Blast From The Past:
OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1960:
Get ready for an inspiring but sorrowful story.
Ossian Sweet was born the second son to Henry Sweet and Dora Devaughn in Bartow, Florida. Henry Sweet was a former slave from Florida. He bought land in Bartow in 1898 and moved there with his entire family. They lived in a small farmhouse, and all the children helped with the farm animals and in the fields.
Sweet had witnessed a lynching in his younger years. A male teenager Fred Rochelle was captured by black men and turned over to the sheriff, admitting to attacking and murdering a white female with a butcher knife in an apparent rape attempt. Sweet was out alone at night where he watched from the bushes as Rochelle was burned at stake. “He’d recount it with frightening specificity: the smell of the kerosene, Rochelle’s screams as he was engulfed in flames, the crowd’s picking off pieces of charred flesh to take home as souvenirs.
Ossian's parents wanted Ossian to go North and get an education. He was sent to Wilberforce University in Xenia, Ohio; it was the first African-American college to be owned and operated by blacks. He attended Wilberforce for eight years. He needed additional education beyond what had been provided in his segregated Florida schools.
Sweet took work shoveling snow, stoking furnaces, washing dirty dishes, waiting tables, and carting luggage up hotel stairs to pay the US$118 for his tuition and books. After Wilberforce, Sweet attended Howard University in Washington D.C. where he earned his medical accreditation. Throughout Sweet's early life, he demonstrated a clear dedication to school and overcoming the struggles of a Southern black in the Jim Crow society.
With little money, Sweet arrived in Detroit in the late summer of 1921, a time of speakeasies, jazz music, liquor, and slumming. It was also a time when drugs, gambling, and prostitution swept the city. According to Kevin Boyle, in 1910 Detroit was on its way to becoming an industrial powerhouse.
"Despite its name, Black Bottom wasn't really a colored area. Most of its residents were immigrants, not negroes," Black Bottom was a neighborhood of the poor working-class people of Detroit. Boyle describes Black Bottom in his book as dingy and rundown, with rooms barely large enough to accommodate families. Homes in Central Black Bottom were decaying.
Sweet saw a chance to practice medicine and help people. He gave US$100 to a pharmacy, “Palace Drugs,” in exchange for office space. His list of patients grew, and "Ossian was named a medical examiner for Liberty Life Insurance, an appointment that assured him a steady stream of patients he might not have otherwise have acquired."
Sweet married Gladys Mitchell in 1922. Having saved enough money, he moved his family in 1925 from his wife’s parents home to an all-white neighborhood. Sweet was aware of the neighborhood's prejudice, and of the possible danger he would incur in purchasing the house, but he wanted it. He liked its appearance and size, and what it represented as a good neighborhood.
Fearing an attack after he moved in, Sweet had nine other men at his house on the night of September 9, 1925, to help defend his family and property. Police officers had been placed outside the Sweet's house to keep the peace and protect Ossian and Gladys from any angry neighbors. When a hostile crowd formed for the second consecutive night in front of his home, Sweet felt that “somewhere out there, were the men who would incite the crowd to violence.”
As the crowd grew restless some, possibly children or teenagers, threw stones at the house, eventually breaking an upstairs window. Several of Dr. Sweet’s friends were waiting upstairs, armed with guns that Sweet had purchased before moving in. Shots were fired from upstairs, hitting two men, wounding one and killing the other. The inhabitants of the house were all arrested.
The NAACP assisted Sweet and the other accused individuals in obtaining money and support necessary to defend themselves in this trial.
Gladys Sweet was released on bail provided by friends of her parents. Sweet was relieved. Later most came to an agreement that the eight remaining defendants should be acquitted; there were, however, a few holdouts. A mistrial was declared. Sweet and Gladys expected to head back to court within a few weeks, but there were delays. The second shorter trial led to an acquittal of Ossian's brother, Henry Sweet. The prosecuting attorney elected to dismiss the charges against the remaining defendants.
After Henry had been acquitted, life for the Sweets was not as joyous as hoped. Both Gladys and her daughter, Iva, were found to have contracted tuberculosis. Gladys believed she contracted it while in jail. Two months after her second birthday, Iva died. During the two years following the loss of their daughter, Gladys' illness drove them apart.
By mid-1928, Sweet finally regained possession of the bungalow, which had not been lived in since the shooting. A few months after Gladys returned home, she died of TB, at the age of twenty-seven. After her death, Sweet bought the Garafalo's Drugstore. In 1929, he left his practice to run a hospital in the heart of the ghetto.
He would eventually move a few of these small hospitals, but none ever flourished. As he began to approach the age of fifty, Sweet started to buy land in East Bartow, as his father had. In 1930, he decided to run for the presidency of the NAACP branch in Detroit but lost by a wide margin. In the summer of 1939, Ossian realized that his brother had also contracted tuberculosis; six months later, the brother died.
By this point, Ossian's finances had failed him. It took him until 1950 to pay off the land contract, and he assumed full ownership of the bungalow. He faced too much debt after that. Sweet sold the house in April 1958, to another black family. He transformed what had been his office above Garafalo's Drugstore into an apartment. Around this time, Sweet's physical and mental health began to decline; he had put on weight and had slowed in his motions. On March 20, 1960, he went into his bedroom and killed himself with a shot to the head.
What an amazing story! This man sought to live the American dream and died for it, along with his wife, daughter, and brother. Such a sad story. But wasn't it wonderful to see how his friends stood by him on that horrible night of violence by whites? They went to jail also. Those are what you call real friends, comrades in arms.
Ossian's marriage was also harmed by this terrorist encounter. Ossian opened up the door for black families that wanted a better life to live in a nicer neighborhood than Jim Crow had historically designated for them. As a token of our appreciation for The Sweet family's determination and courage we award the 1960 Hamite Award. Their efforts made it possible for others to follow. Shouldn't we continually live our lives in honor of that?
|How were blacks feeling in 1960?
I told you so! Didn't I tell you that the keepers of America's government were gonna one day have to face up to their miscarriage of justice? All of these years since the emancipation, these white folks were so unjust, un-American and plain downright nasty against the blacks. So many of us were murdered, but very seldom retaliated. We always hoped to this day, just like when in slavery we hoped for our Judgement Day.
Now we hear about some of these southerners fighting back and wonder if their very violent nature will be as intense as the 1800s? Or are they an old garbage heap waiting for transport to the dumps and local museums? Time will tell.
Let me make this clear about the black person. We always loved our country and still do. You would be hard pressed to find one black that would want to live in Africa. This is our home, thousands have fought and died for it in wars abroad and right here in America. Our parents would always teach us The Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution.
We ultimately recognized the fake-keepers of the U.S. government (un-American racist white people) to be two completely separate things from our beautiful Constitution. It was our only hope. It has taken Communism to force these people to change their evil ways. We look to the Constitution first and foremost and the ones who obey it as our real American brothers, which have been few and far between since the emancipation.
I've learned the black person who's ancestors were tribal look at the world a different way than European culture. Our groups of people were content with using the land for everyone's mutual enjoyment, and respecting the earth for it's many blessings to us, realizing there are limits and not going beyond that with dominating greed and hate. But don't get me wrong, our crazy rulers always fought against one another also. It is evil to all humanity.
Whites are explorers and curious about every little thing, and keep notes and records, inventors of things that have helped man but have caused more damage to the human race. I think many of them believe more in science and themselves than Almighty God, which clears their conscience when they dominate, murder destroys and takes from others. I think they believe they are gods. It's their white superiority mentality. But we believe they're outsmarting themselves and time will bear that out.
These two differences in cultures are the real root of hate between black and white. I think whites believe (through science) they evolved into a much superior race than other cultures, and blacks are the rejects of human evolution.
