
Since the races were compared to an inferior versus superior issue, many centuries ago white superior beliefs may have been a reasonable belief, with the Africans so far behind in human development and Europeans much more advanced. But with the successes of countless black Americans and other dark-skinned people around the world today, racism and hate have become an archaic, unreasonable and ignorant belief.
Is America at the crossroad?
Well if so, it had to happen one day. For generation after generation, whites have either consciously or unconsciously enjoyed special privilege in America. They control the purse strings not only in America but around the world in dictating a perverted version of justice and liberty for all. Other groups at home and abroad are growing weary and are fighting back.
Now the questions become, what will America do next? Will she attempt in becoming a true America of tolerance, justice, and liberty for all people or retreat to her lily white past where there is undoubtedly much danger awaiting for all who reside in her? Britain must answer the same questions.
Simply put, for people who say they love America but hate certain ethnic groups who reside in her are lying to themselves. Their hatred is not based on anything factual. They hate America. They're not true Americans and ultimately fail to understand the real meaning of her and seek to destroy the last great empire in world history with their foolish hate.
Race in 1971
April 20, 1971 - The United States Supreme Court upholds the forceful use of busing to achieve racial desegregation in American schools.
May 5, 1971 - There was a race riot in Brownsville section of Brooklyn New York City.
June 16, 1971 - The citizens of Jacksonville, Florida suffer a racial disturbance.
June 19, 1971 - The Mayor of Columbus, Georgia declares a state of emergency after racial disturbance.
October 14, 1971h - Racial tensions are high in certain parts of country. There were 2 people killed in Memphis, Tennessee.
HOW LONG WILL WHITE-AMERICANS SIT ON THE FENCE?
The purpose of this feature is to arrive at an honest and reliable answer how white Americans feel about black citizens. What better way to accomplish this than to examine its past leaders who represented the communities they served. The three greatest Presidents in American history are revisited for their treatment of black people. Their actions or inactions will without a doubt give us a clue.
George Washington is considered the Father of our country. His contemporaries which included men such as John Adams, John Dickinson, and Willam Whipple just to name a few disliked slavery. Whipple, who was a signer of the Declaration couldn't bring himself to sign the document without first freeing his slave and Dickinson did the same. These men, among others, sincerely believed in the principle that all men are created equal and have the right to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
Another of Washington's contemporaries was British author Thomas Day who made the following comment about America's founders:
"If there be an object truly ridiculous in nature, it is an American patriot, signing resolutions of independency with the one hand, and with the other brandishing a whip over his affrighted slaves."
While the Declaration was being created and debated most founders were content in sweeping the slave issue under the rug by leaving out much mention of black slaves because many of them were slaveholders themselves and figured this would make them look like hypocrites.
During the war, the colonist and British actively sought and recruited black slaves to fight and promised freedom after the victory. It's well recorded that slaves fought with courage and valor that ensured American success. George Washington himself remarked in writing:
Washington wrote a letter to Colonel Henry Lee III stating that success in the war would come to whatever side could arm the blacks the fastest.
But after victory, America didn't keep its promises, and most blacks were forced back into slavery. Of course, George Washington had to know about this but did nothing. Washington had many slaves himself and didn't want to free them and damage his financial stake. History shows he put money interests ahead of principle. Washington was a brilliant soldier but failed as an upholder of truth and justice. As a leader, Washington's inaction would set the tone for future race relations in our country.
Washington had trivialized the principle of human rights for black people, the very complaint the Patriots had against England and the reason the war was fought. It's sad to say, but Washington didn't stay in the truth, but at least the British kept their promise by shipping the many blacks who fought on their side to Sierra Leone Africa and Nova Scotia for a new life.
In contrast to George Washington, Abraham Lincoln evidently didn't share Washington's view of the principles this country was founded. Lincoln was an ardent lover of truth and democracy. He took pride in doing the right thing. We must be honest in saying Lincoln had adamant opinions how he felt about black people personally. He would go on to make the following quotes;
"As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this to the extent of the difference, is no democracy."
"I have no purpose to introduce political and social equality between the white and the black races.... But I hold that ... there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
"Nearly eighty years ago we began by declaring that all men are created equal; but now from that beginning, we have run down to the other declaration, that for some men to enslave others is a "sacred right of self-government." Our republican robe is soiled and trailed in the dust.… Let us repurify it. Let us re-adopt the Declaration of Independence, and with it, the practices, and policy, which harmonize with it.… If we do this, we shall not only have saved the Union: but we shall have saved it, as to make, and keep it, forever worthy of the saving."
Now it's very clear from the many negative comments Abraham Lincoln made against black people he wasn't likely to have them over for dinner or have any other social interaction. But if living in our day would have probably changed his views. He was well known for his ability to adapt. So why was he a great President?
Because even though Lincoln felt blacks were not equal, he still felt they should be able to enjoy all the rights a white person did. HOW COURAGEOUS! Lincoln went against the grain and chose to institute the Emancipation Proclamation which freed the slaves and Reconstruction Acts that would eventually give blacks citizenship and the right to vote.
Lincoln understood what every single President in American history ignored, and that the most important thing for America to keep sacred was upholding the principles of human rights and equality for all. Something that had never been accomplished in any government of humankind's history. Throughout the years all U.S. Presidents bowed down to racist white power and sold out these principles.
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
During the Roosevelt administration, America would proclaim itself a moral leader of the entire world for human rights and democracy.
Without a doubt, this opened the door for the advancement of black people. This was when The Black Cabinet who were an informal group of African-American public policy advisors to the President came into existence, an accomplishment unheard of up until that time.
Roosevelt also issued Executive Order 8802, which created the Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC) which was the most significant federal move in support of the rights of African-Americans between Reconstruction and the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The President's order stated that the federal government would not hire any person based on their race, color, creed, or national origin. Millions of blacks and women achieved better jobs and better pay as a result.
In 1942, at Eleanor's instigation, Roosevelt met with a delegation of African-American leaders, who demanded full integration into the armed forces, including the right to serve in combat roles and the Navy, the Marine Corps and the United States Army Air Forces. Roosevelt agreed, but then did nothing to implement his promise.
