blast from the past of 1962

blast from the past
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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1962:
Freedom Riders
    Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional.

    The Southern states had ignored the rulings and the federal government did nothing to enforce them. Jim Crow laws remained in force throughout the South. The first Freedom Ride left Washington, D.C., on May 4, 1961, and was scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17.

    The Freedom Riders challenged this status quo by riding interstate buses in the South in mixed racial groups to challenge local laws or customs that enforced segregation in seating. White mobs usually awaited and they were beaten with baseball bats and iron pipes, and bicycle chains.

    Instead of enforcing the law of the land, which was his Constitutional duty as president, Kennedy made a behind the scenes deal with the governors of Alabama and Mississippi, that if the governors had the state police and the National Guard protect the Riders from mob violence, the federal government would not intervene to stop local police from arresting Freedom Riders for violating segregation ordinances when the buses arrived at the depots.

    NOTE:, of course, you know why Kennedy made this move right? More than anything else it was because the world was watching, and they didn't want this negative image of vicious white mobs attacking and killing blacks which were barbarian in nature and also illegal. U.S. Governments since Roosevelt wanted to portray a fair and just image of America to the world. Remember it's Communism against Democracy fighting for the world's public opinion.

    So let me get this right. A US citizen decides to take a public bus from one location to another which by law is perfectly legal, but upon arriving at his destination is arrested by local authorities with the US government giving its blessings? Baloney, and SHAMEFUL America needed a decisive president at this moment in history, but all have straddled the fence thus-far.

    Isn't that what America is about, To always stand firm and fighting vigorously for justice, doing the right thing? Well not in this case evidently. Poor black person, just can't find any love.

    The Freedom Rides, and the violent reactions they provoked, bolstered the credibility of the American Civil Rights Movement. They called national attention to the disregard for the federal law and the local violence used to enforce segregation in the southern United States.

    Police arrested riders for trespassing, unlawful assembly, and violating state and local Jim Crow laws, along with other alleged offenses, but they often first let white mobs attack them without intervention.

    The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) sponsored most of the subsequent Freedom Rides, but some were also organized by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). The Freedom Rides followed dramatic sit-ins against segregated lunch counters, conducted by students and youth throughout the South, and boycotts of retail establishments that maintained segregated facilities, beginning in 1960.

    The Supreme Court's decision in Boynton supported the right of interstate travelers to disregard local segregation ordinances. Southern local and state police considered the actions of the Freedom Riders as criminal and arrested them in some locations. In some localities, such as Birmingham, Alabama, the police cooperated with Ku Klux Klan chapters and other whites opposing the actions and allowed mobs to attack the riders.

    These heroic people take my breath away. Do we understand how brave and courageous they were? Think about how they faced centuries customs of hate without any help from our government or law enforcement. The Civil Rights movement was founded on the Gandhi theory of non-violence which was a great strategy.

    This method more so than a violent confrontation forced America to own up to its boast of a free and just Democracy for all it's citizens, violence would have had the opposite effect with the government slaughtering millions of people in the name of protecting America's interest. The world was watching, especially the Soviet Union who was taunting America.

    The Kennedys called for a "cooling off period" and condemned the Rides as unpatriotic because they embarrassed the nation on the world stage at the height of the Cold War. Attorney General Robert Kennedy, the chief law-enforcement officer of the land, was quoted as saying that he "does not feel that the Department of Justice can side with one group or the other in disputes over Constitutional rights."

    NOTE: It's super important to take note of what Kenedy said here. He used the word unpatriotic which in his white world and mind meant that blacks had been treated like 1st class citizens and were content with their situation as loyal, patriotic Americans. He were talking about being patriotic and wasn't even enforcing the law which was his Constitutional duty. Even the so-called good guys on our side don't get it. Eleanor Roosevelt surprised me the same way in 1947 when she called the NAACP "ridiculous" for petitioning the United Nations with charges of genocide against the American government, while many blacks were getting lynched and murdered with organized mob gangs and with total impunity from the law. This website has a deep respect and love for Eleanor for all she has done for all Americans, but realizes unless you can walk a mile in another's shoes, and face their reality each and every day, they just don't get it. It also shows us how far reaching and influential Jim Crow was because they were oblivious to the Negroes problems and cry for help and didn't understand the depth of the situation. The typical American didn't see the Negro every day; he was hidden from view in his second class ghettos. but that's about to change, cause we're moving on up to the eastside!!

    His comment angered civil rights supporters, who considered the Justice Department duty-bound to enforce Supreme Court rulings and defend citizens exercising their Constitutional rights from mob violence.

    We proudly honor these exceptional individuals with the 1962 Hamite Award. Without their extreme bravery and courage, who knows where we would be today. They couldn't rely on our politicians, judges, law enforcement to protect them and boldly faced extreme ignorance and hated face to face.

    These unique black and white human beings put their lives on the line for us. It's easy to get overwhelmed with emotion when you think about it. Without a doubt their love for justice helped forge about change that was long overdue.

    The Freedom Riders were a crucial part of black people eventual liberation from an oppressive system in America. Now the question becomes, how are we taking advantage of the excellent opportunities they opened up for us?

Freedom Riders

photo#101-yr-1962



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How were blacks feeling in 1962?
sad mood of blacks


We can feel everything is moving positively in regards to our Civil Rights. I hope we are prepared. If you think about it, our impending freedom from discrimination is very similar to our emancipation from slavery in 1863. In those days most blacks didn't even know how to read and write, only because as a slave it was strictly forbidden for anyone to teach them. In fact, it was a felony. So upon freedom, we had millions of ignorant and uneducated former slaves in America.

We were making significant progress with the Reconstruction schools the government had set up for us until racist white southerners bullied the U.S. government into doing away with them. That was called the 1877 Compromise.

