Blast From The Past:
OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1963:
W. E. B. Du Bois
W. E. B. Du Bois was an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author, and editor. Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Du Bois grew up in a relatively tolerant and integrated community.
After graduating from Harvard, where he was the first African-American to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology, and economics at Atlanta University. Du Bois was one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.
Du Bois rose to national prominence as the leader of the Niagara Movement, a group of African-American activists who wanted equal rights for blacks. Du Bois and his supporters opposed the Atlanta compromise, an agreement crafted by Booker T. Washington which provided that Southern blacks would work and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic educational and economic opportunities.
Instead, Du Bois insisted on full civil rights and increased political representation, which he believed would be brought about by the African-American intellectual elite. He referred to this group as the Talented Tenth and believed that African Americans needed the chances for advanced education to develop it's leadership.
Racism was the main target of Du Bois's polemics, and he vehemently protested against lynching, Jim Crow laws, and discrimination in education and employment. His cause included people of color everywhere, mainly Africans and Asians in colonies. He was a proponent of Pan-Africanism and helped organize several Pan-African Congresses to fight for the independence of African colonies from European powers.
Du Bois made several trips to Europe, Africa, and Asia. After World War I, he surveyed the experiences of American black soldiers in France and documented widespread bigotry in the United States military.
Du Bois was a prolific author. His collection of essays, The Souls of Black Folk, was a seminal work in African-American literature; and his 1935 magnum opus Black Reconstruction in America challenged the prevailing orthodoxy that blacks were responsible for the failures of the Reconstruction Era. He wrote the first scientific treatise in the field of sociology; and he published three autobiographies, each of which contains insightful essays on sociology, politics, and history.
In his role as editor of the NAACP's journal The Crisis, he published many influential pieces. Du Bois believed that capitalism was a primary cause of racism, and he was sympathetic to socialist causes throughout his life. He was an ardent peace activist and advocated nuclear disarmament. The United States' Civil Rights Act, embodying many of the reforms for which Du Bois had campaigned his entire life, was enacted a year after his death.
Du Bois was one of our top three leaders of his day and played a critical part in our eventual victory in gaining our full Civil Rights. It took men like him that cared enough to make a difference in the black people's life. He was a brilliant man and could have dedicated his life to something else, but chose to help his people. We would like to take this opportunity to bestow upon him the 1963 Hamite Award, which is given to select individuals who have exhibited strong moral character and leadership for other blacks to imitate.
W. E. B. Du Bois|
|How were blacks feeling in 1963?
WHAT THE HELL!
WHAT A YEAR! THIS HAS TO BE ONE OF THE BUSIEST IN AMERICAN HISTORY. BUT I HAVE A GOOD FEELING IT WILL GET BETTER FOR ALL AMERICANS, INCLUDING BLACKS.
Did you know you came from an amazing race of people who cared for you? It's true. The amazing accomplishments of our ancestors are recorded on this website. Years ago as slaves it was illegal for slaves to read and write, and a felony for anyone caught teaching them.
The slavemaster wanted to keep them ignorant so they wouldn't organize and rebel against their authority. He was able to dominate blacks in this way. The slavemaster understood the power of education.
Sadly today too many of our own have not learned how truly important it is to learn. Some may look at education as a white thing and to pick up a book as a sellout. Has any ignorant person ever made you feel that way? If so, you should run away as fast as you can from a person like this. You will meet him in a few years while he's pushing a shopping cart around town.
Education and learning are not white; it's a gift for all humankind. Read at all cost; it will add a new dimension to your life, bringing a whole new world you never knew existed. Your ancestors made it all possible for you.
| Sports in 1963 |
- January 17, 1963 - Basketball's Wilt Chamberlain of NBA San Francisco Warriors scores 67 points against Los Angeles Lakers.
- February 20, 1963 - Willie Mays of the San Francisco Giants signs a record $100,000 per year contract.
Trivia: America's sweetheart Mickey Mantle would receive exactly the same pay weeks later.
- July 22, 1963 - Boxer Sonny Liston knocks out Floyd Patterson in the first round for the heavyweight boxing title.
- October 20, 1963 - Jim Brown sets an NFL single-season rushing record, with an amazing 1,863 yards.
- December 1, 1963, Wendell Oliver Scott won a Grand National Series race at Speedway Park in Jacksonville, Florida, becoming the first black driver to win a race at NASCAR's premier level. Trivia: Scott's career was repeatedly affected by racial prejudice and problems with top-level NASCAR officials. However, his determined struggle as an underdog won him thousands of white fans and many friends and admirers among his fellow racers.
- Curt Flood was a Gold Glove winner in National League Baseball.
- Elston Howard was named the American League's Most Valuable Player.
- Elston Howard was a Gold Glove winner in the American Baseball League.
- Willie Mays won the National League Gold Glove Awards.
- Former tennis great Althea Gibson was the first black woman to compete in a Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) tournament.
"It is worthy of emphasis, that the antiquity of the Negro race is beyond dispute. His brightest days were when history was an infant; and, since he early turned from God, he has found the cold face of hate and the hurtful hand of the Caucasian against him."
George Washington Williams
Dislike of black people is a relatively new phenomenon that started after the 16th century. Before this time there wasn't a thing such as racial prejudices. If color issues did arise, it was an infrequent occurrence. It's hardly mentioned in history books. For the most part, skin color was not a factor.
In fact, it's well documented how the early Greek philosophers who were all white, Socrates, Herodotus, Thales, Alexander the Great, Aristotle among others happily mingled with the blacks. Africa was known as the learning capital of the world, and many philosophers traveled to Africa to study about everything from philosophy to mathematics. Pythagoras is believed to have made it the furthest, having studied in Kemet for 23 years.
The Greek Poet Homer was one of those travelers and made the following statement:
"In ancient times the blacks were known to be so gentle to
strangers that many believed that the gods sprang from them.
Homer sings of the Ocean, father of the gods; and says that
when Jupiter wishes to take a holiday, he visits the sea,
and goes to the banquets of the blacks,--a people humble,
courteous, and devout."
Mr. Reade http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15735/15735.txt
Black people had a good reputation for being intelligent, kind and hospitable and enjoying an advanced civilization that the Greeks envied.
If alive today, Greek scholars would find it surprising how a person might believe in superiority simply because of skin color.
History makes the answer easy. After the 16th century, race became an issue for whites because of three dynamics. Greed, science, and white history (legacy).