Roosevelt also had a Vice President named Henry Wallace who was a true lover of democracy, justice, and liberty for all. Wallace was a different breed of people of his day because he believed all races were equal in America and weren't afraid to voice this. But sadly, Roosevelt didn't support Wallace as Vice President for his final term in office choosing instead go with Harry Truman who as a younger man once voiced how he felt about non-whites:
"I think one man is as good as another as long as he's decent and honest and not a nigger or a Chinaman. The Lord made the man out of dust, the nigger from mud and threw up what was left to create the Chinaman."
Roosevelt was a mixed bag when it came to upholding the principles the nation was founded. For example, there were black leaders during his administration who petitioned the United Nations with the declaration of Genocide that the government was committing against blacks. Roosevelt failed to see the importance of being proactive in upholding the principles of the Declaration of Independence for all citizens.
What can we learn from these three great men?
The one most important observation is there weren't any of these Presidents who sincerely liked black people, and throughout the years America's white citizens haven't been any different.
The honest truth is whites don't care for blacks as brothers, and historically blacks have been unable to figure out why. Black people view themselves as Americans and don't understand why they can't be looked upon and treated the same as an Irish American, Italian American, English American, Polish American, etc. and are always seeking inclusion as one big happy American family which makes total sense but sad to say many whites can't see beyond color (which represents advantage) even in this day and age.
When it's all said and done racism exist because of money and pride. Just imagine if every single black person in America was a millionaire and lacked for nothing and controlled the purse strings with all white people in extreme poverty begging and eating out of garbage cans. This would eliminate the bulk of racism because whites wouldn't have any power.
Money=power, but money doesn't have to equal hate, it what the one with the power chooses to do with it. This is where pride comes in because all racist feel they are special people and their way of doing things is the best way, the superior way and the only way as far as they are concerned. People have the power to opt for love, but always choose selfishness and hate.
Because of this, America has never been the one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all we see on television, and being the father of our country, George Washington started these false beliefs and practices.
Generally speaking, white citizens today are not much different than these three past Presidents and through the years have become three distinct classes:
(1) George Washington class: This shortsighted and selfish class puts money and greed interest ahead of principle that would promote peace and harmony for the whole.
(2) Abraham Lincoln class: This class puts the welfare of whole first and recognizes this earth doesn't belong to one single group of people and must be truthfully shared equitably.
(3) Franklin D. Roosevelt class: This class hopes for the best but won't lift a finger in achieving that. This class straddles the fence and can sympathize with both the Washington and the Lincoln class. They are wishy-washy and travels where the winds blow them.
It's important to remember that all three classes don't particularity like blacks and have minimal association with them if any, and this is said because even today it's rare for the races to mingle and when they do can be uncomfortable in a social setting, how ridiculous! The race with the power is the only one that can change this for the better. It's that simple.
In a sense, Washington created the blueprint for a distorted and false view of American principles that became the norm in much of America's dealings with black people. Abraham Lincoln tried to do away with this damaging logic and desired America to live up to the principles it was founded and died for his beliefs. Roosevelt dabbled on either side by sitting on the fence of inaction and did little for principle because being partakers of a privileged life was more advantageous to his class.
The danger of this, of course, was that in continuing to undermine principle, the prospect would exist of being faced with an America that wouldn't be recognizable. Lincoln was the only President to understand and appreciate this danger.
“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.”Tim Wise
So has America changed, if yes, what has she become?
Good question, but you must answer yourself.
But there are many more questions that need to be answered. Because of the folly of greed and racism and lack of action to speak out by the real Americans, has this country morphed into another form of power that is completely different than it started out? Has it become like an insatiable, greedy, detestable and ugly monster without a soul or conscience?
THE CIVIL RIGHTS BATTLE HAS BEEN WON!
We are extremely happy and excited for the future!
There are smaller battles ahead, but we will prevail.
It was a horrific journey.
We thought after slavery was outlawed in 1863, everything would be okay.
But instead, it was a big disappointment the next hundred years for blacks.
Since emancipation blacks have been murdered by lynch mobs, tortured, raped, assaulted, disrespected, demoralized, discouraged and made to feel less than human, and a search of history would reveal blacks seldom retaliated but always longed for peace and justice. But after the victorious civil rights battle, many are in terrible shape mentally, but we will keep on pushing. We've come too far to quit now.
Most white Americans along with our United States government actively participated in atrocities that bordered on genocide against blacks either by their silence or direct involvement, but there were also many good white American brothers who understood the true meaning of democracy for all.
We couldn't have been victorious without them. Our Civil Rights leaders have been excellent moral examples for us since freedom from slavery. It was a collective effort. They unselfishly lead blacks and did an outstanding job.
They were the only hope of a race of people without a voice in a privileged white society who had kidnapped our U.S. Constitution to their own selfish advantage.
We would like to take this opportunity to give recognition to ones who have helped our American struggle. This is not a complete listing by any means. There were many more shining examples of Americans, both black and white.
But now since we are victorious with our Civil Rights and ready to travel the next phase of our journey, we need strong black leaders who will teach us the critical importance of education. So an important question needs to be answered.
We need to know...
Our fearless Civil Rights leaders have victoriously completed their task and have proudly passed the baton to all African American Mothers and Fathers to continue the struggle by raising our children with high moral standards encouraging them to achieve and soar like the eagles.
The new black leaders of our community,
Aren't they beautiful?
They would make our ancestors very proud! I think I feel a tear coming
Getting Faded in the 70s
The Long Island Iced Tea was named for its resemblance to non-alcoholic Iced tea. photo #101-yr-1979
Having fun with my peoples, getting faded and blastin The Manhattans photo #105c-yr-1979
Eating, drinkin and having fun in the 70s photo #library
Getting Faded and Having Fun in 1971
For some people back in the 70s, it was nothing better than hanging out with your peoples, talking smack or quietly listening, laughing and getting faded on the following feel good liquors:
Wild Irish Rose
"What's the word? Thunderbird, How's it sold? Good and cold, What's the jive? Bird's alive, What's the price? Thirty twice."