It was idiotic because we had many who didn't get the opportunity to learn, and some these chose the wrong path in life. America would be a better place with informed, educated black people instead of ignorant ones. Now progressing to the 60s when we finally get our Civil Rights enforced, there are still many who are demoralized and beat down. The hate took our spirit and will away. I hope these weak ones will be able to rise.

Many feel worthless and intimidated by whites and afraid even to try. But we shouldn't feel that way, why not? Just read about your beautiful heritage and learn who you are and what you're capable of. If our ancestors did it, you can too. Don't ask, Take it! It belongs to you. Many brave colored souls before you made it all possible with fewer resources. Don't' let them down but more importantly don't let yourself down!

eagle flying

GET READY PEOPLE TO SUCCEED AND SOAR LIKE THE EAGLES!!! YES IT'S TRUE WE WERE TREATED LIKE CRAP, BUT WE CAN'T EXPECT ANYBODY TO FEEL SORRY FOR US, BECAUSE TRUST ME THEY DON'T GIVE A DAMM AND COULD CARE LESS. WE HAVE TO TAKE CONTROL AND BUILD AND PROVIDE FOR OUR OWN, ESPECIALLY US MEN.



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african american first

 For the year 1962:
  • Ethel Waters  was the first African-American woman to be nominated for an Emmy Award, in 1962.



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blacks and basketball

Willie  Mays
Willie Mays
photo #103-yr-1931

john jordan oneil
John Jordan "Buck" O'Neil
photo #101-yr-2006

     Sports in 1962
  • Willie Mays won the National League Gold Glove Awards.

  • John Jordan "Buck" O'Neil was named the first black coach in the major leagues by the Cubs in 1962 and is credited for signing Hall of Fame player Lou Brock to his first contract.

  • Ernie Davis who was a running back at Syracuse University, becomes the first African American athlete to receive the Heisman Trophy.



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blacks and education
James Meredith
James Meredith
photo #103-yr-1962

     Education in 1962
  • October 1, 1962 - James Meredith became the first African-American student admitted to the segregated University of Mississippi, after the intervention of the federal government, an event that was a flashpoint in the African American Civil Rights Movement.



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black women empowerment


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ballot box

John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
photo #108-yr-1960

     Political Scene in 1962
  • 1962 - Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy commonly known as Jack Kennedy or by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. Analysis:   It seems to me John Kennedy was very similar/hesitant to other presidents before him when it came to civil rights for blacks. With the recent battle between Democracy and Communism, every U.S. president since Roosevelt recognizes the need for civil rights for blacks. Consider a speech he made on this subject:

    "The denial of constitutional rights to some of our fellow Americans on account of race - at the ballot box and elsewhere - disturbs the national conscience, and subjects us to the charge of world opinion that our democracy is not equal to the high promise of our heritage."

    I don't know how much it bothered the national conscience, I mean come on let's face it, it had been going on this way for years. No, my money would be on the fact that America knows it can't lead the world and have these terrible injustices at home with its black citizens. This is the main reason for the Civil Rights movement of the 60s. Not because America sincerely recognizes it as unjust. Now the problem is going to be convincing white Americans to accept it because since emancipation the whites have been blissfully ignorant to the Negro, which they hardly ever saw in their daily lives. That's a big change for American whites soon to take place. But we knew it would have to happen peacefully one day, or either it would have been a revolution. Kennedy recognized discrimination and intolerance were wrong but just like presidents before him was bullied by the South and didn't want to start trouble because his effectiveness in getting other bills passed that had nothing to do with civil rights would be more difficult. Ultimately what made civil rights movement a success was without a doubt the courageous blacks and whites who took part in it, these are true Americans and visionaries. They made it a priority. His brother Robert Kennedy once gave him the advice to "keep the president out of this civil rights mess." Robert Kennedy was also in cahoots with FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, who hated civil-rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. and viewed him as an upstart troublemaker and communist, authorizing the director to wiretap King and other leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Many civil rights leaders saw John Kennedy as lukewarm, especially concerning the Freedom Riders, who organized an integrated public transportation effort in the South, and who were repeatedly met with violence by whites, including law enforcement officers, both federal and state. Martin Luther King felt Kennedy was moving too slow and prepared to march on Washington which had Kennedy's approval only after he was able to view and edit the speeches because he didn't want angry words to incite a riot. The Supreme Court had recently given blacks favorable rulings with integration, but the only problem was white Americans were not obeying the law. Kennedy was not expecting this turmoil when he became president. Before the election he had pulled a few tricks out of his political hat by getting Martin Luther King Jr. released early from prison, and had even paid a visit to Corretta to console her, this little gesture gave him a good reputation among blacks, and they threw their votes his way. But once in office, he forgot all about black causes until heroes like Martin Luther King and the Freedom Riders put the issue right in Americas face. So Kennedy was forced into the civil rights movement, which when it came down to a decision to be made because of tensions running sky high he proposed to the nation a Civil Rights bill by making the following comments:

    "We are confronted primarily with a moral issue.... It is as old as the scriptures and is as clear as the American Constitution.... One hundred years of delay have passed since President Lincoln freed the slaves, yet their heirs... are not fully free. They are not yet freed from the bonds of injustice... this Nation... will not be fully free until all its citizens are free.... Now the time has come for this Nation to fulfill its promise.

    After his address, Martin Luther King, Jr. called President Kennedy's "civil rights proposals, 'the most sweeping and forthright ever presented by an American president.'" But King also knew the battle wasn't over, especially in the south. Seven months after Kennedy was assassinated the Civil Rights Act of 1964 became law. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 abolishes discrimination in public accommodations, employment, and federally funded programs.


  • Sidenote: I must say that I'm a little disappointed in the way the Kennedy brothers handled the Civil Rights issue. Even though we finally got what we wanted, I was always under the impression that the Kennedys were zealous lovers of justice for blacks, maybe because there were many blacks wailing and crying when he was shot. But the truth of the matter is he kind of fell into the Civil Rights issue, not because he wanted to, and that makes a difference to me personally how I look at him.