Those brave boys in Greensboro sitting at the lunch counter made a bold statement to the rest of racist America that we won't allow ourselves second class privileges any longer. World events such as Communism has opened the door for the black person to wake from his sleep, we have been in since emancipation. We are so far behind it's not even funny. WAKE UP PEOPLE, CAN'T YOU SEE A NEW DAY IS HERE!
For the year 1960:
- Rev. Clennon King was the first African-American U.S. presidential candidate.
- Ruby Bridges was the first African-American child to attend an all-white elementary school in the South.
| Sports in 1960 |
- 1960 - Willie Mays won the National League Gold Glove Awards.
"all men are created equal"
The cornerstone of American Principles
But is it true, or just empty words?
Well, once again we have to go back in history to get the likely answer.
Just imagine in your mind what America was going through in it's beginning. Poor European immigrants from around the world braved the mighty oceans traveling to the "New World" for a better life. Anything was better than where they were leaving.
The church had dominated the thinking of Europeans for many years but with the invention of the printing press and sharing of information they slowly began forming their ideas and belief systems independent of the church. One of these beliefs was in social science which taught the Negro was an inferior ape-like creature with no prospect for advancement and whites were superior to them.
Sounds silly I know, but Europeans believed it (and some still do today). They brought these beliefs with them to America. This is the reason whites didn't want anything whatsoever to do with blacks because in their superior way of thinking it would be a step backward to intermingle and share America with people of African descent whom they considered beast like.
Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than Africans. Africans were a tribal people lost in time practicing all sorts of superstitious traditions. Leaders didn't teach their citizens to read or write, and much of African history was lost forever because of this failure. Africans would pass their culture down to the next generation orally.
The Sahara Desert kept these Sub Saharan Africans landlocked away from the rest of the world and because of this fact were not able to share in the worlds new love for education and science. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15735/15735-h/15735-h.htm
When Africans finally collided with the Europeans through the slave trade, they were shocked at the degree of hate these people had against them. Europeans loved science because it excused them from a moral conscience they had been burdened with in their practice of religion. So when they raped, pillaged, and murdered they did so in the name of science or white superiority which made it perfectly O.K. with their hearts.
After the Africans made it to America and were forced to work as slaves, it took many years until white people began to feel they were wrong about the mistreatment of blacks and started movements to free them. After slavery was finally abolished in 1863, another form of hate and discrimination would appear on the scene named Jim Crow.
After Abraham Lincoln had died, every single U.S. President up unto Lyndon Baines Johnson would ignore the Declaration of Independence principle that "All men are created equal" and violated the law of the land by disobeying our U.S. Constitution that guaranteed Negroes first class citizenship with Jim Crow laws. They just refused to accept blacks as equals. Throughout history this was referred to as the "Negro Problem"
It would remain this way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement.
Some of the early Americans who penned the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution which was essentially a moral roadmap for all Americans to live by were honest to true goodness Americans who understood the vision for the United States.
But on the other hand, this true vision of America was too lofty for most whites to follow. They sought only to take from our country for their selfish gains. They considered themselves privileged ones.
But not all were anti-American.
Great men such as Wiliam Whipple who was a signer of the Declaration of Independence was a true American.
During the Revolutionary War period Whipple wrote as follows to Josiah Bartlett, “The last accounts from South Carolina were favorable. A recommendation is gone thither for raising some regiments of blacks. This, I suppose, will lay a foundation for the emancipation of those wretches in that country. I hope it will be the means of dispensing the blessings of Freedom to all the human race in America.” William Whipple
Even though these true Americans like William Whipple didn't particularly like blacks, they were special people because they put their personal feelings on the back burner and American ideals and principles first. William Whipple could not sign the Declaration of Independence and own slaves at the same time, so what did he do? He set his slave free. Many other true early Americans did the same thing.
William Whipple, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and a true American
But most American leaders chose to ignore American ideals and principles for their advantage and held on to their slaves, and after slavery was outlawed created illegal laws that made a joke of the U.S. Constitution, and trashed the Declaration of Independence which was anything but being true American and this is the way it remained until the 1960s Civil Rights movement.
Not much has changed. We still have a strong racist element in America and will continue to do so until this dark period in America's history is talked about and hashed out between the races. Many white Americans will probably never change their negative view of blacks which was initiated by erring scientist years ago and continue to pass their hate down from generation to generation.
So what does this have to do with American standards?
America in its infancy was slowly creating a standard that would become admired over the world. Although quickly fading from practice in our day the American standard consisted of honesty in business dealings, promoting fairness, practicing proper relationships, justice, civility, right dress, speech, eating, and anything positive that enriched the community as a whole. Yes, even racist anti-Americans understood and lived by these standards when it didn't conflict with their hate.
Now here's the problem.
With blacks finally attaining enforcement of their civil rights in the 1960s, many didn't quite know which standard to live. Should we live under the American standard where many were unkind to us and made us feel unwelcome or continue living under the old Negro standard that was adopted during and after slavery?
What's a Negro standard?
Many blacks took pride in being different from white America, even down to this day. So during slavery we created our special language to communicate with each other (AAVE), our flashy style of dress, our own and unique way we dealt with one another, it's a standard white just wouldn't understand, and we loved it because it belonged to us. It's how we survived for decades.
Did blacks hold onto the old Negro standard
after the Civil Rights movement?
After the 60s it wasn't easy trying to blend in and assimilate into the American way of doing things, especially when you know there are ones that hate you. It could be very discouraging. It was especially hard on our black men. But happily many blacks made the smart choice of choosing the American standard, even though they knew they would be called Uncle Toms or sellouts by members of our race for trying to act white or like the enemy as they saw it.
These people were sagacious because they understood just like the slaves of old what this country was founded on and this gave them strength to live as true Americans. They could care less about racist whites and their hate for us or the foolish blacks who would say bad things about them. They remembered true American brothers like William Whipple and made their mind to follow the American standard of living.
Now if these blacks had stayed in the old Negro standard, they would have been left behind. You cannot blend the American standard with the old Negro standard. It would never work, and that goes for others such as Mexicans, Chinese, Middle Eastern, etc. We all must live by one standard way of doing things in America, even if we may hate one another.
So, if one from the old Negro standard wants to achieve it would be a mistake to look at it as trying to be white. No, we are working to be better Americans, true Americans. Browse through this website and learn about the countless number of blacks who died so that we could attempt this.
After the Civil Rights movement when whites were finally able to have contact with blacks through the event of integration many came to the realization that blacks were not much different than themselves. We're all humans, not like those crazy racist scientists preached as fact years ago to ruin America. They have much blood on their hands.
We must achieve and become victorious even under the bad hand of white racist which without a doubt we will encounter on our American journey. The only difference is today; it's not out in the open like it once was.
But on the other hand, we will also encounter the William Whipple's of the world. How do you think we elected a black President? It couldn't have been accomplished without white people. That in a sense was William voting for our first black president. So when issues arise, don't hate America, if you must hate at all hate the actions of the anti-American racist who reside in her.
We can't let anyone hold us back from achieving our dreams which wouldn't make any sense believing "I'm gonna waste my life away with selfish pleasure seeking because of the white man, and also my homies will call me a sellout if I attempt to better myself." which is the thinking from the old Negro standard.
We must all strive to be sharp, smart, successful and proud African Americans living under American standards because it's the best in the world and many of our ancestors died for the opportunity we have today.
So to answer the above question, are all men created equal? It depends on who point of view you take. If you look through the eyes of racist anti-American people, then we are not created equal, but if you look at it through the eyes of true Americans, yes without a doubt we are all created equal and share mutually in achieving in America which is the greatest country in the world.
I think I'll look at it through the eyes of true America, like our friend and American brother William Whipple.
| Education in 1960 |
1960 to 1980 - The racial differences in grade completion narrowed between black and white students, however small but non-trivial differences existed.