E & J Brandy
Gin and Grapefruit Juice
Tequila Sunrise garnished with orange & cherry photo#114a
I still have a headache, but had a blast!
Don't forget those wild and loud games of dominoes with folks slamming bones on the table and running off at the mouth. Here are some of the trash words being said:
HEY! hit me five times
Who dat knocking at my door?
Fish and bread keep po' men fed
All money ain't good money
Beef steak and gravy
Ten keys, come and get some of these
4 hoes and a pimp
3 switchin bitches
Rock and I'm out
Can't have fun without those beats, these are the songs that were blasting on the turntable in 1971 while enjoying ourselves:
Beats in the 70s - photo#library
Just My Imagination,The Temptations
Knock Three Times, Dawn
Tired of Being Alone, Al Green
Want Ads, Honey Cone
Smiling Faces Sometimes, Undisputed Truth
Treat Her Like a Lady, Cornelius Brothers
Mr. Big Stuff, Jean Knight
What's Going On, Marvin Gaye
Ain't No Sunshine, Bill Withers
Never Can Say Goodbye, The Jackson 5
Whatcha See Is Whatcha Get, Dramatics
If You Really Love Me, Stevie Wonder
Spanish Harlem, Aretha Franklin
Bridge Troubled Water, Aretha Franklin
Proud Mary, Ike and Tina Turner
Mercy Mercy Me, Marvin Gaye
Stick Up, Honey Cone
If I Were Your Woman, Gladys Knight
One Less Bell to Answer, Fifth Dimension
WOW! I miss 1971
sLANG tALK in 1971
Do Your Own Thing! - whatever pleases you
Be yourself! - don't be a fake
Do what you want to do - whatever pleases you
Laid Back - taking it easy, relaxed
Psyche - excited, energized
The Crib and going to the Gig - home
The Gig - job
Dream On - hopeful
Kicks - shoes
Mackin - gettin the girls
Off The Hook - extra cool
Old School - old fashioned
Pad - home
In Your Face! - victory
That's Sick! - awesome
The Man - police
To The Max - maximum
Yo Mama - term of endearment, joking around
Chill - take it easy
Feel Tha Funk - groove and feel the music
Catch My Drift - do you understand?
Chillaxin - relaxing
Chump - punk
Copasetic - something cool, hip
Don't Bogart - don't hold the joint too long, pass it around
Doobie - a joint
Dude - a guy
For Rizzle - I didn't know that
Foxy - sexy girl
Gimme Five - cool handshake
Hood - a ghetto person
Trippin - going wacko
Pig - police
Pimpin - a guy good with the ladies
Dig It - understand
Backatcha! - you too
Brick House - super fine woman
Can You Dig It - you understand?
Right On - agree
Stone Groove - extra cool and fun
Season 5 1970-1971 cast from left: Leonard Nimoy, Greg Morris, Lesley Ann Warren, Peter Lupus, and Peter Graves photo #102-yr-1966
Rodney Allen Rippy who starred in Jack in the Box television commercials in the 1970s. - photo #116-yr-1970
Barbara McNair, was always a great presence on television
Lloyd Haynes and Michael Constantine from the television program Room 222 photo #103-yr-1969
Gail Fisher as Peggy Fair and Mark Stewart as her son, Toby, from the television program Mannix. photo #113-yr-1968
Clarence Williams III of Mod Squad fame photo #110-yr-1968
The Flip Wilson Show photo #117-yr-1970
Television / Movies in 1971
You've Got to Walk It Like You Talk It or You'll Lose That Beat
- Richard Pryor (wino)
Live and Smokin' - Richard Pryor
The Mod Squad which aired from 1968-1973 was a show we wouldn't dare to miss. It felt good to see a cool black character such as an undercover cop, Linc Hayes taking care of business. It was also pretty cool the way Julie (Peggy Lipton) and Pete (Michael Cole) included him in all of their adventures. It made us feel like maybe one-day racism would be stamped out and we could all work and live together peacefully because of this show.
Mannix was an American television detective series that ran from 1967 to 1975 on CBS. Gail Fisher
was best known for playing the role of the secretary "Peggy Fair" on the television detective series, a role for which she won two Golden Globe Awards and an Emmy Award.
Room 222 was a comedy-drama television series which aired on ABC from September 17, 1969 until January 11, 1974. The series focused on an American history class at the fictional Walt Whitman High School in LA, California. The class was taught by Pete Dixon (Lloyd Haynes), an idealistic African-American schoolteacher. Other characters featured in the show were the school's compassionate guidance counselor, Liz McIntyre (Denise Nicholas), who was also Pete's girlfriend; the dryly humorous school principal, Seymour Kaufman (Michael Constantine); and the petite and enthusiastic Alice Johnson (Karen Valentine), a student teacher.
Mission: Impossible series aired on the CBS network from September 1966 to March 1973. It chronicles the missions of a team of secret government agents known as the Impossible Missions Force (IMF). Barnard "Barney" Collier (Greg Morris), a mechanical and electronics genius and owner of Collier Electronics was a true inspiration to blacks back in the 70s, finally, a black man that used his brains in a television role.
The Barbara McNair Show which aired from 1969 - 1972 starred Barbara McNair in her 1969 television variety series, one of the first black women to host her musical variety show. The show was produced in Canada by CTV (at CFTO/Toronto).
The Flip Wilson Show was so funny. The show aired from 1970-1974 and won numerous awards. Flip made the black community feel proud that a person of color could be so successful. He inspired many. He was a truly talented comedian. He had us in tears with his character Geraldine Jones, who would dress up like a woman and brag about her boyfriend Killa, and whose line "The devil made me do it" became a national catchphrase. Older people in the community especially got a big laugh from this character; he was hilarious and convincing!
Remember the kid that was trying to wrap his mouth around the super-sized Jumbo Jack hamburger? His name is Rodney Allen Rippy who appeared in TV commercials for the fast-food chain Jack in the Box in the early 1970s, as well as in numerous roles in television and movies.