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Who is this man?

His name was George Kennan, who was an American diplomat and historian, who served as ambassador to the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. He was known best as an advocate of a policy of containment of Soviet expansion during the Cold War on which he later reversed himself. He lectured widely and wrote scholarly histories of the relations between USSR and the United States. He was also one of the groups of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men."

George  Kennan


If you've ever wondered how the world became such a hateful and dangerous place, this man George Kennan explains it for us. Kennan didn't have any great powers to implement his ideas and was a Cold War strategist to various leaders in American history who obviously listened to much of what he had to say.

Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974

We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population. This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia.

In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming; and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.

In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism.

We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.

Do you think leaders of America are overstepping their boundaries with these strategies?



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black feminist movement


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black Movies in America
Movies in America

Eddie Rochester Anderson
Eddie "Rochester" Anderson
photo #103-yr-1937

Jack Benny's radio shows cast
Jack Benny's radio shows cast
photo #104-yr-1937

Frederick ONeal
Frederick O'Neal
photo #115-yr-1905

 Rex Ingram
Rex Ingram
photo #104-yr-1895

     Television / Movies in 1962
    Movies:
  • Cain's Hundred - Dorothy Dandridge (role as Norma Sherman)



  • Television:
  • Starting in the year of 1937, a new funny man would co-star on the Jack Benny Show. This man went by the name of Eddie "Rochester" Anderson. Eddie's character of "Rochester" generated much laughter, becoming immensely popular and would become a household name from 1937 to 1965 in America. The humor on the show was the usual stereotypical stuff that blacks had to endure, but later it would become a stepping stone for many successful comedians to follow. Eddie became the first black to have a regular role on a nationwide radio program. The show started on radio and moved to television in 1951 until it went off the air in the 1964-1965 season. Trivia:  Anderson was frequently late for the show. Benny attempted to instill punctuality in Anderson by fining him $50 each time he arrived late at the studio. Anderson had a habit of losing track of time, especially when he was talking with someone.Must have had something to say huh Eddie?

  • Car 54, Where Are You? was an American sitcom that ran on NBC from 1961 to 1963, and was about two New York police officers based at the fictional 53rd precinct in The Bronx. Car 54 was their patrol car. The show was filmed only in black-and-white. The show starred some big names in the African American community such as, Nipsey Russell as Officer Anderson, Ossie Davis as Officer Omar Anderson, and Frederick O'Neal as Officer Wallace.


  • In 1962 - Rex Ingram became the first African-American actor to be hired for a contract role on a soap opera, when he appeared on The Brighter Day. He had other minor work in television in the sixties, appearing in an episode each of I Spy and The Bill Cosby Show, both of which starred Bill Cosby, who used his influence to land him the roles.




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famous african american birthdays


Jerome Kersey
Jerome Kersey
photo #114-yr-2015

     Famous Birthdays in 1962
  • January 17, 1962 - Joseph Connor Phillips  is an American actor and conservative Christian commentator and writer.

  • January 28, 1962 - Keith Hamilton Cobb  is an African American actor.

  • January 28, 1962 - Tyra Ferrell  an American actress.

  • February 7, 1962 - Marlon Young sometimes credited as Marlon Chopper Young, is an American actor.

  • February 12, 1962 - Ali LeRoi   is an American television producer, director, writer and actor.

  • March 2, 1962 - DJ Scott La Rock  was the original DJ of the hip hop group Boogie Down Productions.

  • March 3, 1962 - Jackie Joyner-Kersee  is a retired African American athlete.

  • March 8, 1962 - Leon Robinson usually credited as simply Leon, is an American actor and singer, who began his professional career as an actor in 1982.

  • March 10, 1962 - Jasmine Guy   an American actress, director, singer and dancer.

  • March 26, 1962 - Keith Diamond  is an African-American actor and voice actor.

  • April 3, 1962 - James Richard Black  is an African American actor and former professional football player.

  • April 26, 1962 - Debra Wilson Skelton  an American actress and comedian.

  • May 24, 1962 - Gene Anthony Ray was an American actor, dancer, and choreographer.

  • May 25, 1962 - Marie-Alise De Marco  an American actress.

  • May 29, 1962 - Eric Keith Davis a former center fielder for several Major League Baseball teams.

  • May 30, 1962 - Tonya Pinkins an American television, film and theater actress and author.

  • June 2, 1962 - Darnell Coles  a former Major League Baseball and Nippon Professional Baseball player.

  • June 19, 1962 - Paula Abdul  is an American singer-songwriter, dancer, choreographer, and television personality.

  • June 22, 1962 - Joie Susannah Lee  an American screenwriter, film producer and actress.

  • June 26, 1962 - Jerome Kersey  was an American professional basketball player in the National Basketball Association (NBA).

  • July 1, 1962 - Andre Braugher  is an African American actor.

  • July 10, 1962 - Christopher "Play" Martin  is an American rapper and actor, formerly the latter half of the late 1980s/early 1990s hip-hop/comedy duo Kid 'n Play.

  • July 11, 1962 - Shaun Robinson is weekend anchor and correspondent for the show Access Hollywood, the daily entertainment newsmagazine show.

  • July 13, 1962 - Michael Jace is an American actor.

  • July 23, 1962 - Eriq La Salle  is an American actor, director, writer and producer.

  • July 31, 1962 - Wesley Snipes   is an American actor, film producer, and martial artist.

  • August 5, 1962 - Patrick Ewing  is a Jamaican-American retired Hall of Fame basketball player.

  • August 17, 1962 - John Marshall Jones  is an American actor.

  • October 13, 1962 - T'Keyah Crystal Keymáh  an American performer, writer, director, and producer.

  • October 17, 1962 - Glenn Erick Braggs   former Major League Baseball outfielder and designated hitter.