WHO DOES THIS DETESTABLE LOOKING MONSTER REPRESENT? |
America began with the noblest of intentions. But she is no match for my voracious appetite of greed!
My power to influence is so great it will make folly of man's moral duty on earth and a mockery of what is truly just and righteous.
Hi, my name is Rapacity Prey Sr. |
I have been alive since the beginning and will always exist as long as man governs man. There is no shame in my game and proud to admit I've always been a greedy, self-serving bastard with a voracious appetite that cannot be filled. I have many followers who adore me although most don't believe I exist.
I control every aspect of your life without you viewing my beautiful face and hearing words coming from my mouth. For the most part, you obey my every command from my extensive communication networks. These include the printed word, radio, music, television and my favorite form in today's world, the internet.
My only objective in life is to gain wealth and to do this I must have power, which I abundantly possess. I make a huge financial profit from misery, death, and destruction and utilize my communication networks for others to take the blame. I'm a master at setting up smokescreens to do my dirty work. In fact, as mentioned earlier most don't believe I exist. (LOL)
Most people make my work easy because they refuse to peel back the layers of history to expose me. I have created religion against religion, race against race, husband against wife, parents against their children all to my advantage. I don't care one little bit because I'm getting paid in one form or another.
Let me tell you about some of my amazing accomplishments you may be familiar. I can't name them all because there are too many. Remember the Civil War that almost tore the country apart? I was behind that. That war was all about me getting paid, even though the majority of people thought it was about preserving the Union and ending slavery. I used man's hate against themselves to grow rich beyond all expectation during the War and Reconstruction period. It was me who got paid; my belly got super fat from that scheme.
During the Gilded Age, I made more wealth than I could count and have to admit was getting sloppy in my dirty work which resulted in the new Progressive Era which sought to clean greed and corruption from government. Well, who do you think it was that put these so-called righteous do-gooders in positions of authority? Come on now, don't be so gullible, at least put up a little fight to make this game more enjoyable.
I put people in charge to make it appear they were cleaning up the corruption and greediness which made them more cunning and cautious in providing me more wealth. I had my newspapers print how great and honorable Americans were and wouldn't put up for greed, and this made people feel great about their country because it made them feel proud and righteous above all others. What a folly! If walls could only speak!
WHO IS THIS MAN? |
We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population.
This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia. In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming, and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.
In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism. We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.
Written by Cold War strategist, George Kennan
Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974
WHO IS THIS MAN? |
I spent 33 years and four months in active military service and during that period I spent most of my time as a high class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and the bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism.
I helped make Mexico and especially Tampico safe for American oil interests in 1914.
I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street.
I helped purify Nicaragua for the International Banking House of Brown Brothers in 1902–1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for the American sugar interests in 1916.
I helped make Honduras right for the American fruit companies in 1903. In China in 1927 I helped see to it that Standard Oil went on its way unmolested. Looking back on it, I might have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate his racket in three districts. I operated on three continents.
Quoted by former U.S. Marine Corps major general, Smedley Butler
Smedley Butler became widely known for his outspoken lectures against war profiteering
I have to admit there were some great men who put up a fight. President Roosevelt and his New Deal was a hard nut to crack. He belived he could defeat me and make America the respectable place it boasted. He even did something I hated very much in proposing a United Nations organization to prevent future wars. Now come on, you know I disliked that.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
I had made much money from World WarII. Over 60 million people died in that war, and I didn't lose one-night sleep. I had most Americans believing the war was a fight against the threat of losing democracy and had intelligent people digging out their backyards to create bunkers, that was hilarious to me.
I even had my propaganda machine fool self-righteous Americans into believing they won the war, but in actuality it was the Soviet Union who provided victory, defeating the Germans and Japan. My communications network was at the height of its glory. That war was about one thing, me getting paid.
It's sorrowful that around the world and especially Americans are so gullible and believe the lie that they are righteous above others and especially the white ones who I influenced to think they were somewhat better or superior to other races of people. I persuaded my servant Hitler to also believe he was better and superior to others and looked what happened to him. A straightforward and honest search of history would expose so much more about me, but most people are followers who jump on my propaganda bandwagon to believe what may appear to be true. But that's okay; I get paid.
The Vietnam War was one of my greatest achievements. Once again I used my communications in tricking people into believing the Communist were coming and would invade our good and precious land of America. I demanded war but that fool John Kennedy stood in my way and began to back track. Just about every one of my military leaders was livid with him because they knew war is how I get paid. We all know the outcome of John Kennedy. War = money.
I created the entire American culture for my purposes in persuading them to believe they are winners and hate losing at war. The Revoulunary war that I aided in victory went to their heads. That's why I loved LBJ when he succeeded Kennedy. He was a man after my heart. He bombed those poor people to smithereens, even secretly. He was intent on showing the world America was a winner. He made my greedy soul very glad, as did President Nixon after him, two of my greatest workers and excellent examples for all people.
Through my communications networks I had people believe the reason Martin Luther King died was because of racism. Poppycock! If King would have kept his mouth closed and kept his attention to the race issues I created, instead of speaking out against the war he would have probably lived a long and prosperous life.
Martin Luther King Jr.
There were too many blacks joining the white anti-war movement in protest and it created a dilemma I had to deal with. He was messing with my money, and I didn't take kindly to that. It's that simple.
In time, Robert Kennedy was attempting to become the next President and since he was in the same mold as his war hating brother I couldn't allow that and quickly made a choice.
Well as you can tell I love war and also make much profit from covert activities by installing regimes in other countries that are beneficial for me. I've been doing this for years, as a simple search in history would show. But that's not the extent of my capabilities; I also have a huge domestic interest in my beloved country.
I also operate a very lucrative and legal drug business created with the assistance of science. The doctors who work for me send me their clients and I make them pay dearly. I could care less if a person suffers or die from an illness my drugs could have prevented. The truth of the matter is the top priority of scientific research was not intended to help people; its primary purpose is to fill my fat belly. Silly people!
Just put it this way. In just about every place where money can be made, I reside. I vacation on Wall Street regularly. I love the atmosphere there. I'm a master at the art of persuasion and thrive on disaster and turmoil which frightened and agitates American people but will make me more money in one form or another. Do I feel guilty? No, I don't, I don't feed a silly conscience. I only feed my fat belly. Long live America!, Or is it really America? (LOL)
Frank Sinatra, pictured here with Eleanor Roosevelt in 1960,
was an ardent supporter of the Democratic Party until the early 1970s.
These two names consistently popped up in our history study as friends to the Negro cause.
So it wasn't unusual at all to see them together socially. True Americans.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
John F. Kennedy
| Political Scene in 1960 |
- Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower was the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He was a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe. Analysis: Dwight D. Eisenhower was raised in a very religious household and some of his values followed him into later life. When receiving backlash from the Navy because of a refusal to fully integrate, Eisenhower made the statement that America is not taking one step backward in Civil Rights of blacks. Why? It wasn't because it was the right and moral thing to do, it was because Communists around the world who were using the racial discrimination and history of violence in the U.S. as a point of propaganda attack. Well, I guess we'll take justice anyway we can get it. Many positive changes happened for the black person during this period because of Communism. Eisenhower told District of Columbia officials to make Washington a model for the rest of the country in integrating black and white public school children. He proposed to Congress the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and 1960 and signed those acts into law. "There must be no second-class citizens in this country" he stated.
- May 6, 1960 - The Civil Rights Act of 1960 was a United States federal law that established a federal inspection of local voter registration polls and introduced penalties for anyone who obstructed someone's attempt to register to vote.