Blaxploitation Films: movies that emerged in the United States in the 1970s targeted for black audiences
Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song was written, produced, scored, directed by, and stars Melvin Van Peebles. The movie is about a man who is arrested for a crime he did not commit.
Shaft features Richard Roundtree as detective John Shaft. It spawned two sequels, Shaft's Big Score (1972) and Shaft in Africa (1973).
Academy Award Winners:
1971 - Isaac Hayes for Shaft. Best Original Song
Mary J. Blige
Famous Birthdays in 1971
January 2, 1971 - Taye Diggs an African-American theatre, film and television actor, best known by his nickname, Taye Diggs.
January 11, 1971 - Mary J. Blige is an accomplished, soulful and popular African American singer.
January 17, 1971 - Lil Jon an African-American rapper, record producer, entrepreneur, and international DJ.
January 19, 1971 - Shawn Mathis Wayans an American actor, DJ, producer, writer and comedian who starred in In Living Color and The Wayans Bros.
January 26, 1971 - Dorian Gregory an African-American actor most notable for playing Darryl Morris on the television show Charmed.
January 27, 1971 - Vincent M. Ward also known as Vincent Ward, is an American actor.
February 5, 1971 - Markus Redmond an American actor. He is best known for his role as Raymond Alexander, in the comedy-drama series Doogie Howser, M.D.
February 26, 1971 - Erykah Badu is an African-American singer-songwriter, record producer, activist, and actress.
February 28, 1971 - Tasha Smith Douglas is an American actress. She has appeared in numerous movies and plays, most notably as Angela Williams in the Tyler Perry films Why Did I Get Married?
March 2, 1971 - Method Man an American hip hop recording artist, record producer and actor from Staten Island, New York City, New York.
March 4, 1971 - Shavar Malik Ross an African-American actor, film director, screenwriter, film producer, editor, photographer, and author.
March 9, 1971 - Emmanuel Lewis an American actor, best known for playing the title character in the 1980s television sitcom Webster.
March 22, 1971 - Keegan-Michael Key an African-American actor, voice actor, writer, producer and comedian.
March 29, 1971 - Michael-Leon Wooley an American television, film and theatre actor and singer.
April 11, 1971 - Vicellous Reon Shannon an African-American actor.
April 18, 1971 - Fredro Starr an American rapper and actor, best known as a member of hardcore hip hop group Onyx.
April 26, 1971 - Shondrella Dupre Avery an African-American actress, model and comedian and She currently lives in Los Angeles, California.
May 14, 1971 - Raymond Rogers better known as Freaky Tah, was an MC, hype man and promoter.
May 27, 1971 - Lisa Nicole Lopes better known as Left Eye, was an African-American rapper, singer, dancer, musician, and songwriter.
June 2, 1971 - Anthony D. Montgomery an American film and television actor, as well as graphic novelist.
June 12, 1971 - Eric Breed, better known as MC Breed, was an African-American rapper best known for his singles "Ain't No Future in Yo Frontin".
June 16, 1971 - Tupac Shakur also known by his stage names 2Pac and briefly as Makaveli, was an American rapper and actor.
June 18th, 1971 - Nathan Morris of the singing group Boyz II Men.
July 1, 1971 - Missy Elliott an American singer-songwriter, rapper, and record producer.
July 10, 1971 - Aaron Darnell Spears an African American actor.
July 17, 1971 - Tyrin Turner an American actor from South Central, Los Angeles who has appeared in movies since 1989.
July 20, 1971 - Robert Earl "DJ Screw" Davis, Jr. was an African-American hip hop DJ who was based in Houston, Texas.
July 29, 1971 - Monica Calhoun an American film and television actress. She is best known for her roles in the films Bagdad Cafe, The Players Club, The Salon, and The Best Man.
August 6, 1971 - Merrin Dungey an African-American film and television actress, known for her roles on the television series The King of Queens, Alias and Summerland.
August 9, 1971 - Mack 10 an American rapper and actor.
August 12, 1971 - Yvette Nicole Brown an American actress and comedian. Brown has appeared in numerous commercials, television shows, and films throughout her career.
August 31, 1971 - Chris Tucker an American actor and comedian.
September 2, 1971 - Katt Williams an African-American stand-up comedian, actor, rapper, singer, voice artist, and comedian.
September 7, 1971 - Briana Scurry an American retired soccer goalkeeper.
September 18, 1971 - Jada Pinkett Smith is an American actress, singer-songwriter, and businesswoman.
September 21, 1971 - Alfonso Lincoln Ribeiro, Sr. an African-American actor, television director, dancer, and game show host.
September 22, 1971 - Lawrence "Larry" Gilliard, Jr. an American character actor who has appeared in films, television series and theatre.
October 3, 1971 - Black Thought is an African-American artist who is the lead MC of the Philadelphia-based hip hop group The Roots, as well as an occasional actor.
October 6, 1971 - Lamman Rucker an American actor.
October 20, 1971 - Snoop Dogg an American rapper, singer-songwriter, and actor. Snoop has sold over 30 million albums worldwide.
October 25, 1971 - Craig Robinson an African-American actor, stand-up comedian, and singer.
November 10, 1971 - Christopher Lee Rios, better known by his stage name Big Pun (short for Big Punisher), was an American rapper and actor.
November 25, 1971 - Dedrick D. Gobert was an American film actor best known for his supporting role in the 1991 film Boyz n the Hood.
November 26, 1971 - Matty Rich a African-American film director, screenwriter, and video game executive.
December 4, 1971 - Shannon Briggs is an African-American professional boxer. Briggs is a former WBO heavyweight champion, and former challenger for the WBC heavyweight title.
December 30, 1971 - Daniel Sunjata an American actor who performs in film, television and theater.
1971 - Cle Shaheed Sloan an African-American filmmaker and activist from Los Angeles, California, USA.
1971 - Kent Faulcon an African-American actor, director, and writer.
1971 - Big Ed AKA his real name Edward Lee Knight was an American rapper who was signed to Master P's No Limit Records.