  • November 17, 1962 - Ray Chadwick  a former professional baseball player.

  • November 18, 1962 - Michael Felder  a former Major League Baseball player who played in the major leagues from 1985-1994.

  • November 28, 1962 - Rif Hutton  is an American actor.

  • December 7, 1962 - Richard L. Brooks  is an African American actor, singer, and director.

  • December 16, 1962 - William Perry  is a former African American professional football player who was a defensive lineman in the National Football League (NFL) for ten seasons during the 1980s and 1990s, nicknamed "The Refrigerator".

  • December 31, 1962 - Lance Reddick   is an American actor and musician.

  • 1962 - Ricky Harris  is an American producer, actor, comedian.



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famous african american deaths

Louise Beavers
Louise Beavers
photo #104-yr-1902

     Famous Deaths in 1962
  • February 13, 1962 - Fred "Snowflake" Toones was an African American film actor comedian of the early sound era.

  • February 27, 1962 - Willie Best sometimes known as Sleep n' Eat, was an African American television and film actor.

  • September 24, 1962 - Sam McDaniel  was an African American actor who appeared in over 210 television shows and films between 1929 and 1950.

  • October 21, 1962 - Monette Moore  was an American jazz and classic female blues singer.

  • October 26, 1962 - Louise Beavers was an African-American film and television actress. Beavers appeared in dozens of films from the 1920s until 1960.

  • October, 1962 - Plummer Bernard newspaper editor and publisher.



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famous african american weddings

Kim Hamilton
Kim Hamilton, Ivan Dixon and Steven Perry
photo #105-yr-1960

Claudia McNeil
Claudia McNeil
photo #104-yr-1917

Roxie  Roker
Roxie Roker
photo #104-yr-1929

 Gordon  Parks
Gordon Parks
photo #113-yr-1912

General Colin L. Powell
General Colin L. Powell
photo #108-yr-1989

Howard N. Lee
Howard N. Lee
photo #104-yr-1969

     Famous Weddings in 1962
  • November 18, 1962 - Barry White married to his childhood sweetheart, Betty Smith.

  • 1962 - Ike Turner married Tina Turner  in 1962.

  • 1962 - Jesse Jackson married Jacqueline Lavinia Brown.

  • 1962 - Colin Powell married Alma Johnson.

  • 1962 - Kim Hamilton  and Dave Geisel were wed in holy matrimony.

  • 1962 - Claudia McNeil  and Herman McCoy were wed in holy matrimony.

  • 1962 - Sy Kravitz  and Roxie Roker were wed in holy matrimony.

  • 1962 - Gordon Parks  and  Elizabeth Campbell were wed in holy matrimony.

  • 1962 - Howard N. Lee  and  Lillian Wesley were wed in holy matrimony.



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famous african american divorces

Sugar Ray Robinson
Sugar Ray Robinson
photo #101-yr-1989

     Famous Divorces in 1962
  • December 20, 1962 - Dorothy Dandridge and Jack Denison were divorced.

  • 1962 - Sugar Ray Robinson and Edna Mae Robinson were divorced.

  • 1962 - Sarah Vaughan and Clyde Atkins were divorced.



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 american standards
 american standards

"all men are created equal"
The cornerstone of American Principles
But is it true, or just empty words?



Well, once again we have to go back in history to get the likely answer.

Just imagine in your mind what America was going through in it's beginning. Poor European immigrants from around the world braved the mighty oceans traveling to the "New World" for a better life. Anything was better than where they were leaving.

The church had dominated the thinking of Europeans for many years but with the invention of the printing press and sharing of information they slowly began forming their ideas and belief systems independent of the church. One of these beliefs was in social science which taught the Negro was an inferior ape-like creature with no prospect for advancement and whites were superior to them.

Sounds silly I know, but Europeans believed it (and some still do today). They brought these beliefs with them to America. This is the reason whites didn't want anything whatsoever to do with blacks because in their superior way of thinking it would be a step backward to intermingle and share America with people of African descent whom they considered beast like.


the negro is a beast
https://archive.org/stream/thenegrobeastori00carrrich/


Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than Africans. Africans were a tribal people lost in time practicing all sorts of superstitious traditions. Leaders didn't teach their citizens to read or write, and much of African history was lost forever because of this failure. Africans would pass their culture down to the next generation orally.


The Sahara Desert kept these Sub Saharan Africans landlocked away from the rest of the world and because of this fact were not able to share in the worlds new love for education and science. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15735/15735-h/15735-h.htm


When Africans finally collided with the Europeans through the slave trade, they were shocked at the degree of hate these people had against them. Europeans loved science because it excused them from a moral conscience they had been burdened with in their practice of religion. So when they raped, pillaged, and murdered they did so in the name of science or white superiority which made it perfectly O.K. with their hearts.


After the Africans made it to America and were forced to work as slaves, it took many years until white people began to feel they were wrong about the mistreatment of blacks and started movements to free them. After slavery was finally abolished in 1863, another form of hate and discrimination would appear on the scene named Jim Crow.


After Abraham Lincoln had died, every single U.S. President up unto Lyndon Baines Johnson would ignore the Declaration of Independence principle that "All men are created equal" and violated the law of the land by disobeying our U.S. Constitution that guaranteed Negroes first class citizenship with Jim Crow laws. They just refused to accept blacks as equals. Throughout history this was referred to as the "Negro Problem"


It would remain this way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement.

Some of the early Americans who penned the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution which was essentially a moral roadmap for all Americans to live by were honest to true goodness Americans who understood the vision for the United States.


But on the other hand, this true vision of America was too lofty for most whites to follow. They sought only to take from our country for their selfish gains. They considered themselves privileged ones.


But not all were anti-American.


Great men such as Wiliam Whipple who was a signer of the Declaration of Independence was a true American.