Not to pick on white people, but it's entirely accurate they made our co-existence on this earth a race issue. This developed scorn or dislike they have for blacks continues down to our day.
- Greed The trans-Atlantic slave trade was about greed. Free black labor aided in making Europeans countries and America very rich on the backs of black slaves. This created animosity between the blacks and whites.
- Erroneous science theoriesThe introduction of false science teaching aided European and Americans in abandoning their conscience, because science didn't require one. Early Western philosophy advocated peace and treating all men with respect, but subsequent white generations did the opposite. Whites started to feel like gods themselves with their advancements in science and began to exhibit hubris, which is a Greek word denoting overconfident pride combined with arrogance. In other words, their heads became too big.
- Incomplete history recording Eurocentric history is always portrayed as the centerpiece of world history. African history was habitually erased by invading troops to eliminate its contributions and accomplishments to the world while preserving their European legacy. White history regularly portrays Africa as a wasteland full of ignorant savages, but current excavations prove the opposite. Africa was a developed continent with advanced civilizations just as good as Europe if not better.
Listed below are a few of the so-called geniuses who got the ball rolling in pitting white against black.
Not one ounce of truth could be found in what these early scientists preached as fact. Modern science doesn't agree with them. But guess what? There's still a lot of people who believe in this ridiculous white superiority crap, either conscious or unconsciously, which doesn't say much for the intelligence of these people.
Believe it or not, this is one reason a lot of whites dislike blacks today. It's not rare to hear about media services about blacks being called derogatory names associated with past world history.
So to honestly answer the question above "Why do many in America dislike black people?" At this point, it's because they want to.
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a white officer in the Union army had the task of training colored soldiers in the Civil War. He kept a diary for our enjoyment today. (click here)
George W. Williams - History of the Negro Race in America From 1619 to 1880. (click here)
Europeans Come to Western Africa -
The Characteristics of the Negro People -
| Education in 1963 |
- 1963 - Despite Governor George Wallace intimidation and physically blocking their way, Vivian Malone and James Hood register for classes at the University of Alabama in 1963.
The year 1877 was the worst year for American Blacks
A good foundation means everything when attempting to build and the newly freed Negro just didn't have one. When slaves first tasted freedom in the emancipation, they wanted to assimilate into American culture very badly. They wanted to build and live their lives in harmony with their white American brothers.
There were over four million former slaves who were uneducated and illiterate without any life skills whatsoever. During slavery it was illegal and a felony for anyone caught teaching them to read and write. They were not independent like you and me, but depended on others to provide the necessities of life.
The United States government wanted to help the former slaves and assisted by providing Reconstruction aid which meant education, medical, housing, etc. Imagine the joy in these former slaves heart. The schools were consistently packed with Negroes trying to better themselves. Happiness was all around! Finally! Thank you America, we will prove we can do it! YEAH! This was the general attitude of the Negro.
Sadly, this joy was very short lived because the United States government stopped aid after a few short years because of pressure by racist whites. This totally uncaring and un-American decision was called the 1877 Compromise, with many Negroes calling it the 1877 Grand Betrayal.
Although the Negro was now free, he would have to make do the best way he knew how, without any help whatsoever from the government who put him in slavery in the first place. These people became downtrodden, uneducated nomads living in a hateful white racist world, and because of future laws (Jim Crow) further restricting their rights would remain this way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement.
A good foundation was not laid with blacks assimilation into American culture. Many blacks were understandably demoralized, angry and defeated for many years. The weaker ones continue to be so until this day and still hold a grudge that hurts themselves more than anybody else.
Now ones like Mr. Lewis who is pictured above understood his fantastic African American heritage, and the many examples of black success stories he went on to model his life after. This helped him because he had a good foundation to build on. Study your incredible history that's included in this website and grow because it really is a thing of extraordinary beauty.
JOHN F. KENNEDY BRUTALLY ASSASSINATED!
November 22, 1963, Dallas, TX
Picture of President Kennedy in the limousine in Dallas, Texas, on Main Street, minutes before
the assassination. Also in the presidential limousine are Jackie Kennedy, Texas Governor
John Connally, and his wife, Nellie.
Lyndon B. Johnson taking the oath of office aboard Air Force One at Love Field Airport
two hours and eight minutes after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Dallas, Texas.
Jackie Kennedy (right), still in her blood-soaked clothes, looks on.
(Amazing! You couldn't find a more dramatic image)
Lyndon B. Johnson
John F. Kennedy
Farewell to John F. Kennedy as president. Many people loved this president and cried their hearts out when he died. Was he a great president? He was a great president for white people, but when we use the title great, it must be reserved for people like Abraham Lincoln who was a president for all American people. Lincoln didn't feel the black person was equal with a white man, and that was his personal opinion. But do you know what made this president great like no other president was able to duplicate in history? It was his love for the Declaration of Independence and what it honestly and truthfully meant to be an American, not a fake one but a honest to goodness real American, and which meant EVERYONE should be free to the pursuit of happiness and have equal rights. It was a real disgrace for most whites to trample our Declaration of Independence, and U.S. Constitution to their selfish advantage with unconstitutional Jim Crow laws for decades, and act like nothing has happened. They created much unnecessary animosity with blacks because of this bold face lie they were living. Thank goodness for the television which would become invented later because this form of media exposed these dishonest Americans to the world. It's plain and straightforward, if more presidents were like Abraham Lincoln who put American ideals first and left their personal beliefs on the back burner, racism would be unheard of in America. Lincoln loved his country and was able to keep his own feelings secondary and put American first and not one single president since him has been able to do that, but they all gave in to the racist element, which in reality hated a united America. This is why President Abraham Lincoln is so honored today by all races of people. I always thought Kennedy was along those same lines until I read more about his record, and I just feel that for the most part he kinda stumbled in on the civil rights movement, and tried his very best to steer clear of the civil rights issue until he couldn't avoid it any longer. In fact, his brother Robert who was Attorney General warned his aides to keep the President out of the Civil Rights mess. Kennedy knew how to use blacks. Before his election, he paid a visit to Martin Luther King who was in jail to gain the black vote which worked perfectly, but after he was elected, he forgot about blacks, an observation that King himself had made. When race conditions were heating up, and whites became very violent against protesting blacks is when Kennedy finally got the ball rolling on Civil Rights, only because the world was watching and he had no choice. He introduced sweeping Civil Rights measures before he died that LBJ would later implement with much more enthusiasm than Kennedy.
