blast from the past

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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1952:
Sugar Chile Robinson
    Frank Isaac Robinson, known in his early musical career as Sugar Chile Robinson, is an American jazz pianist and singer who became famous as a child prodigy.

    Robinson was born in Detroit, Michigan. At an early age, he showed unusual gifts singing the blues and accompanying himself on the piano. According to contemporary newsreels, he was self-taught, and he managed to use techniques including slapping the keys with elbows and fists.

    He won a talent show at the Paradise Theatre in Detroit at the age of three, and in 1945 played guest spots at the theater with Lionel Hampton, who was prevented by child protection legislation from taking him on tour with him. However, he performed on radio with Hampton and Harry "The Hipster" Gibson, and also appeared as himself in the Hollywood film No Leave, No Love, starring Van Johnson and Keenan Wynn.

    In 1946, he played for President Harry S. Truman at the White House, shouting out "How'm I Doing, Mr. President?" – which became his catchphrase – during his performance of "Caldonia". He began touring major theaters, setting box office records in Detroit and California.

    In 1949 he was given special permission to join the American Federation of Musicians and record, his first releases on Capitol Records, "Numbers Boogie" and "Caldonia," both reaching the Billboard R&B chart. In 1950, he toured and appeared on television with Count Basie, and appeared in a short film 'Sugar Chile' Robinson, Billie Holiday, Count Basie and His Sextet. The following year, he toured the UK, appearing at the London Palladium.

    He stopped recording in 1952, later explaining:
    "I wanted to go to school... I wanted some school background in me, and I asked my Dad if I could stop, and I went to school because I honestly wanted my college diploma."

    What an attitude! He proved that we could be whatever we set our minds. He didn't let the world dictate to him, locking him inside a box. He took control at a very young age and said "I want this for my life" I control my destiny. We can have the same determination. Thank you, Frank Isaac Robinson, aka Sugar Chile Robinson for inspiring people to raise the bar in achieving success. We can do it! We award you with the 1952 Hamite Award for being such an excellent addition to humanity.

    Until 1956 he continued to make occasional appearances as a jazz musician, billed as Frank Robinson, and performed on one occasion with Gerry Mulligan, but then gave up his musical career entirely. Continuing his academic studies, he earned a degree in history from Olivet College and one in psychology from the Detroit Institute of Technology.

    In recent years he has made a comeback as a musician with the help of the American Music Research Foundation. In 2002, he appeared at a special concert celebrating Detroit music, and in 2007 he traveled to Britain to perform at a rock and roll weekend festival. In the last Dr. Boogie show of 2013, Sugar Chile Robinson was the featured artist, with four of his classic hits showcasing amid biographical sketches of his early career.

Sugar Chile Robinson
Sugar Chile Robinson
photo #113-yr-1950





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How were blacks feeling in 1952?
sad mood of blacks


America is finally on the right track, even though much work needs to be done. Personally, I think with the talk of how great Democracy is as opposed to Communism has forced the United States to re-think its dealings with the black person.

Add to that, the black person is growing fatigued and restless of being a second class citizen, and are now able to produce many individuals in protest marches across the country, exhibiting greater power. America doesn't want that kind of potential trouble. The world is watching so-called democracy at work.

America is more concerned with its image as a good and righteous nation, or a beacon to shine forth hope to all. They can't achieve this goal and treat blacks badly at the same time. This is the real reason the Civil Rights Movement was able to get a solid footing in eventual justice that has been long overdue.

Fox Lake in Angola Indiana
Fox Lake Resort

Moving on up to the eastside!!!! That's what I'm talking about. We finally have a place to travel for fun and relaxation. We just hope our white American brothers don't burn it down or deny/jack up the electricity and water rates or claim eminent domain like they did with other resorts blacks attempted to set up.

Even though the average Negro cannot afford to visit or live in Fox Lake, it's still nice to know some of our peoples are enjoying the life and gives us the motivation to fight even harder this high wall of racism. I ain't mad at cha!

The Fox Lake resort community was developed in Angola, Indiana specifically for African Americans in the 1930s, when such communities were quite rare. In the years between World War I and World War II, and for some time after that, African American were not welcomed to traditionally white resort communities. Fox Lake provided black families with a place of their own where they could escape the heat of the cities and enjoy the pleasures of summertime activities. The historic district contains 32 relatively modest lake cottages, most of which were constructed before World War II.