During the Revolutionary War period Whipple wrote as follows to Josiah Bartlett, “The last accounts from South Carolina were favorable. A recommendation is gone thither for raising some regiments of blacks. This, I suppose, will lay a foundation for the emancipation of those wretches in that country. I hope it will be the means of dispensing the blessings of Freedom to all the human race in America.”  William Whipple


Even though these true Americans like William Whipple didn't particularly like blacks, they were special people because they put their personal feelings on the back burner and American ideals and principles first. William Whipple could not sign the Declaration of Independence and own slaves at the same time, so what did he do? He set his slave free. Many other true early Americans did the same thing.


william whipple
William Whipple, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and a true American
photo#105-yr-2015

But most American leaders chose to ignore American ideals and principles for their advantage and held on to their slaves, and after slavery was outlawed created illegal laws that made a joke of the U.S. Constitution, and trashed the Declaration of Independence which was anything but being true American and this is the way it remained until the 1960s Civil Rights movement.


Not much has changed. We still have a strong racist element in America and will continue to do so until this dark period in America's history is talked about and hashed out between the races. Many white Americans will probably never change their negative view of blacks which was initiated by erring scientist years ago and continue to pass their hate down from generation to generation.


So what does this have to do with American standards?


America in its infancy was slowly creating a standard that would become admired over the world. Although quickly fading from practice in our day the American standard consisted of honesty in business dealings, promoting fairness, practicing proper relationships, justice, civility, right dress, speech, eating, and anything positive that enriched the community as a whole. Yes, even racist anti-Americans understood and lived by these standards when it didn't conflict with their hate.


Now here's the problem.


With blacks finally attaining enforcement of their civil rights in the 1960s, many didn't quite know which standard to live. Should we live under the American standard where many were unkind to us and made us feel unwelcome or continue living under the old Negro standard that was adopted during and after slavery?


What's a Negro standard?


Many blacks took pride in being different from white America, even down to this day. So during slavery we created our special language to communicate with each other (AAVE), our flashy style of dress, our own and unique way we dealt with one another, it's a standard white just wouldn't understand, and we loved it because it belonged to us. It's how we survived for decades.


 american standards

Did blacks hold onto the old Negro standard
after the Civil Rights movement?


After the 60s it wasn't easy trying to blend in and assimilate into the American way of doing things, especially when you know there are ones that hate you. It could be very discouraging. It was especially hard on our black men. But happily many blacks made the smart choice of choosing the American standard, even though they knew they would be called Uncle Toms or sellouts by members of our race for trying to act white or like the enemy as they saw it.


These people were sagacious because they understood just like the slaves of old what this country was founded on and this gave them strength to live as true Americans. They could care less about racist whites and their hate for us or the foolish blacks who would say bad things about them. They remembered true American brothers like William Whipple and made their mind to follow the American standard of living.


Now if these blacks had stayed in the old Negro standard, they would have been left behind. You cannot blend the American standard with the old Negro standard. It would never work, and that goes for others such as Mexicans, Chinese, Middle Eastern, etc. We all must live by one standard way of doing things in America, even if we may hate one another.


So, if one from the old Negro standard wants to achieve it would be a mistake to look at it as trying to be white. No, we are working to be better Americans, true Americans. Browse through this website and learn about the countless number of blacks who died so that we could attempt this.


After the Civil Rights movement when whites were finally able to have contact with blacks through the event of integration many came to the realization that blacks were not much different than themselves. We're all humans, not like those crazy racist scientists preached as fact years ago to ruin America. They have much blood on their hands.


We must achieve and become victorious even under the bad hand of white racist which without a doubt we will encounter on our American journey. The only difference is today; it's not out in the open like it once was.


But on the other hand, we will also encounter the William Whipple's of the world. How do you think we elected a black President? It couldn't have been accomplished without white people. That in a sense was William voting for our first black president. So when issues arise, don't hate America, if you must hate at all hate the actions of the anti-American racist who reside in her.


 american standards


We can't let anyone hold us back from achieving our dreams which wouldn't make any sense believing "I'm gonna waste my life away with selfish pleasure seeking because of the white man, and also my homies will call me a sellout if I attempt to better myself." which is the thinking from the old Negro standard.


We must all strive to be sharp, smart, successful and proud African Americans living under American standards because it's the best in the world and many of our ancestors died for the opportunity we have today.


So to answer the above question, are all men created equal? It depends on who point of view you take. If you look through the eyes of racist anti-American people, then we are not created equal, but if you look at it through the eyes of true Americans, yes without a doubt we are all created equal and share mutually in achieving in America which is the greatest country in the world.


I think I'll look at it through the eyes of true America, like our friend and American brother William Whipple.


images:
https://pixabay.com/en/businessman-male-business-avatar-310819/
https://pixabay.com/en/man-avatar-blue-people-black-297303/
https://pixabay.com/en/stick-figures-family-people-146965/
https://pixabay.com/en/person-sales-man-tie-avatar-312160/
https://pixabay.com/en/justice-scales-fairness-impartial-683942/



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juke joints, party for black people
chitlin circuit

negro green book

The Negro Motorist Green Book was an annual guidebook for African Americans, commonly referred to simply as the "Green Book". It was published from 1936 to 1966, during the Jim Crow era, when discrimination against non-whites was widespread. Middle-class blacks took to driving in part to avoid segregation on public transportation. Blacks employed as salesmen, entertainers and athletes also traveled frequently for work purposes. African American travelers faced a variety of dangers and inconveniences, such as white-owned businesses refusing to serve them or repair their vehicles, being refused accommodation or food by white-owned hotels, and threats of physical violence and forcible expulsion from whites-only "sundown towns". New York mailman and travel agent Victor H. Green published The Negro Motorist Green Book to tackle such problems and "to give the Negro traveler information that will keep him from running into difficulties, embarrassments and to make his trip more enjoyable." The Green Book became "the bible of black travel during Jim Crow." These people were crazy on the for real side! You can bet the Chitlin' Circuit entertainers used the Green Book.