George C Wallace (Alabama Governor)
March on Washington, l to r, Bayard Rustin, Deputy Director, and Cleveland Robinson, Chairman of Administrative Committee / World Telegram & Sun photo by O. Fernandez
August 7, 1963
| Political Scene in 1963 |
- 1963 - Lyndon Baines Johnson, often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–69), a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President (1961–63). Johnson, a Democrat from Texas, served as a United States Representative from 1937 to 1949 and as a United States Senator from 1949 to 1961, including six years as Senate Majority Leader, two as Senate Minority Leader and two as Senate Majority Whip. Analysis: Lyndon Baines Johnson was quite the man, probably the closest to Abraham Lincoln than anybody. When he first hooked up with John Kennedy to run for president, he was already known for his abrasive style of politics. He didn't have a problem telling you like it was. Kennedy chose him as a running mate because of Johnsons high southern support, and it would later pay off big time for the American Negro. Historians say that Johnson was more gung-ho about civil rights than Kennedy was, and wanted to push up the pace while Kennedy was content on going slow. John's brother, Robert Kennedy and LBJ hated each other, so there was a lot of animosity in the White House during those days, but they all needed each other, so they worked it out. After Kennedy was shot, LBJ quickly assumed control and one of the first things on his list were the Civil Rights bill that Kennedy had started. The southern politicians would always play games when a bill came their way they didn't like, and LBJ was very familiar with each and every one of them. He maneuvered the Civil Rights bill in a way that it reached the floor for a vote and guess what, SUCCESS! I wonder if Kennedy would have had the same success if he were alive to try? He used similar tactics with the Voting Rights Act also with success. He was a master politician. Riots would break out later in his administration with the American public turning against him. People blamed him that the blacks were rioting because of the bills he helped pass on their behalf. Johnson was unsurprised by the riots, and made the following comment:
"What did you expect? I don't know why we're so surprised. When you put your foot on a man's neck and hold him down for three hundred years, and then you let him up, what's he going to do? He's going to knock your block off."
President Johnson was a good president for the black person and all other citizens. He understood without a doubt what true America stood for, and it's weird because he was from the south and once used to fight Harry Truman when he attempted to send his Civil Rights bill for a vote. People change sometimes. Thanks LBJ.
- 1963 - Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy commonly known as Jack Kennedy or by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. Analysis: It seems to me John Kennedy was very similar/hesitant to other presidents before him when it came to civil rights for blacks. With the recent battle between Democracy and Communism, every U.S. president since Roosevelt recognizes the need for civil rights for blacks. Consider a speech he made on this subject after violence started to erupt between black protesters and police.
"The denial of constitutional rights to some of our fellow Americans on account of race - at the ballot box and elsewhere - disturbs the national conscience, and subjects us to the charge of world opinion that our democracy is not equal to the high promise of our heritage."
I don't know how much it bothered the national conscience, I mean come on let's face it, it had been going on this way for years. No, my money would be on the fact that America knows it can't lead the world and have these terrible injustices at home with its black citizens. This is the main reason for the Civil Rights movement of the 60s. Not because America sincerely recognizes it as unjust. Now the problem is going to be convincing white Americans to accept it because since emancipation the whites have been blissfully ignorant to the Negro, which they hardly ever saw in their daily lives. That's a big change for American whites soon to take place. But we knew it would have to happen peacefully one day, or either it would have been a revolution. Kennedy recognized discrimination and intolerance were wrong but just like presidents before him was bullied by the South and didn't want to start trouble because his effectiveness in getting other bills passed that had nothing to do with civil rights would be more difficult. Ultimately what made civil rights movement a success was without a doubt the courageous blacks and whites who took part in it, these are true Americans and visionaries. They made it a priority. His brother Robert Kennedy once gave him the advice to "keep the president out of this civil rights mess." Robert Kennedy was also in cahoots with FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, who hated civil-rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. and viewed him as an upstart troublemaker and communist, authorizing the director to wiretap King and other leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Many civil rights leaders saw John Kennedy as lukewarm, especially concerning the Freedom Riders, who organized an integrated public transportation effort in the South, and who were repeatedly met with violence by whites, including law enforcement officers, both federal and state. Martin Luther King felt Kennedy was moving too slow and prepared to march on Washington which had Kennedy's approval only after he was able to view and edit the speeches because he didn't want angry words to incite a riot. The Supreme Court had recently given blacks favorable rulings with integration, but the only problem was white Americans were not obeying the law.
Kennedy was not expecting this turmoil when he became president. Before the election he had pulled a few tricks out of his political hat by getting Martin Luther King Jr. released early from prison, and had even paid a visit to Corretta to console her, this little gesture gave him a good reputation among blacks, and they threw their votes his way. But once in office, he forgot all about black causes until heroes like Martin Luther King and the Freedom Riders put the issue right in Americas face. So Kennedy was forced into the civil rights movement, which when it came down to a decision to be made because of tensions running sky high he proposed to the nation a Civil Rights bill by making the following comments:
"We are confronted primarily with a moral issue.... It is as old as the scriptures and is as clear as the American Constitution.... One hundred years of delay have passed since President Lincoln freed the slaves, yet their heirs... are not fully free. They are not yet freed from the bonds of injustice... this Nation... will not be fully free until all its citizens are free.... Now the time has come for this Nation to fulfill its promise.
After his address, Martin Luther King, Jr. called President Kennedy's "civil rights proposals, 'the most sweeping and forthright ever presented by an American president.'" But King also knew the battle wasn't over, especially in the south.
Seven months after Kennedy was assassinated the Civil Rights Act of 1964 became law. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 abolishes discrimination in public accommodations, employment, and federally funded programs.
Sidenote: I must say that I'm a little disappointed in the way the Kennedy brothers handled the Civil Rights issue. Even though we finally got what we wanted, I was always under the impression the Kennedys were zealous lovers of justice for blacks, maybe because there were many blacks wailing and crying when he was shot. But the truth of the matter is he Kennedy fell into the Civil Rights issue, not because he wanted to, and that makes a difference how history will view him.