Occasionally big-name musicians were booked for dances at the clubhouse, which was surrounded by tennis courts, horseshoe pits, and basketball hoops. Saddle horses were available until the early 1950s. Other activities included trap shooting matches, weekly Family Night at the restaurant, and Sunday school held on the beach under the trees.

Today, Fox Lake is still a prosperous black community. Its traditions are still maintained by many second- and third-generation owners, who occupy a large number of the cottages.

What an wonderful history!!!

http://www.nps.gov/nr/feature/afam/2002/foxlake.htm
http://foxlakeindiana.com/



Black Beaches in Maryland

During the 50's and early 60's, Anne Arundel County was still segregated and the beaches for Negroes were Carr's Beach and Sparrow's Beach in Annapolis, and the beach communities of Highland Beach, Arundel-On-The-Bay and Columbia Beach in the county. Carr's Beach was the most famous of the beaches and was affectionately called "The Beach". During the week "The Beach" was a place for day camp, church picnics, etc. But on the week-ends especially Sunday afternoons, Carr's Beach had the unique distinction of being a major stop on the "Chitlin Circuit".

Saturday nights grown-ups would go to the beach and see stars such as Ray Charles, Bill Doggett, Dinah Washington, Author Prysock, etc. Sunday afternoons was family fun. Thousands of people from as far away as Philly would come to the beach to swim and picnic. But at three o'clock it was show time and people would pack into the pavilion to see and dance to the Major R&B stars of the day. Stars such as Little Richard, James Brown, Lloyd Price, Etta James, The Shirelles, The Coasters, The Drifters. You name 'em, they played Carr's Beach.


Are you kidding me? Ya'll had a party going on!!!! AWESOME
SOURCE: http://www.carrsbeach.com/



American Beach, Florida

American Beach, Florida was founded in 1935 by Florida's first black millionaire, Abraham Lincoln Lewis, and his Afro-American Life Insurance Company. The plan was for his employees to have a place to vacation and own homes for their families by the shore.

(thank you so much Abraham, we needed this!) Throughout the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s, summers at American Beach were busy with families, churches, and children. It was a place where African Americans could enjoy "Recreation and Relaxation Without Humiliation." The beach included hotels, restaurants, bathhouses, and nightclubs as well as homes and other businesses.

American Beach, Florida
photo #109-yr-1935

American Beach played host to numerous celebrities during this period, including folklorist Zora Neale Hurston, singer Billie Daniels, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Billy Eckstein, Hank Aaron, Joe Louis, actor Ossie Davis, and Sherman Hemsley. We know they had some fun! That's what I'm talking bout!



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african american first

 For the year 1952:
  • Cora Brown was the first African-American woman elected to a U.S. state senate.

  • Frank E. Petersen was the first African-American U.S. Marine Corps aviator.

  • Charlotta Bass was the first African-American woman to be nominated for a national political office.

  • Joe Black was the first African-American pitcher to win a World Series game, in 1952.

  • Emmett Ashford  was the first African American umpire in Major League Baseball.



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blacks and basketball

Althea Gibson
Althea Gibson
photo #106-yr-1927

Joe Black
Joe Black
photo #103-yr-1924

Joe Louis
Joe Louis
photo #107-yr-1914

Sugar Ray Robinson
Sugar Ray Robinson
photo #101-yr-1989

Jersey Joe Walcott
Jersey Joe Walcott
photo #104-yr-1952

     Sports in 1952
  • February 20, 1952 - Emmett Ashford becomes the first black umpire in organized baseball.

  • June 5, 1952 - Jersey Joe Walcott beats Ezzard Charles in 15 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.

  • August 6, 1952 - At age 47, baseball's Satchel Paige becomes the oldest pitcher to win a complete shutout.

  • September 23, 1952 - Rocky Marciano Knocks out Jersey Joe Walcott in 13 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.

  • Althea Gibson won the American Tennis Association (ATA) (which is the oldest African-American sports organization in the United States.) NY State Championship, and the ATA national championship in the girls' division in 1944-1945, after losing in the women's final in 1946, she won her first of ten straight national ATA women's titles in 1947.