     It's a Party in 1962
    Chitlin' Circuit:
  • Back in the early 1900s because of prejudice and racial discrimination, black entertainers had to be very careful where they traveled. They weren't always welcome in various venues, so they created what's called a Chitlin Circuit. They named it Chitlin Circuit because of blacks typical love for soul food with chitlins being near the top as favorite. So, in other words, they understood they would be love on the circuit. They knew that the clubs, juke joints, theaters, etc. in the circuit were welcoming of the black race and safe to visit. This way of life existing from the early 1900s - 1960s. Noted theaters and entertainers on the circuit included:

    The Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Cotton Club, Small's Paradise and the Apollo Theater in New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.;the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.

    Early figures of blues, including Robert Johnson, Son House, Charley Patton, and countless others, traveled the juke joint circuit, scraping out a living on tips and free meals. These entertainers provided much-needed joy and happiness for black folks. Once the band's gig was over, they would leave for the next stop on the circuit. Sounds like a lot of fun and an exciting life!

    Many notable performers worked on the chitlin' circuit, including Patti LaBelle, Count Basie, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, Sam Cooke, Jackie Wilson, Sheila Guyse, Peg Leg Bates, The Supremes, George Benson, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Gladys Knight & the Pips, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, The Miracles, Donna Hightower, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Duke Ellington, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Little Richard, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, Tammi Terrell, The Isley Brothers, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Muddy Waters, Flip Wilson and Jimmie Walker.


  • chitlin circuit
    Jitterbugging in Negro juke joint,
    Saturday evening, outside Clarksdale, Mississippi

    photo #111-yr-1930

    chitlin circuit
    An African American couple dance the jitterbug in front
    of a crowd. Los Angeles California.

    photo #112-yr-1930



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soul music orgin


The Cookies
The Cookies were an American R&B girl group in the 1950s to 1960s.
Members of the original lineup would later become the Raelettes,
the backing vocalists for Ray Charles.
photo #103-yr-1954




soul music

Ray Charles
Ray Charles
photo #100-yr-1961

The Toys
The Toys were an American pop girl group from Jamaica, New York, which was formed in 1961 and disbanded in 1968.
photo #109-yr-1961

     Music in 1962

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • January 6, 1962 - "Unchain My Heart" Ray Charles

  • January 20, 1962 - "I Know (You Don't Love Me No More)" Barbara George

  • February 17, 1962 - "Duke of Earl" Gene Chandler

  • March 24, 1962 - "Twistin' the Night Away" Sam Cooke

  • April 14, 1962 - "Soul Twist" King Curtis

  • April 28, 1962 - "Mashed Potato Time" Dee Dee Sharp

  • May 26, 1962 - "I Can't Stop Loving You" Ray Charles

  • August 4, 1962 - "You'll Lose a Good Thing" Barbara Lynn

  • August 25, 1962 - "The Loco-Motion" Little Eva

  • September 15, 1962 - "Green Onions" Booker T. & the MG's

  • September 22, 1962 - "You Beat Me to the Punch" Mary Wells

  • October 6, 1962 - "Sherry" The Four Seasons

  • October 20, 1962 - "Do You Love Me" The Contours

  • November 17, 1962 - "Big Girls Don't Cry" The Four Seasons

  • December 8, 1962 - "Release Me" Esther Phillips

  • December 15, 1962 - "You Are My Sunshine" Ray Charles



  Popular Soul Dances:
  • The Twist

  • The Monkey

  • Chicago Walk

  • The Stroll

  • The Dog

  • The Madison

  • The Hully Gully

  • The Camel Walk

  • The Watusi

  • The Pony

  • The Swim

  • The Hitch Hike

  • Cool Jerk

  • Hand Jive



  Musical Happenings in 1962:
  • Otis Redding begins his career recording for Stax/Volt in Memphis, soon becoming the label's best-selling artist.

  • James Cleveland's arrival in California is celebrated by a concert attended by most of the area's gospel elite.

  • Sanford Allen becomes the first full-time black violinist with the N.Y. Philharmonic.



 Grammy winners in 1962:
    The 4th Annual Grammy Awards were held on May 29, 1962 at Chicago, Los Angeles and New York. They recognized accomplishments by musicians from the year 1961.

    Best Folk Recording
  • Belafonte Folk Singers for Belafonte Folk Singers at Home and Abroad


  • Best Gospel or Other Religious Recording
  • Mahalia Jackson for Everytime I Feel the Spirit


  • Best Original Jazz Composition
  • Galt MacDermot (composer) for "African Waltz" performed by Cannonball Adderley


  • Best Rock and Roll Recording
  • Chubby Checker for "Let's Twist Again"


  • Best Rhythm & Blues Performance
  • Ray Charles for "Hit the Road Jack"




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starting fresh in life


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children fashion
Kids Fashions from Stockton, California
in the 60s

photo #106-yr-1960

girls fashion
1960s Girls Fashions
photo #106-yr-1960

360 Waves hairstyle
360 Waves hairstyle
photo #104-yr-1950

Eddie South
American jazz violinist Eddie South
with a conk hairdo.

photo #104-yr-1920

     Fashions in 1962

  Popular Fashions:
  • Bellbottoms

  • Miniskirts

  • Tie Dye T-shirts

  • Turtlenecks


  • Men & Women Hairstyles:
    The Afro was the hairstyle of choice. If you could grow a big one, you were badd. Men, women and kids wore afros if they could. Some of our peoples hair was so kinky, an afro wasn't a choice. Kinky haired (or we would lovingly call them nappy headed) women and girls would have to constantly get their hair straightened or braided. Men and boys with kinky hair would have to break out the conk or straightening comb or either get a Covadis haircut. Waves hairstyles was generally worn by men. The hair is cropped short to the head in the styling of a Caesar cut. There are brushing techniques that will result in the resemblance of "oceanic waves" in the hair. We would steal our sisters nylons and use them for a haircap.