January 14, 1963 - George Wallace was sworn in as governor of Alabama, and made his famous address: "segregation now; segregation tomorrow; segregation forever!" Wallace has the third longest gubernatorial tenure in post-Constitutional U.S. history at 5,848 days. Analysis: George Wallace was quite the character. He would get folks so worked up you couldn't help but hate him. Because much of the garbage that came out of his mouth was filled with hate, or looking back was it all a show? People didn't realize it then, but he was merely telling racist Southerners what they wanted to hear, with his top priority getting elected, he didn't care how he got there. He was without a doubt a thorn in the side for many years to the Negro. He was finally cut down by an assassin's bullet that left him paralyzed. Presidential contender and Congresswoman Shirley Chilsom, while once again displaying blacks forgiving nature paid him a visit in the hospital, to the protest from other blacks. In time Wallace renounced what he had said about black people, only stating he was wrong, and he even backed up those sentiments by appointing a record number of blacks to state positions in Alabama. I think he played an important part in the Civil Rights struggle because he proved people could change.
June 30, 1963 - The International Labor Organization excludes South Africa from its two-day meeting because of its apartheid policies.
November 22, 1963 - American President John F. Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in Dallas, Texas on this day.
November 22, 1963 - Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th United States president after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
What is The Declaration of Independence?
It is a statement that the colonist wrote that officially declared their independence from Great Britain. They would now be called, The United States of America. This very special occasion is celebrated every July 4th in America.
The Declaration in part states:
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
After becoming official, many of the political leaders set their slaves free because they felt it was hypocritical denying a race of people life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. These men had a moral conscience, and strived to be true Americans.
But on the other hand, many leaders chose to hold on to their slaves because it would mean a significant loss monetarily. These men didn't have a moral conscience. They let money and greed reign supreme.
The world was watching and ridiculed the men who held on to their slaves. America's very first test in morality and would set the tone for many years to come and up unto this day. Most Americans would put money first, with the lesser group clinging to true American principles. There were 12 American Presidents who were slaveholders, 8 of them while in office.
You ugly detestable greedy creep.
Is this what America has become?
Yes, the Negro thinks so
Looking through the eyes of a young person, imagine what you would see. Many may not understand how America came to be so polarized. Since the 60s, blacks have made enormous strides, but generally speaking today a youngster might see a white class of people who seem to have it all together, professionally, socially, educationally, economically, and the blacks are always demanding.
Can you imagine how overwhelming and intimidating this could be to some? But when a young black person understands their rich history, it will without a doubt give them courage and strength to believe in themselves, and when that happens, color of skin becomes less of an issue.
Young people deserve to be told the truth about how America became this way, and not in hate or a way that puts down another race. The truth, pure and simple that can be backed up with any library or Google search. America did not just happen yesterday, it took many years for this situation to become this way, and you might be surprised to learn that it was orchestrated by some not so sweet people who didn't sincerely believe in the meaning of the U.S. Constitution or the Declaration of Independence.
During slavery, the Negro depended on their masters for every single necessity of life. Even the smallest want of a slave had to be approved by his master. It also was a severe crime for anyone caught teaching the slaves to read or write. Books were hidden from the Negro, which meant that slaves were illiterate.
The Emancipation Proclamation freed over four million slaves, most of whom had lived and worked on plantations. America wanted to help these former slaves with Reconstruction aid such as education, medical, housing, etc., attempting to place these illiterate and uneducated Negroes on the road to complete American success.
What was the general attitude of the Negro with this Reconstruction help?
YEAH, THAT'S WHAT I'M TALKING ABOUT, THANKS SO MUCH AMERICA, WE WILL PROVE WE CAN BECOME SELF-RELIANT
PRODUCTIVE CITIZENS! WE CAN'T WAIT TO FIND OUT WHAT'S IN THOSE BOOKS YOU HAVE BEEN HIDING FROM US. LET"S GET THIS THING STARTED!
Enthusiasm and motivation were very high to excel. The schools that had been built for the Negro were packed to capacity with students from 7-70 years of age. Educated blacks were getting elected to office as politicians. Fruitful black communities sprang up, and for the first time in American history, the Negro felt like he was a part of America, and was super happy looking toward a prosperous future.
But sadly, there were some who were not as happy, and these were the former Confederates who lived in the same cities. They didn't want any part of Negro success and to be governed by the people they just lost as slaves. So there was a great white resistance.
What was the result?
After only a few short years, the U.S. Government bowed down to these white supremacist and canceled Reconstruction aid to the former slaves. This was called the 1877 Compromise, (please click on 1877 for details) and blacks calling it the 1877 Grand Betrayal. Terrorist had attacked countless black American citizens. Negroes were hanged, tortured, raped, murdered by the whites with total impunity. The U.S. government knew and did nothing, ignoring the enforcement duties set out in the Constitution.
The little gains the Negro was able to achieve were snatched away, and in the meantime, there were still millions of illiterate, defeated, restricted and uneducated black nomads wandering around in a racist society trying to make it the best way they could, and this situation would remain this way until the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, and yes this is how the black ghetto's got their start.
There's not enough room on this web page to describe the hate and exclusion by government and white Americans against blacks during this period. Jim Crow laws touched every part of life, all across America. Blacks and whites were kept apart as much as possible. Good jobs went to whites; blacks were given the worst with less pay. Many industries wouldn’t hire blacks. Many unions passed special rules to exclude them. All juries and judges were white; blacks were illegally denied voting rights. No blacks allowed in public pools. Many restaurants would not serve blacks, and those that did had a dirty colored section. Blacks and whites went to county fairs on different days. Blacks couldn't use public libraries. Simple common courtesy was rarely shown the blacks. Whites beat, tortured, raped and killed blacks with no fear of punishment. Blacks were denied credit for businesses, housing, cars by the banks. Blacks were kept out of white neighborhoods with housing covenants. Oklahoma had black and white phone booths. Texas had cities where blacks were entirely restricted from living. Blacks could not leave their homes after 10:00 pm in Mobile Alabama. Blacks could not marry whites. Georgia had separate white and black parks. Prisons, hospitals, and orphanages were segregated as were schools and colleges. Blacks and whites had to use separate sets of books in school, in Florida, they couldn't be stored together. When a person was sworn in at a trial, the whites used one Bible, and the blacks had a separate Bible. For those who did complete college, a crucial question had to be answered. Who was going to be their clients? Whites didn't engage blacks in business, and the battered Negro couldn't afford their services. These laws became so entrenched in American life; even unwritten laws affected black citizenship; blacks understood to stay out of white stores and establishments. Segregation was so complete that whites did not see blacks except when being served by them. After the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, blacks have made enormous gains. This is how the United States of America became a polarized country. Each and every President knew what was going on and allowed this illegal activity for 87 years. Were they guilty of not upholding the United States Constitution in the Negroes behalf? Is this the reason why many other nations laugh at America with its constant claims of being on the side of good and high morality?