Louis Armstrong photo #109-yr-1901
Famous Deaths in 1971
January 8, 1971 - George Garner was an American vocalist and choral director. He was the first African American to solo at the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. He was also the first African-American lead in a production at the Pasadena Playhouse in Pasadena, California.
January 19, 1971 - Jane Edna Hunter an African-American social worker, was born near Pendleton, South Carolina.
March 11, 1971 - Whitney Moore Young, Jr. was an American civil rights leader.
March 12, 1971 - Roy E. Glenn, Sr. was an African-American character actor who was born in Pittsburg, Kansas.
March 16, 1971 - Powell S. Barnett musician, baseball player, and community leader in Seattle, Washington.
July 6, 1971 - Louis Armstrong nicknamed Satchmo or Pops, was an American jazz trumpeter, singer, and an influential figure in jazz music.
August 21, 1971 - George Jackson was an African-American left-wing activist, Marxist, author, a member of the Black Panther Party, and co-founder of the Black Guerrilla Family while incarcerated. Jackson achieved fame as one of the Soledad Brothers and was later shot to death by guards in San Quentin Prison during an escape attempt.
Analysis: This man was a very intense individual and many will not agree with his lifes choices, but he was dedicated for sure. Hollywood needs to make a movie of his life.
August 27, 1971 - Lil Hardin Armstrong was a jazz pianist, composer, arranger, singer, and bandleader, and the second wife of Louis Armstrong with whom she collaborated on many recordings in the 1920s.
September 11, 1971 - Joe Jordan was a songwriter of writing piano rags. He contributed a song to Sons of Ham (1900).
December 7, 1971 - Marita Bonner (also known as Marieta Bonner) was an African-American writer, essayist, and playwright who is commonly associated with the Harlem Renaissance.
December 9, 1971 - Ralph Johnson Bunche was an American political scientist, academic, and diplomat who received the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize for his late 1940s mediation in Palestine.
(1971) - Marita Bonner known as Marieta Bonner) was an African-American writer, essayist, and playwright who is commonly associated with the Harlem Renaissance.
IF NOT, WHY SO DIFFICULT TO FIND FOR MANY?
National issues have always been compounded for black males and females in America. The feminist movement of the 70s ushered in a division between men and women relationships both black and white. It taught the woman to be self-reliant, strong and independent from the male, and we must all admit she has down an outstanding job.
But in regards to relationships, black women had another issue to add to this because the black male in America has historically been a target of hate and fear and will probably continue to be so. After the 60s, the face of racism and exclusion changed its ugly image from overt to covert for the most part which can be just as damaging.
Let's be totally honest. Black men are simply not well liked or spoken of kindly in America. Just about every article we read in the papers or internet is something negative when editors just as easily could have chosen a positive story of black male kindness. People tolerate black men, but don't want any part of us, or to get to know us as human beings or fellow Americans.
After slavery whites instituted illegal laws that were 100% against our Constitution which enabled them to build an enormous and exclusive white power structure that still stands today.
Even today many black men are intimidated by this power structure and refuse to challenge it in an intelligent way, like picking up a book and using their God-given brain power. This is why our distant ancestors in Africa who come to America as immigrants to enroll in American colleges don't want anything to do with black Americans.
They think we're foolish for wasting this incredible opportunity in gaining success. They know it's not because black American males can't do it, it's because we don't want to do it. To prove this point, Google "African immigrants in college" and discover that African/Asian immigrants out-perform all races academically in higher learning.
No one would deny that African-Americans and Africans are from the same stock of humanity. So why is it black immigrants can achieve on such a high level in America and we don't?
It's because we start out the gate with a disadvantage created by this humongous power structure against us and even more sad is our own people, AKA black role models who sell their damaging and harmful products which teaches our young males an entirely different approach to American success while they pad their already fat pocketbooks.
These people fail to uplift our race and are always portraying negative images and imply that something is owed to us and we should feel sorry for ourselves, so why even try? What they rap/sing/act about doesn't include books and education but glorifies a life of having fun each and every day. For the most part, good black parents struggle to compete with these very powerful enemies and lose their sons to the streets.
Before the movement, there were more blacks who were married than whites. But that would later change. When the opportunity presented itself, these aggressive and amazing black women took off to achieve and soar like the eagles, leaving the intimidated black male in the dust with his foolish boy-like games. Many black women would go on to raise families without the intimidated and targeted black man in the children's life.
No one better than her understood what the black male was going through facing everyday life, and she would have supported him if he would have put up some intelligent fight, but many struggling black men didn't and chose a foolish life of running game, and backwards living that's opposite of what it takes for American success.
In today's world, black women probably encounter these same struggling black men much more than the successful ones in their quest for love, but judge them as all the same.
Many extraordinary black men have figured out the white power structure game and became successful at it, and continues to do so.
There are tons of black fellas who are intelligent, honorable, stable, gainfully employed, and faithful who just desires a smart, sexy, girly black woman who understands how to relax in her femininity and allow the man to rest in his masculinity for the well-being of the relationship.
These extraordinary single black men sincerely wonder if they stand an ounce of a chance with the characteristic traits of a typical Black American woman.
Who are today's black women? We all know they are amazing human beings to accomplish what they have, but have they out-smarted themselves in regards to male-female relationships?
How would you answer?
Letisha is a 30-year-old college educated black woman who has worked hard as a lawyer to achieve the lifestyle she adores which includes a lovely home, luxury cars, plenty of cash in the bank and much food in the refrigerator. In a good year, Letisha will make $150,000. Letisha doesn't want for anything except for meeting a nice man, falling in love and getting married.
Lamont is a blue collar worker earning just enough to get by. He is self-taught in everything he does and is quite smart. He owns a junk yard that was left to him by his long-deceased dad, Fred. Lamont prefers his profession to be recognized as dealing in commodities. He loves his work. He just doesn't make much money from it. In a good year, Lamont will make $35,000.