  • Joseph Black was an American right-handed pitcher in Negro League and Major League Baseball for the Brooklyn Dodgers, Cincinnati Redlegs, and Washington Senators who became the first black pitcher to win a World Series game, in 1952.

  • Joe Louis was instrumental in integrating the game of golf, breaking the sport's color barrier in America by appearing under a sponsor's exemption in a PGA event in 1952.

  • 1952 - boxer Sugar Ray Robinson gave up his title and retired with a record of 131–3–1–1. He began a career in show business, singing and tap dancing. After about three years, the decline of his businesses and the lack of success in his performing career made him decide to return to boxing. He resumed training in 1954.



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ballot box

 Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
photo #107-yr-1945

 Harry S. Truman
Wedding photo of Harry and Bess Truman
photo #108-yr-1945

     Political Scene in 1952
  • Democrat Harry S. Truman was the 33rd President of the United States (1945–53). As the final running mate of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944, Truman succeeded to the presidency on April 12, 1945, when Roosevelt died after months of declining health. Analysis:   Truman at one time was very biased against blacks, using the word nigger freely in his speech. As a younger man Truman was once quoted as saying:

    "I think one man is as good as another as long as he's decent and honest and not a nigger or a Chinaman. The Lord made the man out of dust, the nigger from mud and threw up what was left to create the Chinaman."   Ouch Harry! I guess people can change, and that's what's important to remember here.

    If a person were able to look past Truman's racist views, Harry Truman would probably be looked upon as a decent president for blacks. He took over the office after FDR passed away. He was faced with the humongous war issue of World War II. He made the decision to drop the atom bombs on Japan, even though he didn't have to. Japan was already beaten, and it was just a matter of time before they surrendered. The Soviet Union was closing in at one end and the United States at the other where crazed mad bomber Curtis LeMay was blowing everything that moved. Most advisors didn't want Truman to drop the bomb, but he didn't listen and did it anyway, and even gloated afterward. The lies he told the world was he saved countless lives on both sides by not fighting a ground war. Truman would go on to fully integrate the Armed services and also the Federal government. It's a start, and it's no looking back now. Truman was different than most presidents. He had said in the beginning that Civil Rights for the Negro was a moral issue and he was going to make it a priority in being settled. FINALLY A PRESIDENT THAT UNDERSTANDS THE U.S. CONSTITUTION. In his second term election, he wasn't expected to win. Truman has been particularly angry about reports of blacks who had fought valiantly in World War II, only to return home to unspeakable violence by whites. Harry Truman took a very unpopular platform of Civil Rights for the American black person and bet his political career on victory. The Democratic party had become splintered because Truman announced he was going to add Civil Rights to the agenda. The Southerners didn't like this and rebelled, so it was widely expected for Truman to lose the election, which polls (which were taken by phones) had him behind. He surprised everyone and pulled off the victory. These events have to mean that after all these years of injustice and hate, the American people are voting for change.He was also the first U.S. president to address the NAACP. He felt the time was NOW to address these discrimination issues along with the fact he was going after the critical black vote, well you got mine Harry! here's another little tidbit of information into the mindset of the majority of presidents who didn't care about the American black citizen and worked for hand and hand, north and south together. A reporter asked Strom Thurmond why he had bolted from the Democratic party when President Truman had not done anything substantially different from his predecessor, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Thurmond replied, "Yes -- but Truman means it."





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Who is this man?

His name was George Kennan, who was an American diplomat and historian, who served as ambassador to the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. He was known best as an advocate of a policy of containment of Soviet expansion during the Cold War on which he later reversed himself. He lectured widely and wrote scholarly histories of the relations between USSR and the United States. He was also one of the groups of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men."

George  Kennan


If you've ever wondered how the world became such a hateful and dangerous place, this man George Kennan explains it for us. Kennan didn't have any great powers to implement his ideas and was a Cold War strategist to various leaders in American history who obviously listened to much of what he had to say.

Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974

We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population. This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia.

In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming; and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.

In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism.

We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.

Do you think leaders of America are overstepping their boundaries with these strategies?