We are rating each and every President up unto the Civil Rights movement of the 60s in regards to the Constitutional laws he took oath to uphold for all American citizens. The ratings can be located at the end of each President's term in office. Please keep in mind there are millions of poor and uneducated blacks in America seeking assistance into assimilating into American culture after 200 years of brutal slavery. Our focus is to find a courageous President, like Abe Lincoln that will solve this problem, and not pass it on to the next administration. Do you think the decisions of these Presidents would have an impact on the lives of blacks today? Of course it would.
Abraham Lincoln was assassinated before the Amendments to the Constitution became official, but without a doubt he understood and enforced the high standards and morality the Constitution stood for.
Andrew Johnson opposed the Fourteenth Amendment, which gave citizenship to former slaves. He fought the Negro every step of the way. Johnson was also a former slaveholder. He didn't believe all were created equal. He didn't uphold the Constitution.
Ulysses S. Grant was complete opposite of Andrew Johnson. Grant assisted the Negro in his quest of assimilation. He understood and enforced the United States Constitution.
Rutherford B. Hayes was an opportunist and sold out the Negro big time with the 1877 Compromise. He didn't understand what his country stood for.
James A Garfield was a strong defender of Civil Rights, and wanted the Negro to progress through education. Sadly he didn't get a chance to fufill his intentions because he was assassinated, but we give him the benefit of the doubt. We believe he understood the U.S. Constitution.
Chester Arthur wasn't really ever concerned with the negro issue. but he didn't make this humongous Negro problems his priority but chose to ignore it and pass it on to the next admin. He did not understand the principles of the U.S. Constitution.
Grover Cleveland actually sided with the white terrorist in the Chinese race riots and felt it was the Chinese fault. He wasn't a true believer in the U.S. Constitution, he only believed in it as far as it would benefit him, just like typical America.
Benjamin Harrison attempted to pass legislation to protect black Americans' civil rights. Nice words he had for blacks but in all honesty, we need something more concrete to hold on too. But we believe that this president understood the principles of the U.S. Constitution.
Grover Cleveland second term wasn't any better than the first. He wasn't a true believer in the U.S. Constitution, and was a no-show for the American Negro.
William McKinley didn't care much for the Civil Rights of Negroes. he failed to enforce the Constitution, because there were many abuses nationwide and he didn't act. He didn't understand or just didn't care.
Theodore Roosevelt glazed over the Negroes problems with beautiful speeches, but no action. I was pulling for this president to be fair, mainly because he was loved by many in his day, blacks included, but history shows that he failed to enforce the U.S. Constitution. Sorry Teddy.
William Howard Taft wasn't in touch with the humongous Negro problem that was left festering since the emancipation. History shows that he failed to enforce the U.S. Constitution.
Woodrow Wilson was a typical no-show as president for the Negro poplualtion. He instigated segregation in U.S. If you're claiming to the world as being a great democracy and not living up to that boast at home is a falsehood.
Warren G. Harding same old story. He spoke of the development of Negro, just didnt make it a priority and nothing was accomplished. Good intentions won't make a plant grow, you have to water it. The negro had hopes in this president, but another no-show.
Calvin Coolidge didn't talk much but made wonderful speeches that had impact and just what the lowly Negro wanted to hear, but that's as far as it went. A true America is more than just hollow words, Abe Lincoln understood that. Why can't others?
Herbert C. Hoover rarely talked about civil rights during his administration. Blacks had to make do the best way they could. He was a very weak president for the Negro, as far as getting our civil rights restored and enforced as stated in the U.S. Constitution.
Franklin D. Roosevelt had the best first lady ever, and we think without her the Negro would have suffered more. Everybody loved FDR. He was a courageous president in world events who started the talk for Human Rights which will soon force America to face it's moral injustices.
Harry S. Truman wanted to make the Negro issues a moral priority. He witnessed blacks fighting and dying in the wars and had much respect. Harry Truman & former first lady (Eleanor) got the ball rolling for blacks with our Civil Rights. Thanks Eleanor & Harry!
Dwight D. Eisenhower agressively ended segregation in Armed Forces. The Navy complained and he made the comment "We shall not take a single backward step. There must be no second class citizens in this country" This site believes it was motivated by Communism.
John F. Kennedy avoided Civil Rights issue. He made call to King while in jail to win black support for his presidency and then forgot blacks. His brother Robert made comment to keep his brother out of civil rights mess. King made good comment about him is why he gets happy face.
Attempting to block integration at the University of Alabama, Governor George Wallace stands
defiantly at the door while being confronted by Deputy U.S. Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach.
"Colored Waiting Room" sign from
segregationist era United States
photo #100 -year-1878
| Race in 1963 |
- May 11, 1963 - Terrorist racial bomb attacks occur in Birmingham, Alabama.
- June 11, 1963 - President John F. Kennedy's administration ordered the U.S. Army's 2nd Infantry Division from Ft. Benning, Georgia to be prepared to enforce the racial integration of the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa. In a vain attempt to halt the enrollment of black students Vivian Malone and James Hood, Governor Wallace stood in front of Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama on June 11, 1963. This became known as the "Stand in the Schoolhouse Door".
Trivia: Federal officials had been in touch with Wallace to arrange some of the events for the public.
- June 12, 1963 - Mississippi NAACP Field Secretary Medgar Evers is assassinated outside his home in Jackson, Mississippi.
- June 18, 1963 - three thousand blacks boycott Boston public schools.
Movies in America
Eddie "Rochester" Anderson
Jack Benny's radio shows cast
| Television / Movies in 1963 |
- Starting in the year of 1937, a new funny man would co-star on the Jack Benny Show. This man went by the name of Eddie "Rochester" Anderson. Eddie's character of "Rochester" generated much laughter, becoming immensely popular and would become a household name from 1937 to 1965 in America. The humor on the show was the usual stereotypical stuff that blacks had to endure, but later it would become a stepping stone for many successful comedians to follow. Eddie became the first black to have a regular role on a nationwide radio program. The show started on radio and moved to television in 1951 until it went off the air in the 1964-1965 season. Trivia:
Anderson was frequently late for the show. Benny attempted to instill punctuality in Anderson by fining him $50 each time he arrived late at the studio. Anderson had a habit of losing track of time, especially when he was talking with someone. Must have had something to say huh Eddie?