  • Braiding Hairstyles:
    Historically, hair braiding was not a paid trade. Since the African diaspora, in the 20th and 21st centuries it has developed as a multi-million dollar business in such regions as the United States and western Europe. An individual's hair groomer was usually someone whom they knew closely. Sessions included shampooing, oiling, combing, braiding, and twisting, plus adding accessories.




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why do many dislike white people


“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise


How did it begin?

Actually, it's a worldwide negative perception of whites, but why? Well, a quick and simple trip back in history will get the probable answer.

The best way to describe European history would be wars, wars, and more wars.

good white americans
The Europeans wanted better and pursued a life of civilization as opposed to barbarism. They discovered a tool that would help them with that. It was called Science, which was a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In other words, every single thing would be studied and scrutinized.

Foolishly, church leaders of that day welcomed science, but it would eventually become a direct enemy of humanity's maker.

Why so?

Because science would teach the ordinary person to believe in themselves and the intellectual powers, they possess as opposed to an All Mighty Creator. Because the Creator of the universe is mathematically correct, once these early scientists were able to figure equations for themselves in regards to nature, they felt there were like a god. Science would also teach the world to exist because of a Big Bang theory and evolution, instead of being created.

Did these early Europeans belief in science affect the Negro?

Absolutely! It affected all tribal nature human beings. Whites collectively proclaimed themselves superior and this is where the trouble started for the rest of humankind. The Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than tribal communities. Millions of Negroes and other races lost their lives and suffered much because of science.

Before slavery, the Negro had been isolated from the rest of the world for many years due to the humongous Sahara Desert to the North and the Arab slave traders to the East made it tough if not impossible to travel. They weren't able to share in the new learning discoveries the world were experiencing. These people were a group lost in time, away from the modern world.

good black americans

Once the Portuguese got the slave trade started with the entire world, the scientist had an opportunity to scrutinize and evaluate the lowly Negro, and I have to warn you right now it wasn't pretty.

why do many dislike white people
An illustration from the influential American magazine Harper's Weekly shows an alleged similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to the higher "Anglo-Teutonic." The accompanying caption reads "The Iberians are believed to have been originally an African race, which thousands of years ago spread themselves through Spain over Western Europe. Their remains are found in the barrows, or burying places, in various parts of these countries. The skulls are of a small prognathous type. They came to Ireland and mixed with the natives of the South and West, who themselves are supposed to have been of small type and descendants of savages of the Stone Age, who, in consequence of isolation from the rest of the world, had never been out-competed in the healthy struggle of life, and thus made way, according to the laws of nature, for superior races."  (this is an Harper's Weekly assessment of race, not ours) photo#101-yr-2015


The following excerpts are scientist views of the Negro back then:

Charles White (1728–1813), an English physician and surgeon, believed that races occupied different stations in the "Great Chain of Being," and he tried to scientifically prove that human races have distinct origins from each other. He believed that Whites and Negroes were two different species. White was a believer in polygeny, the idea that different races had been created separately.

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) was a German philosopher who said "The yellow Indians do have a little talent. The Negroes are far below them, and at the lowest point are a part of the American people".

Franz Ignaz Pruner (1808–1882) was a medical doctor who studied the racial structure of Negroes in Egypt. In a book which he wrote in 1846, he claimed that Negro blood had a negative influence on the Egyptian moral character. He argued that the main feature of the Negro's skeleton is prognathism, which he claimed was the Negro's relation to the ape. He also argued that Negroes had very similar brains to apes and that Negros have a shortened big toe, which is a characteristic connecting Negroes closely to apes.

Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), the Swedish physician, botanist, and zoologist says The Afer or Africanus: black, phlegmatic, relaxed; black, frizzled hair; silky skin, flat nose, tumid lips; females without shame; mammary glands give milk abundantly; crafty, sly, careless; anoints himself with grease; and regulated by will.

Scottish lawyer Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696-1782) was a polygenist: he believed God had created different races on Earth in separate regions. In his 1734 book Sketches on the History of Man, Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks.

Charles Darwin (1809 – 19 April 1882) apparently believed that the struggle for existence among humans would result in racial extermination. In Descent of Man he asserted, "At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace throughout the world the savage races.

When comparing Caucasians to Negroes, Voltaire (1694 – 1778) compared them to different breeds of dog:
The Negro race is a species of men different from ours as the breed of spaniels is from that of greyhounds. The mucous membrane, or network, which Nature has spread between the muscles and the skin, is white in us and black or copper-colored in them.

Benjamin Rush (1745–1813), a Founding Father of the United States and a physician, proposed that being black was a hereditary skin disease, which he called "negroidism," and that it could be cured. Rush believed non-whites were white underneath, but they were stricken with a non-contagious form of leprosy which darkened their skin color. Rush drew the conclusion that "Whites should not tyrannize over [blacks], for their disease should entitle them to a double portion of humanity. However, by the same token, whites should not intermarry with them, for this would tend to infect posterity with the 'disorder'... attempts must be made to cure the disease.

The German anatomist Johann Blumenbach (1752–1840) was a believer in monogenism, the concept that all races have a single origin. He also believed in the "degeneration theory" of racial backgrounds. He said that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors, such as the sun and poor dieting and believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race. According to Blumenbach, there are five races, all belonging to a single species: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay. Blumenbach said: I have allotted the first place to the Caucasian because this stock displays the most beautiful race of men.


O.K. O.K., enough already! I told you it wasn't going to be pretty.

The beliefs these so-called scholars had is the single most reason why millions of Negroes were tortured, murdered and raped throughout history. Scientist published their findings as fact and people all over the world believed them.

But we wonder what the scientist would say if alive today with access to a computer, and visit Google to type in the key phrase "African immigrants in college" they would discover that these same Africans out-perform academically every single race in America's colleges.