Letisha decides to treat herself to a month long vacation in Hawaii staying at the best hotel. Lamont who plays the lottery every week finally hit a little jackpot decided to do the same. Fate would have these two young black people meeting and discovering an instant attraction and love connection, and happy they have a whole month to nurture it along.
Lamont and Letisha are inseparable the entire vacation. Letisha explains to Lamont that she's a lawyer and Lamont explains to her he's a dealer in commodities. They are so connected; they never run out of words to say, and even finish each other's sentences. Well, needless to say, they eventually make mad passionate love with Letisha shedding one tear which was always her gauge of a real lover.
Letisha and Lamont were very excited about what the future held for them. Possible marriage was even discussed. On the last day of vacation, they exchanged addresses. Letisha was so excited she expressed to Lamont she couldn't wait to visit him. Two weeks later and upon arriving at Lamont's junkyard business she couldn't believe the huge sign that read "Top Commodities Dealer, Lamont." Letisha made a quick u-turn and never called Lamont again. Lamont felt hurt and wondered if another type of woman would have stayed.
Which woman do you more associate with?
(1) The woman that stayed and continued with her relationship with Lamont is a level headed woman and hasn't let money cloud her view of real life and potential happiness with an otherwise good black man who had proven to stimulate both her mind and body.
(2) The woman that made the quick u-turn is the frustrated one, and always complaining about there not being any good black men because she equates money with happiness, when quite the contrary joy and love is very straightforward and easy. Being unreasonable she makes everything difficult.
Analysis: Independent black women have accomplished so much since the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, and have our wonderful African American ancestors to thank for the opportunity. Money should only be used as a tool for the benefit of the relationship between a man and woman not a gauge of another person's character or worth. Real men for decades found pride in bringing home the bacon to their wives who didn't work and those relationships worked just fine, only because money was not the primary factor, love and respect was.
Famous Weddings in 1971
January 20, 1971 - Diana Ross marries Ellis Silberstein.
November 1971 - Willie Mays marries Mae Louise Allen.
December 24, 1971 - George Foreman marries Adrienne Calhoun.
1971 - Barbara McNair and Jack Rafferty were divorced.
The Originals Clockwise from left: C.P. Spencer, Hank Dixon, Walter Gaines and Freddie Gorman (c. 1968) photo #112-yr-1968
Soul Train ran from 1971-2006
Music in 1971
Billboard Top Soul Hits:
What's Going On, Marvin Gaye
Let's Stay Together, Al Green
Just My Imagination, The Temptations
Mercy Mercy Me, Marvin Gaye
Theme From Shaft, Isaac Hayes
Papa Was a Rolling Stone, Temptations
Have You Seen Her, Chi-Lites
Popular Soul Dances:
Walking the dog
The Rock Steady
The Funky Chicken
Locking - Roboting - Popping
Breakdancing - B-boying
Musical Happenings in 1971:
The Originals often called "Motown's best-kept secret", were a successful Motown R&B and soul group during the late 1960s and the 1970s, most notable for the hits "Baby I'm for Real", "The Bells" and the disco classic "Down to Love Town". Formed in 1966, the group originally consisted of bass singer Freddie Gorman, baritone (and the group's founder) Walter Gaines, and tenors C. P. Spencer and Hank Dixon (and briefly Joe Stubbs). Ty Hunter replaced Spencer when he left to go solo in the early 1970s.
Portia K. Maultsby organizes the first African American popular music ensemble at a university (Indiana University) that constitutes a credit course.
Eileen Southern's Music of Black Americans:A History is a groundbreaking history that helps establish the study of African American music "as a scholarly specialty.
Marvin Gaye's What's Going On is released to great commercial and critical acclaim. It is a "bold musical experiment filled with stream-of-consciousness social commentary". The result is the best-selling album in Motown's history.
The film Shaft and the following year's Super Fly innovate the style known as blaxploitation, which had profound effects on the aesthetic of black popular music over the next several decades.
Soul Train was an American musical variety television program which aired in syndication from 1971 - 2006. In its 35-year history, the show primarily featured performances by R&B, soul, and hip hop artists, although funk, jazz, disco, and gospel artists also appeared. The series was created by Don Cornelius, who also served as its first host and executive producer.
Grammy winners in 1971:
The 13th Annual Grammy Awards were held on 16 March 1971, and was the first time the ceremonies were broadcast on television by ABC. They recognized accomplishments by musicians from the year 1970. The ceremony was hosted by Andy Williams.
Best Ethnic or Traditional Recording (including traditional blues)
T-Bone Walker for Good Feelin'
Best Soul Gospel Performance
Edwin Hawkins for "Every Man Wants to Be Free" performed by the Edwin Hawkins Singers
Best Jazz Performance - Large Group or Soloist with Large Group
Miles Davis for Bitches Brew
Best Album Notes
Chris Albertson (notes writer) for The World's Greatest Blues Singer performed by Bessie Smith
Best Contemporary Vocal Performance, Female
Dionne Warwick for I'll Never Fall in Love Again
Best R&B Vocal Performance, Female
Don't Play That Song by Aretha Franklin
Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male
The Thrill Is Gone" by B.B. King
Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group, Vocal or Instrumental
Didn't I (Blow Your Mind This Time) by The Delfonics
Best Rhythm & Blues Song
General Johnson & Ronald Dunbar (songwriters) for "Patches" performed by Clarence Carter
Best Spoken Word Recording
Martin Luther King, Jr. for Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam
Graduation fashion times in Stockton California - 1970s
Hot pants of the 1970s
Singer Billy Preston in 1974 wearing an Afro hairstyle.
Afro hairstyle of the late 60s/early 70s
photo - pixabay.com
African-American woman with short afro 1979 and silk scarves which were a popular fashion accessories for women. photo #123-yr-1970
Graduation fashion times in Stockton California - 1970s
Best friends fashions in Stockton California - 1970s
Fashions and Styles in 1971
The 1970's fashion, often called the "Me Decade", began with a continuation of the mini skirts, bell-bottoms, and the androgynous hippie look from the late 1960s and eventually became one of the most iconic decades for fashion ever.