Analysis: Take note that America is changing. This website through its year by year study of events about the American black person has determined the cause more than anything else was Communism. Democracy and Communism are going head to head with each other. It doesn't look too good to the world for America to preach about freedom and Democracy when they are treating blacks horribly at home and like second class citizens. So it's not because America wanted to amend for its terrible mistreatment of blacks since the emancipation, it was because they had no choice. They finally had to face the truth of what was in our beloved U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence they had been ignoring for their selfish advancement. Remember "All men are created equal" SHAMEFUL
- 1960s - White southern support for the Democratic Party started to decline after its national leaders supported the civil rights movement, including school integration.
- Nov. 8, 1960 - Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy defeats Vice President Richard Nixon in one of the closest elections in history. Many observers credit African American voters with Kennedy's narrow margin of victory.
Who is this man? |
His name was George Kennan, who was an American diplomat and historian, who served as ambassador to the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. He was known best as an advocate of a policy of containment of Soviet expansion during the Cold War on which he later reversed himself. He lectured widely and wrote scholarly histories of the relations between USSR and the United States. He was also one of the groups of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men."
If you've ever wondered how the world became such a hateful and dangerous place, this man George Kennan explains it for us. Kennan didn't have any great powers to implement his ideas and was a Cold War strategist to various leaders in American history who obviously listened to much of what he had to say.
Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974
We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population. This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia.
In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming; and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.
In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism.
We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.
Do you think leaders of America are overstepping their boundaries with these strategies?
"Colored Waiting Room" sign from
segregationist era United States
photo #100 -year-1878
| Race in 1960 |
- February 1, 1960 - four college freshmen men helped spark the civil rights movement in the South. Ezell Blair (Jibreel Khazan), Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain, and David Richmond "sat-in" at an all white eating establishment (Woolworth's) and demanded equal service at the lunch counter. Trivia: Other univesity members would later join them in their non-violent protest to desegregate the lunch counter, which became known as the Greensboro sit-ins. By the end of July 1960, the young men were dubbed the Greensboro Four.
- April 15, 1960 - inspired by the Greensboro and Nashville sit-ins, independent student-led groups began direct-action protests against segregation in dozens of southern communities. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) would later be formed.
DID YOU KNOW?
Ever wonder how the soul-food revolution began? It became a popular term in the 1960's.
Slave ships with their cargo of slaves traveled from West Africa to North America with foods that were native to African soil. It was the ship's captain best interest to keep slaves alive and healthy by feeding them these foods for their long transatlantic voyage. Some of these foods native to Africa are black-eyed peas, rice, yams, peanuts and don't forget the infamous watermelon. Once here in America, slaves were allowed to grow these foods and along with the scraps the master would give them during 'ration times' (sometimes meat) is what laid the foundation for soul-food.
Many African American doctors practiced at black segregated hospitals. The Georgia Infirmary, in the year 1832, was the first segregated black hospital in the United States.
| Healthcare in 1960 |
It's hard to believe that as recent as the mid-1960s discrimination/segregation was tolerated in most major hospitals in the United States, especially in the South.
Separate but equal hospitals were separate for sure but far from being equal. The black section of the hospital was usually in the worst location of the building such as cold and unheated attics and damp basements.
Black women who entered the midwifery profession were critical, especially during the time we were denied equal access to quality hospital care. These wonderful women loved their job and often did so out of a spiritual calling. They were often referred to as “granny midwives.”
A black doctor could only treat black patients. African American professionals were barred from the medical staffs of hospitals and the patients from beds and services, and students didn't fare much better because they were denied access to nurse and residency training programs.
This all slowly began to change after 1963 with the NAACP Legal Defense Fund landmark case, Simkins v Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital (1963), that challenged the federal government’s use of public funds to expand and maintain segregated hospital care. Simkins became the Brown v Board of Education decision for hospitals.
Acts of Goodness is Colorblind
The only way to get the full impact of this viewpoint is by watching this quick episode of the old Andy Griffith show in its entirety (only 8 minutes). The show was shot in the old Confederate town of Mayberry, but try to look past that for the sake of this perspective. Andy was the type of father all kids wanted, and all men aspired to be. In various episodes, he would spend quality time and teach his son Opie the meaning of life in a way that would bring tears to the eyes. Sadly, blacks were invisible on the television in those days through no fault of their own.
The Andy Griffith show is one small example how powerful the media has been throughout American history and helped shaped our communities and behaviors today. Andy taught Opie the importance of being honest, reliable, friendly, unselfish and much more life skills that were needed for him to prosper. Shows like Andy Griffith were typical in displaying acts of goodness by whites.
What were black citizens doing during the Andy Griffith era?
Well, you would think that the millions of blacks in America didn't exist. They were rarely shown on television and if so were displayed negatively as dishonest, crooks, cheats, servants, janitors, etc. So the downfall of shows like the Andy Griffith show was whites would beam with pride and confidence and blacks watching the show which I'm sure they loved would feel left out, lacking as human beings and inferior.
The racist white media did a horrible disservice to the American community by ignoring its black citizens. It helped to drive a wedge between the races even further. It had the powers to unite but chose not to.
So in a sense, this biased media was a hater of democracy and opted to provide its viewers with a single story of white goodness and ignore the positive achievements of black citizens which would have made our common American stories more accurate and complete.
It's important to believe that acts of wisdom, knowledge, and kindness do not belong solely to Andy Taylor. There were black fathers doing the same for their kids; we just didn't hear about them. But because of a racist media, Andy was in a privileged position to uplift his race of people with these acts and because white people were the only one's viewed on television, on the radio, in the magazines, newspapers in a positive light. It became common in associating goodness as being solely white, and especially among white people, just ask them.
So, even to this day, there are too many blacks, and especially the young that associate being good, smart, educated with white people, and don't believe these gifts also belong to them. But the truth of the matter is there is no race that has the market on doing what's right which means every single person in America can be just as good as the next if they choose to be.
Hello, I would like to introduce you to a not so very nice person by the name of
Yes, he was as stupid as he looked and caused much pain for the Negro race, because so called intelligent American people did exactly what he told them to do for many years until the sixties Civil Rights movement.
The phrase "Jim Crow Law" can be found as early as 1892. The origin of the phrase "Jim Crow" has often been attributed to "Jump Jim Crow", a song-and-dance caricature of blacks performed by white actor Thomas D. Rice in blackface, which first surfaced in 1832. As a result of Rice's fame, "Jim Crow" by 1838 had become a pejorative expression meaning "Negro". When southern legislatures passed laws of racial segregation directed against blacks at the end of the 19th century, these became known as Jim Crow laws.
Institutionalized economic, educational and social disadvantages for Blacks, who really never got a fair shake and are constantly compared to other races as to why there are so many negatives with our race of people. Maybe this has something to do with it.
- "Separate but equal" status for African Americans. Conditions for African Americans were consistently inferior and underfunded compared to those provided for white Americans.
- Patterns of segregation in housing enforced by covenants.
- Unfair bank lending practices.
- Job discrimination.
- Discriminatory union practices for decades.
- Segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation.
- Segregation of restrooms, restaurants and drinking fountains for whites and blacks.
- U.S. military was also segregated, as were federal workplaces.
Jim Crow owns the deed to every single ghetto in America, and the American people who were indifferent to his practices were the co-signers. Jim Crow was without a doubt powerful enough to demoralize a sizable segment of the African American community for generations to come. But even though Jim Crow was dealt a vicious blow in the sixties, he still lives in the form of silent "Crow" codes in people's hearts.
Incomplete list of Jim Crow laws by state enacted between 1876 and 1965
Miscegenation is a word that's not used much today, but during Jim Crow was very popular. It means the mixing of different racial groups through marriage.