That's interesting, but what does it prove?

It proves that intelligence is not dependent on skin color or race, but instead access to education and a fertile mind to receive instruction. In America, slavery happened years ago but damaged and demoralized the fertile minds of many black Americans, and continues down to this day. There are some blacks who think of education and learning as a white thing and don't want anything to do with it, now if that's not an effect of slavery I don't know what is.

Doesn't It boggles the mind that these so-called superior, intelligent and civilized humans didn't for one time think to share their knowledge of enlightenment with the world so all could live a better life, be happy and progress? No, sadly these people chose to claim white superiority, to dominate and to kill weaker ones similar to the barbarian way of life they came. An example of this is with Colonialism.

What is Colonialism?
Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory. It is a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous population.

good whites Colonial rule in the Belgian Congo began in the late 19th century under King Leopold II of Belgium. Leopold exploited the Congo for its natural resources, first ivory and later rubber which was becoming a valuable commodity. The regime in the Congo was responsible for using forced labor, murder and mutilation to force native Congolese who did not fulfill quotas for rubber collections. It's estimated millions of Congolese died during this time.
In other words a much powerful nation sets up shop in a weaker nation by force and robs the resources and forces the natives to work as slaves for little or no pay while grossly benefiting from unequal trade activities while depositing profits to it's mother country.

Colonialism demoralized the native population making Europe stronger and Africa weaker. Even though many white nations participated, non-Europeans nations included, the United Kingdom was the king in this horrible act against humanity.

Because of whites belief in science aided with their secondary faith in religion, they felt they were obligated to save and civilize the world. Google "White man's Burden" for proof of this belief, and by the way our United States President Teddy Roosevelt loved the White Man's Burden theory.

Whites tend to have a poor memory in regards to their crimes against humanity, but the other nations who suffered through it haven't forgotten, because just like the effects of slavery still lingers for blacks in America, people who suffered through colonialism still feel the pain and can see with their literal eye the destruction it left behind.

There isn't any denying that science has also helped make our lives better, but the responsibility that goes along with it is simply too much for humans to handle. Whites did not temper science with love and common sense. Just look around the world today, and you would probably agree we are on the brink of destruction with pollution, nuclear weapons, degradation of the earth, etc. are all products of science. The bad far outweigh the good.

Early science also taught Europeans it was man's nature to compete. In fact, they felt it was healthy and natural to compete to create superior human beings, especially white ones. This erroneous belief about competition would go on to be the largest difference in European and African cultures.

Whites brought these competitive qualities and attitudes with them from Europe. Africans were totally opposite because in their homeland everything was shared and done for the tribal community. There wasn't an I in Africa, it was US.

Blacks played an enormous role in the building of this country, even with hands tied behind their backs but were not welcome to participate. Whites felt that it just didn't look and feel right for blacks to be associated with superior whites in the building of America. So white Americans kidnapped the U.S. Constitution and created laws (Jim Crow) to keep things entirely separate and achieved like crazy in all aspects of life, and boasting white superiority.

It has not been proven that competitiveness is better than teamwork. View this small list of words associated with competitiveness out of the dictionary and you'll have to agree this is the state of America today.

aggressive, brutal, cutthroat, every person for themselves, fierce, merciless, ruthless, unmerciful, vicious, voracious, without mercy, adverse, alien, argumentative, belligerent, bitter, cold, contentious, contrary, disapproving, dour, hateful, ill-disposed, inhospitable, inimical, malevolent, malicious, malignant, militant, nasty, ornery, pugnacious, rancorous, scrappy, sour, spiteful, unfriendly, unkind, unpropitious, unsociable, unsympathetic, unwelcoming, viperous, warlike.

More and more blacks have developed this competitive and lofty spirit and probably will soon look down on others as well, even within our race. Ole Blue Eyes, who was a great singer and real American who viewed each human being as equal had an incredible grip on the situation about the division between blacks and whites. Check out what he said below.

Frank Sinatra
photo#101-yr-1915

One of the greatest entertainers of all times, Frank Sinatra once made a quote about the damaging effects of ones who subscribe to white superiority whether covertly or overtly.

"We've got a hell of a long way to go in this racial situation. As long as most white men think of a Negro first and a man second, we're in trouble. I don't know why we can't grow up."


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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1960s

 dogs chasing kids

blacklight
Fluorescent body paint. Paints and decorations that fluoresce under black light are used in theater and several art forms
photo #107-yr-1960

Ethel Waters
Ethel Waters
photo #108-yr-1940

Our Community in 1962
 Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • 1960s - The term "Soul food," as it relates to cuisine, became very popular during the 1960s.

  • 1960s - adding a fluorescent blacklight glow to the room. White T-shirts and teeth would light up the room, secret symbols or slogans on posters would be revealed. These lights also appeared in nightclubs and theater productions around the country, creating a surreal atmosphere.

  • 1960s - Lava Lamps entranced people and consisted of an illuminated glass cylinder within which a colorful, wax like substance was heated.

  • James Meredith is the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi; on the day he enters the university, he is escorted by U.S. marshals.

  • Ethel Waters is the first African-American woman to be nominated for an Emmy Award, in 1962.

  • The United States Population is 179,323,175 with a total of 18,871,831 being African Americans. Things must be getting a little better because blacks are having more babies.



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RESOURCES:


Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License


#100 -   Public Domain image - By User:Seidenstud (Seidenstud on the English Wikipedia) [CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#101 -   Public Domain image
https://pixabay.com/en/bus-egged-holon-tel-aviv-381019/

#102 -   Public Domain image
https://pixabay.com/en/birthday-greeting-luck-happy-358814/

#103 -   Public Domain image By Marion S. Trikosko, U.S. News & World Report [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#104 -   Public Domain image https://pixabay.com/en/white-tailed-eagle-bird-raptor-660907/


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