- Car 54, Where Are You? was an American sitcom that ran on NBC from 1961 to 1963, and was about two New York police officers based at the fictional 53rd precinct in The Bronx. Car 54 was their patrol car. The show was filmed only in black-and-white.
The show starred some big names in the African American community such as, Nipsey Russell as Officer Anderson,
Ossie Davis as Officer Omar Anderson, and Frederick O'Neal as Officer Wallace.
- Lena Horne - The Judy Garland Show (as herself, October 13, 1963)
Academy Award Winners:
- 1963 - Sidney Poitier for Lilies of the Field. Best Actor in a Leading Role.
| Famous Birthdays in 1963 |
- January 2, 1963 - Adrienne-Joi Johnson an American actress, choreographer and fitness coach.
- January 4, 1963 - Daryl Lamont Boston a former Major League Baseball outfielder.
- January 21, 1963 - Hakeem Abdul Olajuwon, former NBA basketball player.
- February 12, 1963 - Ed Lover a rapper, actor, musician, radio personality, and former MTV VJ.
- February 17, 1963 - Michael Jordan, former NBA basketball player. Michael will go down in history as being one of the greatest players of all times.
- February 23, 1963 - Bobby Bonilla former player in Major League Baseball.
- March 6, 1963 - D. L. Hughley an American actor, political commentator and stand-up comedian.
- March 18, 1963 - Vanessa Lynn Williams an American singer, actress, producer and former fashion model.
- March 27, 1963 - Randall W. Cunningham former American football quarterback in the National Football League and current football coach, pastor and mentor who lives in Las Vegas, NV.
- April 12, 1963 - Tracy Camilla Johns an American film actress.
- May 5, 1963 - Prince Ital Joe was a Dominican-born American musician best known for his collaborations with Marky Mark.
- May 12, 1963 - Vanessa A. William an American actress.
- May 29, 1963 - Earthquake an American actor, voice artist, and comedian.
- June 2, 1963 - Norm Lewis a Tony Award nominated American actor and baritone singer.
- July 4, 1963 - David Joyner an American actor from Decatur, Illinois.
- July 5, 1963 - Dorien Wilson an American actor, best known for his role as Professor Stanley Oglevee on the UPN sitcom The Parkers.
- July 8, 1963 - Roscoe "Rocky" Carroll an American actor.
- August 1, 1963 - Coolio an American musician, rapper, chef, actor, and record producer.
- August 3, 1963 - Isaiah Washington IV an American-Sierra Leonean actor.
- August 7, 1963 - Harold Perrineau an American actor.
- August 9, 1963 - Whitney Houston, American singer, actress, producer, and model.
- September 7, 1963 - Eazy-E was an American rapper who performed solo.
- September 27, 1963 - Scott Lawrence an American actor.
- October 28, 1963 - Sheryl Underwood an American comedian and actress.
- October 30, 1963 - Yolanda R. Hughes-Heying a professional female bodybuilder from the United States.
- October 30, 1963 - Michael Beach, a very talented and familiar actor.
- November 7, 1963 - Elizabeth Juliene "Liz" Mikel an American actress and jazz vocalist.
- November 10, 1963 - Tommy Davidson an American comedian, film and television actor.
- November 16, 1963 - Zina Garrison former professional African American tennis player from the United States.
- December 5, 1963 - André "Doctor Dré" Brown an American radio personality and former MTV VJ.
- December 18, 1963 - Lori McNeil an African American tennis coach and former professional tennis player.
- December 19, 1963 - Jennifer Beals an American actress and a former teen model.
- 1963 - Granville Adams African American actor known for Oz (1997).
- 1963 - Michael Ralph an American actor, comedian and voice actor.
| Famous Deaths in 1963 |
- January 3, 1963 - Lucie Eddie Campbell was an African American composer of hymns.
- June 12, 1963 - Medgar Wiley Evers, African-American civil rights activist from Mississippi.
- July 27, 1963 - Garrett Augustus Morgan, Sr., was an African-American inventor.
- August 27, 1963 - W. E. B. Du Bois, was an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist.
- December 14, 1963 - Dinah Washington was an American singer and pianist, who has been cited as "the most popular black female recording artist of the '50s
| Famous Weddings in 1963 |
- 1963 - Wilma Rudolph married Robert Eldridge
- 1963 - Marvin Gaye married Anna Gordy Gaye
- 1963 - Barbara McNair married Jack Rafferty
The Cookies were an American R&B girl group in the 1950s to 1960s.
Members of the original lineup would later become the Raelettes,
the backing vocalists for Ray Charles.
Mahalia Jackson - Photography by William P. Gottlieb
The Toys were an American pop girl group from Jamaica, New York, which was formed in 1961 and disbanded in 1968.
| Music in 1963 |
Billboard Top Soul Hits:
Popular Soul Dances
- January 5 "You Are My Sunshine" Ray Charles
- anuary 19 "Two Lovers" Mary Wells
- February 16 "You've Really Got a Hold on Me" The Miracles
- February 23 "Hey Paula" Paul & Paula
- March 9 "That's the Way Love Is" Bobby "Blue" Bland
- March 23 "Our Day Will Come" Ruby & the Romantics
- April 6 "He's So Fine" The Chiffons
- May 4 "Baby Workout" Jackie Wilson
- May 25 "I Will Follow Him" Little Peggy March
- June 1 "If You Wanna Be Happy" Jimmy Soul
- June 8 "Another Saturday Night" Sam Cooke
- June 15 "It's My Party" Lesley Gore
- July 6 "Hello Stranger" Barbara Lewis
- July 20 "Easier Said Than Done" The Essex
- August 3 "Fingertips (Part 2)" Little Stevie Wonder
- September 14 "(Love Is Like A) Heat Wave" Martha & the Vandellas
- October 12 "Cry Baby" Garnet Mimms & the Enchanters
- October 19 "Part Time Love" Little Johnny Taylor
- November 9 "It's All Right" The Impressions
- November 23 "Sugar Shack" Jimmy Gilmer & the Fireballs
Musical Happenings in 1963:
- The Twist
- The Monkey
- Chicago Walk
- The Stroll
- The Dog
- The Madison
- The Hully Gully
- The Camel Walk
- The Watusi
- The Pony
- The Swim
- The Hitch Hike
- Cool Jerk
- Hand Jive
- The audio cassette is introduced
- A LP recording of James Brown and his band at the Apollo Theater (Live at the Apollo) in Harlem sells more than a million copies.