Arizona - Segregation, miscegenation, voting. Passed six segregation laws: four against miscegenation and two school segregation statutes, and a voting rights statute that required electors to pass a literacy test. The state's miscegenation laws prohibited blacks as well as Indians and Asians from marrying whites and were not repealed until 1962. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
California - Miscegenation - The 1850 law prohibiting marriage between white persons and Negroes or mulattoes was amended, adding "Mongolian." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Colorado - Miscegenation Marriage between Negroes and mulattoes, and white persons "absolutely void." Penalty: Fine between $50 and $550, or imprisonment between three months and two years, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Connecticut - Education, Upheld school segregation as originally authorized by statute of 1869. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Florida - "The schools for white children and the schools for Negro children shall be conducted separately." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Georgia - "It shall be unlawful for any amateur white baseball team to play baseball on any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of a playground devoted to the Negro race, and it shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play baseball in any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Illinois - Chicago adopted racially restrictive housing covenants beginning in 1927. In 1948, the United States Supreme Court ruled that enforcement of racial restrictive covenants was unconstitutional. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Indiana - Education, Separate schools to be provided for black children. If not a sufficient number of students to organize a separate school, trustees were to find other means of educating black children. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Kansas - Segregation laws in Kansas dealt primarily with education. The state constitution of 1859 specified separate African American schools. This practice continued until 1954. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Kentucky - Provided that all persons, firms, or corporations create separate bathroom facilities for members of the white and African American races employed by them or allowed to come into the business. Also, different rooms to eat in as well as separate eating and drinking utensils were required to be provided for members of the white and African American races. Not following this law gave to the offender a misdemeanor, a fine of $100 to $1,000, or 60 days to one year in prison. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Louisiana - "Any person who shall rent any part of any such building to a Negro person or a Negro family when such building is already in whole or in part in occupancy by a white person or white family, or vice versa when the building is in occupancy by a Negro person or Negro family, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Maine - In 1795, a law prohibiting intermarriage between whites and blacks was repealed. Hooray, Good For You Maine!!!
Maryland - "All railroad companies and corporations, and all persons running or operating cars or coaches by steam on any railroad line or track in the State of Maryland, for the transportation of passengers, are hereby required to provide separate cars or coaches for the travel and transportation of the white and colored passengers." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Mississippi - "printed, typewritten or written matter urging or presenting for public acceptance or general information, arguments or suggestions in favor of social equality or of intermarriage between whites and Negroes, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to fine not exceeding five hundred (500.00) dollars or imprisonment not exceeding six (6) months or both." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Missouri - "Separate free schools shall be established for the education of children of African descent; and it shall be unlawful for any colored child to attend any white school, or any white child to attend a colored" (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Montana - Miscegenation, ] Prohibited intermarriage between whites and Negroes, Chinese and Japanese. Penalty: Misdemeanor, carrying a fine of $500 or imprisonment of one month, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Nebraska - Miscegenation, Declared marriage between whites and a Negro or mulatto as illegal. Penalty: Misdemeanor, with a fine up to $100, or imprisonment in the county jail up to six months, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Nevada - Education, Negroes, Asians, and Indians prohibited from attending public schools. The Board of Trustees of any district could establish a separate school for educating Negroes, Asians, and Indians, if deemed advisable. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
New Mexico - "Separate rooms [shall] be provided for the teaching of pupils of African descent, and [when] said rooms are so provided, such pupils may not be admitted to the school rooms occupied and used by pupils of Caucasian or other descent."
(STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
North Carolina - "Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
North Dakota - Miscegenation, Cohabitation between blacks and whites prohibited. Penalty: 30 days to one year imprisonment, or $100 to $500 fine. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Ohio - Miscegenation, Unlawful for a person of "pure white blood, who intermarries, or has illicit carnal intercourse, with any Negro or person having a distinct and visible admixture of African blood." Penalty: Fined up to $100, or imprisoned up to three months, or both. Any person who knowingly officiates such a marriage charged with misdemeanor and fined up to $100 or imprisoned for three months, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Oklahoma - Funerals, Blacks were not allowed to use the same hearse as whites. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Oregon - Miscegenation, Unlawful for any white person to intermarry with any "Negro, Chinese, or any person having one-quarter or more Negro, Chinese or Kanaka blood, or any person having more than one-half Indian blood." Penalty: Imprisonment in the penitentiary or the county jail for between three months and one year. Those who licensed or performed such a ceremony could be jailed for three months to one year, or fined between $100 and $1,000. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Oklahoma - Education, Black children prohibited from attending Pittsburgh schools. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Rhode Island - Miscegenation, Prohibited intermarriage. Penalty: $1,000 fine, or up to six months' imprisonment. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
South Carolina - "No persons, firms, or corporations, who or which furnish meals to passengers at station restaurants or station eating houses, in times limited by common carriers of said passengers, shall furnish said meals to white and colored passengers in the same room, or at the same table, or at the same counter." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
South Dakota - Enacted three miscegenation laws between 1809 and 1913, and a 1952 statute that required adoption petitions to state the race of both the petitioner and child. A 1913 miscegenation law broadened the list of races unacceptable as marriage partners for whites to include persons belonging to the "African, Korean, Malayan, or Mongolian race." This law reflected the nation's growing tension over the massive waves of immigrants entering the country during the early twentieth century. The miscegenation law was repealed in 1957. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Tennessee - Miscegenation, Penalty for intermarriage between whites an blacks was labeled a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary from one to five years. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Texas - Voting rights, Required electors to pay poll tax. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Utah - Miscegenation, Laws of Utah, 1888. Intermarriage prohibited between a Negro and a white person, and between a "Mongolian" and a white person. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Virginia - "The conductors or managers on all such railroads shall have power, and are at this moment required, to assign to each white or colored passenger his or her respective car, coach or compartment. If the passenger fails to disclose his race, the conductor and managers, acting in good faith, shall be the sole judges of his race." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Washington - Restrictive Housing Covenants, Beginning in the 1920s, Seattle realtors frequently discriminated against minorities. In November 1927 the Capitol Hill development used a covenant that read: "The parties agree each with the others that no part of the lands owned by them shall ever be used or occupied by or sold, conveyed, leased, rented or given to Negroes or any person of Negro blood." An April 1928 covenant for the Broadmoor subdivision read: "No part of said property hereby conveyed shall ever be used or occupied by any Hebrew or any person of the Ethiopian, Malay or any Asiatic race..." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
West Virginia - Black citizens are prohibited from serving on juries. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Wyoming - Education, Separate schools could be provided for colored children when there were fifteen or more colored children within any school district. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Complete listing of American Jim Crow laws:
Photo of a scene from the play A Raisin in the Sun. From left-Claudia McNeil as Lena Younger,
Sidney Poitier as Walter Younger and Diana Sands as Beneatha Younger.
Movies in America
Eddie "Rochester" Anderson
Film poster of All the Fine Young Cannibals
Photo of Jack Benny's radio shows cast
Kim Hamilton, Ivan Dixon and Steven Perry
| Theater / Television / Movies in 1960 |
- Malaga - Dorothy Dandridge (role as Gianna)
- Cinderfella - Count Basie (himself)
- Sergeant Rutledge - Woody Strode
- All the Fine Young Cannibals - Redd Foxx (Piano Player at Rose's)
- After touring to positive reviews, the play "A Raisin in the Sun" premiered on Broadway at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre on March 11, 1959. The play transferred to the Belasco Theatre on October 19, 1959 and closed on June 25, 1960 after 530 total performances.
- Starting in the year of 1937, a new funny man would co-star on the Jack Benny Show. This man went by the name of Eddie "Rochester" Anderson. Eddie's character of "Rochester" generated much laughter, becoming immensely popular and would become a household name from 1937 to 1965 in America. The humor on the show was the usual stereotypical stuff that blacks had to endure, but later it would become a stepping stone for many successful comedians to follow. Eddie became the first black to have a regular role on a nationwide radio program. The show started on radio and moved to television in 1951 until it went off the air in the 1964-1965 season. Trivia:
Anderson was frequently late for the show. Benny attempted to instill punctuality in Anderson by fining him $50 each time he arrived late at the studio. Anderson had a habit of losing track of time, especially when he was talking with someone. Must have had something to say huh Eddie?