In the early 1970s, there was a trend for unisex men's and women's matching outfits with little to absolutely no differences. They often came together in matching sets.
Generally the most famous silhouette of the mid and late 1970s for both genders was that of tight on top and loose on bottom. The 1970s also saw the birth of the indifferent, anti-conformist approach to fashion, which consisted of sweaters, t-shirts, jeans, and sneakers.
Popular early 1970s fashions for women included Tie dye shirts, Mexican peasant blouses, folk-embroidered Hungarian blouses, ponchos, capes, and military surplus clothing. Bottom attire for women during this time included bell-bottoms, gauchos, frayed jeansmidis" (which were unpopular), and ankle-length dresses called "maxis" were also worn in the early 1970s, thus offering women three different skirt lengths.
Although the hippie look was widespread, it was not adopted by everyone. Many women still continued to dress up with more glamorous clothes, inspired by 1940s movie star glamour. Other women just adopted simple casual fashions. More simple early 1970s trends for women included fitted blazers (coming in a multitude of fabrics along with wide lapels), long and short dresses, mini skirts, maxi evening gowns, hot pants (extremely brief, tight-fitting shorts) paired with skin-tight t-shirts, his & hers outfits (matching outfits that were nearly identical to each other), and flared pants.
Clean-cut, All-American active wear for women became increasingly popular from 1975 onwards. The biggest phenomenon of this trend was the jumpsuit, popular from 1975 onwards.
Women's fashions in the late 1970s included cowl-neck shirts and sweaters, pantsuits, leisure suits, tracksuits, sundresses worn with tight t-shirts, strapless tops, lower-cut shirts, cardigans, velour shirts, tunics, robes, crop tops, tube tops, embroidered vests and jeans, knee-length skirts, loose satin pants, designer jeans, culottes, daisy dukes, and tennis shorts.
In the early 1970s boots were at the height of their popularity, continuing onward from the mid 1960s. Women had boots for every occasion, with a wide variety of styles being sold in stores for affordable prices.
Disco clothes worn by women included tube tops, sequined halterneck shirts, blazers, spandex short shorts, loose pants, form-fitting spandex pants, maxi skirts and dresses with long thigh slits, jersey wrap dresses, ball gowns, and evening gowns.
The early 1970s were a continuation of late 1960s hippie fashion. For men this particularly meant bell bottom jeans, tie dye shirts, and military surplus clothing. Other early 1970s clothes for men included matching outfits, sports jackets, khaki chinos, chunky sweaters, storm coats, battle jackets peacoats, flannel shirts, pleated pants, baseball jackets, corduroy pants, pullover sweaters and sweater vests, tassels, cardigans, and hip-huggers.
Mens footwear in the early 1970s included flip-flops, oxfords, Birkenstocks, platform shoes, earth shoes, and cowboy boots.
Fashion in the 1970s was generally informal and laid back for men. Most men simply wore jeans, sweaters, and T-shirts, which by then were being made with more elaborate designs. Men continued to wear flannel, and the Leisure suit became increasingly popular from 1975 onwards, often worn with gold medallions and oxford shoes. Vintage clothing, khaki chinos, workmens clothes, sweatshirts, leather coats, and all-denim outfits were also desired among young men.
In the mid-1960s, the Afro hairstyle began in a fairly tightly coiffed form, such as the hairstyle that became popular among members of the Black Panther Party. As the 1960s progressed towards the 1970s, popular hairstyles, both within and outside of the black African-American community, became longer and longer. As a result, the late 60s/early 70s saw an expansion in the overall size of Afros. Some of the entertainers and sociopolitical figures of the time known for wearing larger afros include political activist Angela Davis, actress Pam Grier, rock musician Jimi Hendrix, and the members of the musical groups The Jackson 5 and The Supremes.
In the 1970s, making one of the popular hairstyles for a woman didn't take a lot of time. For Blacks in the United States and elsewhere, the afro was worn by both sexes throughout the decade. It was occasionally sported by whites as an alternative to the uniform long, straight hair which was a fashion mainstay until the arrival of punk and the"disco look" when hair became shorter and centre partings were no longer the mode.
How did "acting" Cool begin for African Americans?
It seems like it's been around forever and expected of every black kid growing up
For most blacks, cool started on the southern plantations. Opportunists slavemasters devised a way for slaves to work harder and reap the benefits of their labor. During the year at a chosen plantation slave masters would hold a "Corn Shucking Festival." Slaves from nearby plantations would also join this event with their owner's permission, so it was almost like a community gathering of all the local slaves, with greedy slavemasters making all the money.
The slave who shucked the most corn won an award, sometimes cash or a suit of clothes. Anyone who found a red ear of corn also received a reward - perhaps a kiss from a young woman or a jug of whiskey. It was at these events that the term Shuckin' and jivin' came into existence by the slaves while working and telling tall stories, talking smack, and joking around with each other.
These gatherings, even though involving hard work had to be an event looked forward to by the slaves, because it was one of the few times during the year blacks had a chance to interact with one another. Shuckin' and jivin' would become a tool the slaves would use to convince their masters of an untruth, and even among themselves. It was an early form of being cool. http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Corn-Shucking+Festival
After slavery blacks were free (sort of) to do as they pleased. Most blacks wanted to assimilate into American culture very much but were shut out by the white racist. African and European culture met head on in what was supposed to be fair in America guaranteed by our Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, but blacks didn't stand a chance.
Why, what happened?
Because most whites banded together by breaking the law and made blacks second class citizens and would go on to murder, lynch, rape, humiliate them all the way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement. After Lincoln, every single United States President was aware of this and did nothing. Whites achieved like crazy and prospered while blacks lagged far behind and got along the best way they knew how.
Blacks disliked whites very much for this terrible treatment and instead of violent disobedience, they protested by living their lives opposite of white culture. I mean let's face it, why would blacks want to imitate or become a part of a race of people that hated them?
This is when being cool became a symbol of white resistance and protest. Being cool would show you were down with the struggle. During slavery, we had already created our language which was AAVE and many blacks communicated this way. Any black that did not use it was looked down as trying to act white, joining the enemy sort of speak.