- The Newport Folk Festival becomes a defining event in the American roots revival of the 1960s and 70s.
- Amiri Baraka's Blues People: Negro Music in White America is a successful book. The first by an African American author.
- The Famous Ward Singers become the first gospel group to perform at Radio City Music Hall.
- Clara Ward becomes one of the first gospel to stars to appear in films, in a leading role in Tambourines to Glory.
- October 8, 1963 - Sam Cooke and his band is arrested after being denied a motel room that he had called in advance to reserve. It made headline news and inspired the song "A Change Is Gonna Come".
Grammy winners in 1963:
The 5th Annual Grammy Awards were held on May 15, 1963 at Chicago, Los Angeles and New York. They recognized accomplishments by musicians for the year 1962.
Best Opera Recording
- Georg Solti (conductor), Robert Merrill, Leontyne Price, Giorgio Tozzi, Jon Vickers, & the Rome Opera House Orchestra for Verdi: Aida
Best Gospel or Other Religious Recording
- Mahalia Jackson for Great Songs of Love and Faith
Best Original Cast Show Album
- Richard Rodgers (composer) & the original cast (Richard Kiley, Diahann Carroll, Bernice Mass, Noelle Adam, Don Chastain, Mitchell Gregg & Noelle Adam) for No Strings
Best Solo Vocal Performance, Female (Pop)
- Ella Fitzgerald for Ella Swings Brightly with Nelson
Best Rhythm & Blues Recording
- Ray Charles for "I Can't Stop Loving You"
Will more blacks adopt the American standard?
Maybe it's time to send the old Negro standard to the black museum
In America's beginning, immigrants from Europe had the incredible opportunity to live a better life and perhaps become rich beyond their wildest dreams. This was a hope that had never existed for regular everyday people in the entire history of man.
In contrast, Africans were sold into slavery, mostly by their governments and forced to travel to America as slaves. For them, this was not a dream, but an atrocious nightmare. The opportunity didn't exist for the vast majority of blacks to make a better life for themselves.
Once in America, these Europeans would eventually band together to focus on a common enemy, the black-skinned negro. This banding together against the blacks made whites stronger, and blacks weaker.
Some of these whites were very vocal in their dislike for black people, calling them bad names such as savages, animals, wild beast, ignorant, etc., and others were indifferent, choosing to remain on the sidelines by remaining silent. But they were just as guilty for allowing democracy to be trampled.
Even though professing to be the most intelligent compassionate creatures on earth, they couldn't understand how their actions would undermine everything America was supposed to represent. They became terrible guardians of hope and justice in a new and civilized world.
After slavery was finally outlawed in America, it was replaced with another oppression just as worse in the form of Jim Crow laws. These laws regulated blacks to 2nd class citizenship. These laws made blacks feel like they were not a part of the American process, and made many feel worthless as human beings and lacking in self-confidence.
But after the 60s civil rights movement, blacks started to slowly come around and take what belonged to them regarding good jobs, moving to nicer neighborhoods, etc. But still faced a white power structure at the job and at home that failed to recognize them as real American brothers. Even though new Civil Rights laws were in place, blacks still faced an uphill battle every day, but now in the form of a silent hate, called covert racism.
It's a situation that still exist in America.
Especially before the sixties, blacks were excluded in all aspects of American living by whites. Thus the need to create a black way of doing things became necessary. Many blacks in those days took pride in being different from white America. We felt that if whites didn't want anything to do with us professionally or socially, we didn't want anything to do with them.
So, we spoke our language using jive talk and slang and created special handshakes when greeting one another. We designed our style of colorful clothes and fashioned our hair differently. We ate our style of soul food.
These were all great and original African-American inventions that we needed for our own identity and kept us with a measure of sanity in a racist and vile America.
These inventions were considered being hep/ hip by all, and if a black person didn't practice these Negro standards, they would be regarded as a sell-out or trying to act white.
Blacks were very smart to invent the Negro standard, so what's the problem?
The problem began after the Civil Rights movement of the 60s. It was now legal for blacks to achieve equality in America as much as our hearts desired. We now had the law on our side. Even though this was still not a guarantee to eliminate racism and exclusion, it would make our fight a little easier.
But sadly, many blacks were not prepared and attempted to bring the old Negro standard way of doing things into the American mainstream. There was an immediate culture clash. Whites didn't know anything about black Americans and became afraid and filled with even more hate towards them because now they had to share America equally.
Now with the law on our side, you would think that blacks would have run to the schools and colleges to educate themselves. But many were afraid of the white power structure because it was very intimidating.
But not to the black woman. She knew the only way to win this struggle was to fight fire with fire, by becoming better educated. She attended school and learned all she could, and quickly realized she was just as smart if not smarter than whites. She then went out to fight.
She was victorious and continues to be so today.
The black male didn't put up a good fight like the female because he was intimidated by the hate other races directed towards him and chose to live a life of running game and boy-like behavior to make his living. Also, the black man didn't want to abide by the America standard way of doing things because he still considered it an enemy.
The result was that many of our people got left behind by not successfully making the distinction between white people and the American standard. These are two different things, and that needs repeating. These are two separate things and are easily confused as being the same. White people don't own the American standard, and they don't control it. White people knew blacks get hung up on this stumbling block and discouraged us at every step.
There would be many blacks who gauged and jumped this obstacle, but far too many quit or didn't even try. The successful ones would go on to make a nice living and provide for their families and care less about racist whites and their hate for us, or the foolish blacks who would say bad things about them for acting white. To this very day, it remains a difficult thing for blacks to give up the old negro way of thinking.
For example, we are not acting white if we.......
- We live in America and are Americans. English is our nations official language. It's the American standard to speak proper English, and not only for white people. It's for yellow, brown, red and all Americans.
- America is a civilized country and at the moment the best in the world. Its citizens are courteous and considerate to one another. This is not a white thing. It's the American standard.
- The American standard teaches us to take care of our families and handle our business as responsible adults, which is not a white thing to practice, but an American thing to do.
- To attend school and shoot for the stars to better ourselves is not a white thing, it's expected of all Americans to keep the country smarter and stronger which once again goes to the American standard category, not white people category.