The Twilight Zone:
- Kim Hamilton with Ivan Dixon and Steven Perry in The Twilight Zone episode "The Big Tall Wish", 1960. Trivia: Creator of the Twilight Zone, Rod Serling quote - "Television, like its big sister, the motion picture, has been guilty of the sin of omission... Hungry for talent, desperate for the so-called 'new face,' constantly searching for a transfusion of new blood, it has overlooked a source of wondrous talent that resides under its nose. This is the Negro actor."
| Famous Birthdays in 1960 |
- January 17, 1960 - Charles Theodore "Chili" Davis a Jamaican-American former baseball player.
- January 21, 1960 - Darryl DeWayne Motley a former Major League Baseball outfielder.
- February 16, 1960 - Eric Gerald Bullock former Major League Baseball outfielder.
- February 27, 1960 - Stonewall W. "Stoney" Jackson an American character actor.
- March 4, 1960 - Michael T. "Mykelti" Williamson an American actor.
- March 7, 1960 - Joseph Christopher Carter former professional baseball player.
- March 12, 1960 - Courtney Bernard Vance an American actor.
- March 14, 1960 - Kirby Puckett was an American professional baseball player.
- March 18, 1960 - Rick Biggs was an African-American television and stage actor, best known for his roles on the television series Days of our Lives.
- March 26, 1960 - Ellia English an American singer, dancer, stage and film actress.
- April 16, 1960 - Ricco Ross an American actor.
- May 9, 1960 - Anthony Keith "Tony" Gwynn, Sr. nicknamed "Mr. Padre", was an American professional baseball right fielder who played 20 seasons.
- June 12, 1960 - Felecia M. Bell an actress best known for her roles in Days of our Lives and General Hospital.
- June 30, 1960 - Albert Dwayne (Al) Newman former infielder in Major League Baseball.
- July 1, 1960 - Adele Givens an American actress and comedian.
- July 16, 1960 - Terry Lee Pendleton former third baseman in Major League Baseball.
- July 17, 1960 - Nancy Giles an American actress and commentator.
- August 22, 1960 - Regina Taylor an American actress and playwright.
- August 25, 1960 - Robert Andrew Meacham a former Major League Baseball shortstop.
- August 26, 1960 - Ola Ray an American model and actress most notable for co-starring alongside Michael Jackson in his film for Thriller in 1983.
- September 2, 1960 - Eric Dickerson former American college and professional football player who was a running back in the National Football League (NFL) for eleven seasons during the 1980s and 1990s. He holds the NFL's single-season rushing record with 2,105 yards, set in 1984.
- September 4, 1960 - Damon Kyle Wayans, Sr. an American actor, comedian, writer and producer, and a member of the Wayans family of entertainers.
- September 9, 1960 - Alvin Glenn Davis nicknamed "Mr. Mariner", is a former Major League Baseball player.
- September 15, 1960 - Jimmy Bridges is an African-American actor.
- September 16, 1960 - Melvin Hall Jr. a former professional baseball player.
- October 4, 1960 - William Augustus Hatcher a former left and center fielder in Major League Baseball.
- October 11, 1960 - Curtis Glenn Ford a former professional baseball player.
- October 19, 1960 - Jennifer Holliday is an African-American singer and Tony Award-winning actress.
- October 30, 1960 - Gerald June Perry former first baseman in Major League Baseball.
- November 11, 1960 - Peter Parros an American actor and screenwriter.
- November 11, 1960 - Gary Wayne Jones an American coach in Major League Baseball.
- November 15, 1960 - Tab Baker was an African-American actor.
- November 17, 1960 - RuPaul Andre Charles best known mononymously as RuPaul, is an American actor, drag queen, model, author, and recording artist.
- November 28, 1960 - Kenneth Howell, Jr. a former professional baseball player.
- December 13, 1960 - Rusty Cundieff is an African-American film/television director, actor, and writer.
- December 14, 1960 - Don Franklin an American actor.
Richard Wright in a 1939 photograph by Carl Van Vechten
An ad for Odessa Warren Grey Millinery in a newspaper in 1913
Zora Neale Hurston
| Famous Deaths in 1960 |
- January 18, 1960 - Gladys Bentley was an American blues singer during the Harlem Renaissance.
- January 28, 1960 - Zora Neale Hurston A very popular and talented author.
- March 16, 1960 - Abriea "Abbie" Mitchell Cook also billed as Abbey Mitchell, was an American soprano opera singer who sang the role of "Clara" in the premier production of George Gershwin's Porgy and Bess in 1935, and was also the first to record "Summertime" from that musical.
- April 6, 1960 - Martha Davis was an African-American singer and pianist whose musical comedy act, "Martha Davis & Spouse", was popular in the late 1940s and 1950s.
- April 28, 1960 - Odessa Warren Grey a prominent milliner, entrepreneur and performer in Harlem, New York; she is best known as the star of a recently rediscovered silent film, where she co-stars with Bert Williams.
- November 28, 1960 - Richard Nathaniel Wright was an African-American author of sometimes controversial novels, short stories, poems, and non-fiction.
- 1960 - Clarence Cameron White great African-American violinist musician.
Eartha Mae Kitt
Adam Clayton Powell
| Famous Weddings in 1960 |
- June 6, 1960 - Eartha Kitt married John William McDonald.
- November 13, 1960 - Sammy Davis, Jr. married May Britt.
- 1960 - Richard Pryor married Patricia Price.
- 1960 - Oscar Robertson married Yvonne Crittenden.
- 1960 - Gladys Knight married her high school sweetheart, James Newman.
- 1960 - Al Freeman Jr. married Sevara Clemon.
- 1960 - Bo Diddley married Kay Reynolds.
- 1960 - Jocelyn Elders an American pediatrician and public health administrator and the first African American appointed as Surgeon General of the United States married Oliver Elders.
- 1960 - Adam Clayton Powell married Yvette Flores Diago.
- 1960 - Roger E. Mosley married Saundra Locke.
Sugar Ray Robinson
| Famous Divorces in 1960 |
- 1960 - Esther Rolle and Oscar Robinson were divorced.
- 1960 - boxer Sugar Ray Robinson and Edna Mae Holly were divorced.
The Negro Motorist Green Book was an annual guidebook for African Americans, commonly referred to simply as the "Green Book". It was published from 1936 to 1966, during the Jim Crow era, when discrimination against non-whites was widespread.
Middle-class blacks took to driving in part to avoid segregation on public transportation. Blacks employed as salesmen, entertainers, and athletes also traveled frequently for work purposes. African American travelers faced a variety of dangers and inconveniences, such as white-owned businesses refusing to serve them or repair their vehicles, being refused accommodation or food by white-owned hotels, and threats of physical violence and forcible expulsion from whites-only "sundown towns". New York mailman and travel agent Victor H. Green published The Negro Motorist Green Book to tackle such problems and "to give the Negro traveler information that will keep him from running into difficulties, embarrassments and to make his trip more enjoyable." The Green Book became "the bible of black travel during Jim Crow." These people were crazy on the for real side! You can bet the Chitlin' Circuit entertainers used the Green Book.
| It's a Party in 1960 |
- Back in the early 1900s because of prejudice and racial discrimination, black entertainers had to be very careful where they traveled. They weren't always welcome in various venues, so they created what's called a Chitlin Circuit. They named it Chitlin Circuit because of blacks typical love for soul food with chitlins being near the top as favorite. So, in other words, they understood there would be love on the circuit. They knew that the clubs, juke joints, theaters, etc. in the circuit were welcoming of the black race and safe to visit. This way of life existing from the early 1900s - 1960s. Noted theaters and entertainers on the circuit included:
The Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Cotton Club, Small's Paradise and the Apollo Theater in New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.;the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.