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The Race Factor


A man lynched from a tree
No Lynchings in 1952

     Race in 1952
  • 1952 - This is unusual, are LYNCHINGS, a thing of the past? For the first time in 71 years of keeping records, the Tuskegee Institute reported that not one single hanging occurred in 1952. Change must be happening!



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why do many dislike white people


“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise


How did it begin?

Actually, it's a worldwide negative perception of whites, but why? Well, a quick and simple trip back in history will get the probable answer.

The best way to describe European history would be wars, wars, and more wars.

good white americans
The Europeans wanted better and pursued a life of civilization as opposed to barbarism. They discovered a tool that would help them with that. It was called Science, which was a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In other words, every single thing would be studied and scrutinized.

Foolishly, church leaders of that day welcomed science, but it would eventually become a direct enemy of humanity's maker.

Why so?

Because science would teach the ordinary person to believe in themselves and the intellectual powers, they possess as opposed to an All Mighty Creator. Because the Creator of the universe is mathematically correct, once these early scientists were able to figure equations for themselves in regards to nature, they felt there were like a god. Science would also teach the world to exist because of a Big Bang theory and evolution, instead of being created.

Did these early Europeans belief in science affect the Negro?

Absolutely! It affected all tribal nature human beings. Whites collectively proclaimed themselves superior and this is where the trouble started for the rest of humankind. The Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than tribal communities. Millions of Negroes and other races lost their lives and suffered much because of science.

Before slavery, the Negro had been isolated from the rest of the world for many years due to the humongous Sahara Desert to the North and the Arab slave traders to the East made it tough if not impossible to travel. They weren't able to share in the new learning discoveries the world were experiencing. These people were a group lost in time, away from the modern world.

good black americans

Once the Portuguese got the slave trade started with the entire world, the scientist had an opportunity to scrutinize and evaluate the lowly Negro, and I have to warn you right now it wasn't pretty.

why do many dislike white people
An illustration from the influential American magazine Harper's Weekly shows an alleged similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to the higher "Anglo-Teutonic." The accompanying caption reads "The Iberians are believed to have been originally an African race, which thousands of years ago spread themselves through Spain over Western Europe. Their remains are found in the barrows, or burying places, in various parts of these countries. The skulls are of a small prognathous type. They came to Ireland and mixed with the natives of the South and West, who themselves are supposed to have been of small type and descendants of savages of the Stone Age, who, in consequence of isolation from the rest of the world, had never been out-competed in the healthy struggle of life, and thus made way, according to the laws of nature, for superior races."  (this is an Harper's Weekly assessment of race, not ours) photo#101-yr-2015


The following excerpts are scientist views of the Negro back then:

Charles White (1728–1813), an English physician and surgeon, believed that races occupied different stations in the "Great Chain of Being," and he tried to scientifically prove that human races have distinct origins from each other. He believed that Whites and Negroes were two different species. White was a believer in polygeny, the idea that different races had been created separately.

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) was a German philosopher who said "The yellow Indians do have a little talent. The Negroes are far below them, and at the lowest point are a part of the American people".

Franz Ignaz Pruner (1808–1882) was a medical doctor who studied the racial structure of Negroes in Egypt. In a book which he wrote in 1846, he claimed that Negro blood had a negative influence on the Egyptian moral character. He argued that the main feature of the Negro's skeleton is prognathism, which he claimed was the Negro's relation to the ape. He also argued that Negroes had very similar brains to apes and that Negros have a shortened big toe, which is a characteristic connecting Negroes closely to apes.

Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), the Swedish physician, botanist, and zoologist says The Afer or Africanus: black, phlegmatic, relaxed; black, frizzled hair; silky skin, flat nose, tumid lips; females without shame; mammary glands give milk abundantly; crafty, sly, careless; anoints himself with grease; and regulated by will.

Scottish lawyer Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696-1782) was a polygenist: he believed God had created different races on Earth in separate regions. In his 1734 book Sketches on the History of Man, Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks.

Charles Darwin (1809 – 19 April 1882) apparently believed that the struggle for existence among humans would result in racial extermination. In Descent of Man he asserted, "At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace throughout the world the savage races.

When comparing Caucasians to Negroes, Voltaire (1694 – 1778) compared them to different breeds of dog:
The Negro race is a species of men different from ours as the breed of spaniels is from that of greyhounds. The mucous membrane, or network, which Nature has spread between the muscles and the skin, is white in us and black or copper-colored in them.