If we try to take our old way of thinking out in public or to the workplace, we surely will be met with problems. It won't work. Other races don't understand our old negro standard and will become annoyed or offended, just like we would if in a group of people and couldn't understand what they were doing or saying. This is why the old Negro standard and American standard cannot exist side by side.
Refusal to depart from the old Negro standard is one reason we still have black slums, living near poverty, low self-esteem and every other negative we can think. The Negro standard at one time served a necessary purpose but now holds us back as a race. It's time to put the Negro standard in a black museum. It's outdated.
Give up the swag?
But let's make one thing clear, it's not advocated giving up the music, fried chicken, chitterlings, corn bread and collard greens or even the swag that took years to perfect. There are a place and time for everything. No, that's not the point. The point is always to exercise common sense when dealing with other races and remain cognizant of the American standard.
There will still be plenty of hate to face us.
Yes, there will be, but it's better to have success and be hated than to be unsuccessful and hated. A word of caution though. There are many of our people who hate us also and would love if we still lived in the old Negro standard.
Do you believe that successful blacks have a moral obligation to help its people? Our ancestors thought so. They understood the path for success and continually stressed education and living within the American standard as the only way to achieve that.
Today, we don't have our ancestors to look up to for advice. But believe it or not, singers, entertainers, rappers and sports athletes have taken their place. Most blacks give these people the top priority and will follow their every word, frequently ignoring their education, and buying their product. The question becomes, are these people for their own needs or are they instructing the black community to embrace the American standard?
Kids Fashions from Stockton, California
in the 60s
1960s Girls Fashions
360 Waves hairstyle
American jazz violinist Eddie South
with a conk hairdo.
| Fashions in 1963 |
- Tie Dye T-shirts
- Men & Women Hairstyles:
The Afro was the hairstyle of choice. If you could grow a big one, you were badd. Men, women and kids wore afros if they could. Some of our peoples hair was so kinky, an afro wasn't a choice. Kinky haired (or we would lovingly call them nappy headed) women and girls would have to constantly get their hair straightened or braided. Men and boys with kinky hair would have to break out the conk or straightening comb or either get a Covadis haircut. Waves hairstyles was generally worn by men. The hair is cropped short to the head in the styling of a Caesar cut. There are brushing techniques that will result in the resemblance of "oceanic waves" in the hair. We would steal our sisters nylons and use them for a haircap.
- Braiding Hairstyles:
Historically, hair braiding was not a paid trade. Since the African diaspora, in the 20th and 21st centuries it has developed as a multi-million dollar business in such regions as the United States and western Europe. An individual's hair groomer was usually someone whom they knew closely. Sessions included shampooing, oiling, combing, braiding, and twisting, plus adding accessories.
Group of African Americans viewing the bomb-damaged home of
Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama
Bomb exploded September 4, 1963.
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1960s
Fluorescent body paint. Paints and decorations that fluoresce under black light are used in theater and several art forms
| Our Community in 1963 |
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
- April 16, 1963 - Martin Luther King is arrested and jailed during anti-segregation protests in Birmingham, Ala. He writes "Letter from Birmingham Jail," which advocated nonviolent civil disobedience.
- May 3, 1963 - Birmingham, Alabama police use dogs and fire hoses to attack defenseless civil rights demonstrators.
- August 28, 1963 - The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom is attended by about 250,000 people, the largest demonstration ever seen in the nation's capital. Martin Luther King delivers his famous "I Have a Dream" speech, building momentum for civil rights legislation.
- September 15, 1963 - Four young black girls attending Sunday school are killed when a bomb explodes at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, a popular location for civil rights meetings. Riots erupt in Birmingham, leading to the deaths of two more black youths.
- October 20, 1963 - South Africa begins trial of Nelson Mandela & eight others on conspiracy charges.
- Despite Governor George Wallace physically blocking their way, Vivian Malone and James Hood register for classes at the University of Alabama.
- 1960s - The term "Soul food," as it relates to cuisine, became very popular during the 1960s.
- 1960s - adding a fluorescent blacklight glow to the room. White T-shirts and teeth would light up the room, secret symbols or slogans on posters would be revealed. These lights also appeared in nightclubs and theater productions around the country, creating a surreal atmosphere.
- 1960s - Lava Lamps entranced people and consisted of an illuminated glass cylinder within which a colorful, wax like substance was heated.
- The United States Population is 179,323,175 with a total of 18,871,831 being African Americans. Things must be getting a little better because blacks are having more babies.
How did religion begin for the American Negro?
Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.
What is fetishism you may ask?
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance
Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.
But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.
In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views
that relate humanity to an order of existence.
Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.
But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.
Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.
This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.
Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.
During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.
But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.
The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015
Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.
Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.
So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.
The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
Church Of God in Christ Baptism
The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.
A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.
But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.
Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.
So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.
#100 - Public Domain image - African American woman being carried to police patrol wagon during demonstration in Brooklyn, New York, 1 photographic print : gelatin silver. Contributor: Demarsico, Dick
Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1963
#101 - Public Domain image - Two women sitting on grass near the National Mall during the March on Washington, 1963 1 negative : film ; 35mm. Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1963
#102 - Public Domain image - Young women with signs raised behind them at the March on Washington, 1963
1 negative : film ; 35mm. Contributor: Trikosko, Marion S. Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings
#103 - Public Domain image - Marchers with "National Council of Negro Women" sign at the March on Washington, 1963 1 negative : film ; 35mm. Contributor: Trikosko, Marion S. Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings
#104 - By PH2 Mark Kettenhofen (Whitney_Houston_Welcome_Heroes_1.JPEG) [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#105 - By Edward Paul Reyes (We Want Eazy! Cropped from original.) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
#106 - See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#107 - See page for author [Public domain],
By Trikosko, Marion S., photographer. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Atlantic Records (Billboard, page 7, 25 November 1967) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By ABC Television (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Atlantic Records (Billboard, page 10, 22 January 1966) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Warren K. Leffler, U.S. News & World Report Magazine [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By User:Tilden76 (File:George C Wallace (Alabama Governor).png) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#113 - By Cornelius Marion (C.M.) Battey (1873–1927) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Malcolm W. Emmons (The Sporting News Archives) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Arnold Newman, White House Press Office (WHPO) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Cecil W. Stoughton [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Walt Cisco, Dallas Morning News [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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