Early figures of blues, including Robert Johnson, Son House, Charley Patton, and countless others, traveled the juke joint circuit, scraping out a living on tips and free meals. These entertainers provided much-needed joy and happiness for black folks. Once the band's gig was over, they would leave for the next stop on the circuit. Sounds like a lot of fun and an exciting life!
Many notable performers worked on the chitlin' circuit, including Patti LaBelle, Count Basie, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, Sam Cooke, Jackie Wilson, Sheila Guyse, Peg Leg Bates, The Supremes, George Benson, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Gladys Knight & the Pips, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, The Miracles, Donna Hightower, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Duke Ellington, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Little Richard, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, Tammi Terrell, The Isley Brothers, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Muddy Waters, Flip Wilson and Jimmie Walker.
Jitterbugging in Negro juke joint,
Saturday evening, outside Clarksdale, Mississippi
An African American couple dance the jitterbug in front
of a crowd. Los Angeles California.
Hi there, I'm Annie.
Thanks for viewing my collection of wonderful soul-food dishes that my amazing ancestors cooked, and more than likely yours did too.
We didn't have much of anything back in the day and had to live off the scraps we were given. But like a famous rapper once said in his songs, we knew how to "make a dollar out of 15 cents" Enjoy.
Sweet Potatoes / Yams
Rice and Beans
Fish and Chips
Biscuits and Gravy
(images - https://pixabay.com/)
| Southern Cooking - Soul Food |
Have you ever wondered what African-Americans ate back in the day? Well, maybe we can help you with that. We've found the oldest known black cookbook to date.
This cookbook was written by an actual former slave woman that had once lived on a plantation, but gained her freedom with the Emancipation Proclamation moving from Mobile, Alabama to San Francisco, California where she published an entirely excellent collection of 160 authentic and tasty recipes of the Old South entitled;
"What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking"
This book is indeed a rare gemstone with tons of actual recipes that black folks enjoyed back in the day, but Mrs. Fisher cooking wasn't limited to blacks only, many whites also loved her delicious recipes and persuaded her to make a cookbook.
Here is just a sample of some of the southern foods mentioned in her book, and by the way, it wasn't called soul-food until the 1960's.
- Maryland Beat Biscuit
- Cream Cake
- Flannel Cakes
- Sallie Lund
- Egg Corn Bread
- Plantation Corn Bread
- Light Bread
- Lamb or Mutton Chops
- Pork Steak or Chops
- Ginger Cookies
- Sweet Wafers
Pickels, Sauces Etc.
- Sweet Cucumber Pickles
- Sweet Cucumber Mangoes
- Chow Chow
- Creole Chow Chow
- Cherry Chutney
- Game Sauce
- Compound Tomato
- Sweet Pickle Peaches
- Sweet Pickle Prunes
- Sweet Watermelon Kind Pickle
- Sauce for Boiled Fish or Mutton
- Milanese Sauce
- Sauce for Suet Pudding
- Pastry for making Pies of all kinds
- Preparing the Fruit for Pies
- Lemon Pies
- Cream Apple
- Sweet Potato
- Gooseberry and Cherry
- Light Bread
- Blackberry Roll
- Corn Fritters
Preserves, Spices, ETC.
- Brandy Peaches
- Quince Preserves
- Syrups for Preserves
- Preserved Peaches
- Preserved Pears
- Currant Jelly
- Cranberry Jelly
- Strawberry Jam
- Raspberry and Currant Jam Combined
- Marmalade Peach
- Crab Apple Jelly
- Blackberry Brandy
- Blackberry Syrup for Dysentery in Children
- Preserved Apricots
- Apple Sauce for Roast Pork
- Charlotte Eusse
- Spiced Currants
- Preserved Cherries
- Domestic Duck
- Wild Duck
Soups, Chowders, Etc.
- Calf 's Head
- Mock Turtle
- Green Turtle
- Oyster Gumbo
- Ochra Gumbo
- Old Fashioned Turnip
- Corn and Tomato
- Fish Chowder
- Chicken Gumbo
- Fricassed Chicken
- Fried Chicken
- Chicken fried Steak
- Meat Stews or Entrees
- Ice Cream
- Boiled Turkey
- Beef a la Mode
- Spiced Round
- Hog Maws
- Stuffed Ham
- Lima Beans
- Jumberlie a Creole Dish
- Baked Fish
- Ribs, Beef or Pork
- Boiled Corn
- Peach Cobbler
- Egg Plant Stuffed
- Chitterlings or "Chitlins"
- Corned Beef Hash
- Ladies' Custard
- Tonic Bitters
- Terrapin Stew
- Leaven Biscuit
- Pap for infant Diet
- Sorghum Syrup
- Meringue for Pudding
- Circuit Hash
What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking
Paperback – March, 1995
by Abby Fisher (Author), Karen Hess (Editor)
Southern Jewel Million Dollar Pound Cake
(this recipe is not from Mrs. Fisher cookbook, but has been in Annie's family for generations, it's everyones favorite!)
Butter: 1 pound
Sugar: 3 cups
Milk: 3/4 cup
Cake Flour: 4 cups (Soft as Silk Cake Flour)
Baking Powder: 1 teaspoon
Vanilla Flavor: 1 teaspoon
Lemon Flavor: 1 teaspoon
For best results, leave butter and eggs out overnight
Cream butter well, add sugar and mix until butter and sugar look like whip cream.
Beat each egg individually and then add with sugar and butter, mix well for at least a couple minutes.
Add milk and cake flour a little at a time, then add flavorings.
Spray Pam spray on entire round cake pan, and then add cake batter.
Bake about 1 hour and 15 minutes at 325.
Let cake cool for about 30 minutes, and then remove cake from cake pan.
Slaves kidnapped from their homes years ago belonged to tribes. Each tribe was as different as night and day to the next tribe.|
They each had their individual languages and customs. So upon arriving in America they had to create a way to communicate with their master and each other, so over time they developed a spanking new and unique language called African American Vernacular English, and it didn't stop there.
Each group had their defined drum beat from their tribe that was added to the new way of life in the New World but with a new American twist with musical instruments they didn't have in Africa.
So to put it simply, soul or black music is a mixture of many different African beats incorporated into a new American culture. Think about how exciting that is, if it's possible to create anything positive at all from slavery it has to be African American music. It's admired all over the world.
We all originate from the same place, so it doesn't matter if we're listening to early 1900s blues singer "Ma Rainey" or the great 1940s singers "Billie Holiday" and "Nat King Cole" down to the famous rappers of our time such as the two late greats, "Biggie Smalls" or "Tupac", it all sounds good to us because we can feel and hear that beat.
Many cultures have contributed to the American way of life such as German Americans who introduced the Christmas tree tradition, or Italian Americans with their delicious pizza, or Mexican Americans with the tacos and delicious burritos, or the English Americans with their mainstays such as baseball and apple pie. The list goes on and on, and to add to those contributions, and without a doubt, soul music has changed the American way of life, it is truly an original, and one of our many proud contributions to our home here in America.
African American music sprang from our robust and beautiful ancestors into an original contribution to American culture without a doubt. It changed everything. Is it safe to say that without black music and dance, there would never have been a Elvis Presley? Elvis never denied his love of African American music and dance and how he imitated it and sought at an early age to integrate the races for the love of music.
In an interview with the Charlotte Observer on June 26, 1956, Elvis explained the origins of his music:
The colored folks been singing it and playing it just like I don’ now for more years than I know. They played it like that in the shanties and their juke joints, and nobody paid it no mind ‘til I goose it up.
I got it from them, down in Tupelo, Mississippi I used to hear old Arthur Crudup band his box the way I do now, and I said if I ever got to the place I could feel all old Arthur felt, I’d be a music man like nobody ever saw.