We developed our own way of walking with a proud gait, (George Jefferson strut) our own style of music, our own style of dance, our own style of food, our own style of worship, that didn't have anything in common with white folks and that suited blacks just fine. We were poor, but we were proud and cool and everyone who practiced these traits was cool and a part of the resistance.
In the process, we were creating a new culture that was admired over the world. Blacks have always had a remarkable ability to create something out of nothing. But sadly there was significant risk with this lifestyle in a great country such as America.
What were the downfalls?
Oscar Micheaux felt it was wrong for blacks to live this way in America. Oscar was an African American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 movies and he is regarded as the first major African-American feature filmmaker, the most successful African-American filmmaker of the first half of the twentieth century and the most prominent producer of race films. He produced both silent movies and "talkies" after the industry changed to incorporate speaking actors.
Oscar felt that blacks should become aggressive and use their brainpower in achieving instead of just settling for what the white man doled out. This man lived in some of the most racist times in American history, but he didn't let that stop him from fulfilling his dreams and doing it the legal way.
Evidently, Oscar had a brother who was the very cool type and was content on just putting up a show, or a front as living a successful life. We all know the type. A person that was living beyond his means. Blacks of his day called this way of living “the good life.”
Oscar didn't like it and was very upset with his brother. He later wrote in his book and discussed the culture of doers who want to accomplish, and those who see themselves as victims of injustice and hopelessness, and do not want to step out and try to succeed, but instead like to dress up, act cool and pretend to be successful while living the city lifestyle in poverty.
Oscar understood that education doesn't belong only to white people, it's a gift for all humanity to better ourselves, and honestly the best-proven way. Chinese, Japanese, Middle-Eastern and all other non-white nations understand this and have prospered by education. It's one of humanities treasure to learn.
But many blacks associated education with white and stayed far away from it, to continue with their cool lifestyle. A foolish mistake, and just what racist whites want you to believe.
Early Europeans completely dominated the Africans because they were better educated. They had guns we had spears, you do the math. In Africa our ancestors didn't value education, but traditions and silly ones at that. But that didn't save them. Education would have, though.
So without a doubt, it is entirely wrong to associate teaching and learning to white people. Many of us would look down upon another black who tried to better himself through education by saying they were trying to act white, and it wasn't cool. Racist whites laughed at us for believing this way because they knew we would always be behind.
After the 1960s, when our full Civil Rights were finally restored, many blacks chose to live the more standard American way by attending school to learn. But many also wanted to remain trapped in time with the old AAVE living in what they still perceived as defiance to the white American way of doing things. But were they only hurting themselves?
Later in time, being cool had become so prevalent in the black community it confused many kids, because they didn't quite understand if they were going to hang out with the cool kids or the so-called boring kids who liked to read and learn. At an early age, they are at a critical crossroad. Taking the cool route may seem easier, and a lot of fun, but would be a devastating mistake.
After the Civil Rights era we now have the opportunity to attend school and achieve as much as we can, but being cool has snatched many of the black kids and locked them into a culture hating education and in the process ruining their young lives.
Many entertainment figures reap much money from this cool culture by portraying cool as, well cool. They tell impressionable ones what's cool to hear, talk about, wear, eat, etc. and at the same time padding their cool humongous bank accounts.
These even get on television and flaunt their riches in a youngster's face never explicitly teaching on how they might be as successful, without being dishonest, stealing or selling drugs. Education is not cool for them to preach.
One thing is for sure, being cool can be a lot of fun and there's no denying that. Everybody wants to be liked, and it seems like cool people are respected and admired the most, from the clothes they wear to the type of songs they listen to the way they talk, the effortless way they seem to accomplish every task is amazing.
They possess incredible confidence. But truthfully everything they've accomplished wouldn't have been possible without the sacrifices of our wonderful ancestors. So don't you agree we owe a particular moral responsibility to them?
Kids should remember cool is not the real deal, It's a game we can't get caught up in. Our ancestors endured so much so we could achieve. We should never forget that. That's what this site was created. Browse through its pages, and you're going to read stories of amazing blacks.
They made it possible for us, and we're sure they would advise us to achieve through education first and foremost and save the cool for the weekends, and I ain't Shuckin and Jivin!
United States Census for African Americans in the 1970s
Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller
Our Community in 1971
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
January 1, 1971 - Well this is one TV ad we won't miss. Cigarette advertisements are finally banned on television.
May 20, 1971 - The Pentagon reports that Blacks make up 11 percent of United States soldiers in Southeast Asia.
September 9, 1971 - The Attica Prison riot occurred at the Attica Correctional Facility in Attica, New York. This riot is one of the most famous and important riots during the Prisoners' Rights Movement. The riot was based upon prisoners' demands for political rights and better living conditions. Two weeks after the killing of George Jackson at San Quentin, about 1,000 of the Attica prison's approximately 2,200 inmates rebelled and seized control of the prison, taking 42 staff hostage.
Trivia: At the time of the riots, black militancy was at its peak and many black prisoners had transferred to Attica causing prison population to increase from its designed 1200 prisoners to 2243. However, all of the 383 correctional officers were white. Some corrections officers were openly racist and assaulted the prisoners with their batons, which they dubbed "nigger sticks." Additionally, George Jackson, a member of the Black Panther Party, had died at the hands of white prison officers under disputed circumstances two weeks before the riot in the San Quentin State Prison in California.
1971 - Popular hair care company Johnson Products becomes the first African American company to be listed on a major U.S. stock exchange (AMEX).
1971 - Black activist Jesse Jackson founds the People United to Save Humanity (PUSH).
In the early 1970s, the American Psychiatric Association established a Solomon Carter Fuller award lecture at its annual meetings for his contributions to Alzheimer's disease research.
1970s - The United States Population is 204,765,770 with a total of 22,580,289 being African Americans. Negroes are making more love and having more babies since the last census.
By In upper left corner of the page is the notation that this section was sponsored by friends and associated of Soul Train. This separates it from any Billboard editorial content. (Billboard page ST 30) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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