Elvis Presley appreciated black music and paved the way for performers like Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Fats Domino, and Bo Diddley who weren't allowed to perform to mainstream America because of racial prejudice. There were rumors during Presley's career that he made negative comments about blacks, but this website was unable to locate a reliable source but was easily able to find many favorable things said about this great American performer in how he felt about blacks.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elvis_Presley (read racial issues)
The Cookies were an American R&B girl group in the 1950s to 1960s.
Members of the original lineup would later become the Raelettes,
the backing vocalists for Ray Charles.
Picture of a 45 rpm record from the mid-1950s
Jonah Jones, Columbia studios, March 1947. Photography by William P. Gottlieb
| Music in 1960 |
Billboard Top Soul Hits:
Popular Soul Dances
- January 4, 1960 - "The Clouds" The Spacemen
- January 11, 1960 - "Smokie (Part 2)" Bill Black's Combo
- February 8, 1960 - "Baby (You've Got What It Takes)" Brook Benton and Dinah Washington
- April 18, 1960 - "Fannie Mae" Buster Brown
- April 25, 1960 - "White Silver Sands" Bill Black's Combo
- May 23, 1960 - "Doggin' Around" Jackie Wilson
- June 20, 1960 - "A Rockin' Good Way (To Mess Around and Fall In Love)" Brook Benton and Dinah Washington
- July 11, 1960 - "There's Something On Your Mind (Part 2)" Bobby Marchan
- July 25, 1960 - "This Bitter Earth" Dinah Washington
- August 2, 1960 - "A Woman, a Lover, a Friend" Jackie Wilson
- August 29, 1960 - "Kiddio" Brook Benton
- October 31, 1960 - "Save the Last Dance For Me" The Drifters
- November 7, 1960 - "Let's Go, Let's Go, Let's Go" Hank Ballard & the Midnighters
- November 14, 1960 - "He Will Break Your Heart (He Don't Love You, Like I Love You)" Jerry Butler
Musical Happenings in 1960:
- The Twist
- The Monkey
- Chicago Walk
- The Stroll
- the Dog
- The Madison
- The Hully Gully
- The Watusi
- The Pony
- The Swim
- The Hitch Hike
- Cool Jerk
- Hand Jive
Grammy winners in 1960:
- The record players we used:
From mid 1950s through the 1960s, folks in the United States would typically have had these features on their record player, a 3 or 4 speed player (78, 45, 331/3, and sometimes 162/3 rpm); with changer, a tall spindle that would hold several records and automatically drop a new record on top of the previous one when it had finished playing, a combination cartridge with both 78 and microgroove styli and a way to flip between the two; and some kind of adapter for playing the 45s with their larger center hole.
- The creation of the Doo-wop sound:
Doo-wop is a genre of music that was developed in African-American communities all across America achieving mainstream popularity in the 1950s and early '60s. Built upon vocal harmony, doo-wop was one of the most mainstream, pop-oriented R&B styles of the time. In it's beginning, singers would gather on street corners, and in subways, generally in groups of three to six. They sang a cappella arrangements, and would mimic certain instruments since instruments were little used: the bass singing "bom-bom-bom", a guitar rendered as "shang-a-lang" and brass riffs as "dooooo -wop-wop".
- Beginning in the spring of this year, "We Shall Overcome" becomes an omnipresent part and an unofficial anthem of civil rights demonstrations.
- Stax Records is the home of Otis Redding, Rufus Thomas, Booker T. & the MG's and Sam & Dave, making Stax one of the premier soul labels of the decade along with Motown records.
- Ornette Coleman starts a new style of free jazz.
- "The Love of God" which is James Cleveland first "smash hit" helps establish him as one of the foremost entertainers in African-American gospel music.
- The Newport Jazz Festival gets it's first taste of jazz music.
The 2nd Annual Grammy Awards were held on November 29, 1959 at Los Angeles and New York. Hosted by Meredith Willson, this marked the first televised Grammy Award ceremony.
Best Musical Composition First Recorded and Released in 1959
- Duke Ellington for Anatomy of a Murder Soundtrack
Best Sound Track Album - Background Score from a Motion Picture or Television
- Duke Ellington (composer) for Anatomy of a Murder
Best Jazz Performance - Soloist
- Ella Fitzgerald for Ella Swings Lightly
Best Jazz Performance - Group
- Jonah Jones for I Dig Chicks
Best Vocal Performance, Female (Pop)
- Ella Fitzgerald for "But Not for Me"
Best Performance by a Dance Band (Pop)
- Duke Ellington for Anatomy of a Murder
Best Performance by a "Top 40" Artist (Pop)
- Nat "King" Cole for "Midnight Flyer"
Best Rhythm & Blues Performance
- Dinah Washington for "What a Diff'rence a Day Makes"
Kids Fashions from Stockton, California
in the 60s
1960s Girls Fashions
360 Waves hairstyle
American jazz violinist Eddie South
with a conk hairdo.
| Fashions in 1960 |
- Tie Dye T-shirts
- Men & Women Hairstyles:
The Afro was the hairstyle of choice. If you could grow a big one, you were very much envied. Men, women and kids wore afros if they could. Some of our peoples hair was so kinky, an afro wasn't a choice. Kinky haired (or we would lovingly call them nappy headed) women and girls would have to constantly get their hair straightened or braided. Men and boys with kinky hair would have to break out the conk or straightening comb or either get a Covadis haircut. Waves hairstyles was generally worn by men. The hair is cropped short to the head in the styling of a Caesar cut. There are brushing techniques that will result in the resemblance of "oceanic waves" in the hair. We would steal our sisters nylons and use them for a haircap.
- Braiding Hairstyles:
Historically, hair braiding was not a paid trade. Since the African diaspora, in the 20th and 21st centuries it has developed as a multi-million dollar business in such regions as the United States and western Europe. An individual's hair groomer was usually someone whom they knew closely. Sessions included shampooing, oiling, combing, braiding, and twisting, plus adding accessories.
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1960s
Fluorescent body paint. Paints and decorations that fluoresce under black light are used in theater and several art forms
| Our Community in 1960 |
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
- 1960s - The term "Soul food," as it relates to cuisine, became very popular during the 1960s.
- 1960s - adding a fluorescent blacklight glow to the room. White T-shirts and teeth would light up the room, secret symbols or slogans on posters would be revealed. These lights also appeared in nightclubs and theater productions around the country, creating a surreal atmosphere.
- 1960s - Lava Lamps entranced people and consisted of an illuminated glass cylinder within which a colorful, wax like substance was heated.
- The United States Population is 179,323,175 with a total of 18,871,831 being African Americans. Things must be getting a little better because blacks are having more babies.
How did religion begin for the American Negro?
Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.
What is fetishism you may ask?
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance
Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.
But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.
In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views
that relate humanity to an order of existence.
Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.
But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.
Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.
This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.
Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.
During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.
But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.
The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015
Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.
Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.
So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.
The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
Church Of God in Christ Baptism
The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.
A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.
But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.
Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.
So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.
#100 - Public Domain image - William P. Gottlieb [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#101 - By Diane Krauss (--DianeAnna) (Own work) [
via Wikimedia Commons
#102 - Public Domain image - Carl Van Vechten [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#103 - By User Dpbsmith on en.wikipedia [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
#104 - By Geert Vandepoele (Ornette Coleman) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
#105 - By CBS Television (ebay frontback) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By jeanne (talk).Jeanne boleyn at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons
By Beo Beyond [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
By Cecil Stoughton, White House [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Reynold Brown [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Alkivar (Own work (own picture)) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
If you have any more information about an item you've seen on our website or if you are the copyright owner and believe our website has not properly attributed your work to you or has used it without permission, we want to hear from you. Please email email@example.com with your contact information and a link to the relevant content.