Benjamin Rush (1745–1813), a Founding Father of the United States and a physician, proposed that being black was a hereditary skin disease, which he called "negroidism," and that it could be cured. Rush believed non-whites were white underneath, but they were stricken with a non-contagious form of leprosy which darkened their skin color. Rush drew the conclusion that "Whites should not tyrannize over [blacks], for their disease should entitle them to a double portion of humanity. However, by the same token, whites should not intermarry with them, for this would tend to infect posterity with the 'disorder'... attempts must be made to cure the disease.

The German anatomist Johann Blumenbach (1752–1840) was a believer in monogenism, the concept that all races have a single origin. He also believed in the "degeneration theory" of racial backgrounds. He said that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors, such as the sun and poor dieting and believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race. According to Blumenbach, there are five races, all belonging to a single species: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay. Blumenbach said: I have allotted the first place to the Caucasian because this stock displays the most beautiful race of men.


O.K. O.K., enough already! I told you it wasn't going to be pretty.

The beliefs these so-called scholars had is the single most reason why millions of Negroes were tortured, murdered and raped throughout history. Scientist published their findings as fact and people all over the world believed them.

But we wonder what the scientist would say if alive today with access to a computer, and visit Google to type in the key phrase "African immigrants in college" they would discover that these same Africans out-perform academically every single race in America's colleges.

That's interesting, but what does it prove?

It proves that intelligence is not dependent on skin color or race, but instead access to education and a fertile mind to receive instruction. In America, slavery happened years ago but damaged and demoralized the fertile minds of many black Americans, and continues down to this day. There are some blacks who think of education and learning as a white thing and don't want anything to do with it, now if that's not an effect of slavery I don't know what is.

Doesn't It boggles the mind that these so-called superior, intelligent and civilized humans didn't for one time think to share their knowledge of enlightenment with the world so all could live a better life, be happy and progress? No, sadly these people chose to claim white superiority, to dominate and to kill weaker ones similar to the barbarian way of life they came. An example of this is with Colonialism.

What is Colonialism?
Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory. It is a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous population.

good whites Colonial rule in the Belgian Congo began in the late 19th century under King Leopold II of Belgium. Leopold exploited the Congo for its natural resources, first ivory and later rubber which was becoming a valuable commodity. The regime in the Congo was responsible for using forced labor, murder and mutilation to force native Congolese who did not fulfill quotas for rubber collections. It's estimated millions of Congolese died during this time.
In other words a much powerful nation sets up shop in a weaker nation by force and robs the resources and forces the natives to work as slaves for little or no pay while grossly benefiting from unequal trade activities while depositing profits to it's mother country.

Colonialism demoralized the native population making Europe stronger and Africa weaker. Even though many white nations participated, non-Europeans nations included, the United Kingdom was the king in this horrible act against humanity.

Because of whites belief in science aided with their secondary faith in religion, they felt they were obligated to save and civilize the world. Google "White man's Burden" for proof of this belief, and by the way our United States President Teddy Roosevelt loved the White Man's Burden theory.

Whites tend to have a poor memory in regards to their crimes against humanity, but the other nations who suffered through it haven't forgotten, because just like the effects of slavery still lingers for blacks in America, people who suffered through colonialism still feel the pain and can see with their literal eye the destruction it left behind.

There isn't any denying that science has also helped make our lives better, but the responsibility that goes along with it is simply too much for humans to handle. Whites did not temper science with love and common sense. Just look around the world today, and you would probably agree we are on the brink of destruction with pollution, nuclear weapons, degradation of the earth, etc. are all products of science. The bad far outweigh the good.

Early science also taught Europeans it was man's nature to compete. In fact, they felt it was healthy and natural to compete to create superior human beings, especially white ones. This erroneous belief about competition would go on to be the largest difference in European and African cultures.

Whites brought these competitive qualities and attitudes with them from Europe. Africans were totally opposite because in their homeland everything was shared and done for the tribal community. There wasn't an I in Africa, it was US.

Blacks played an enormous role in the building of this country, even with hands tied behind their backs but were not welcome to participate. Whites felt that it just didn't look and feel right for blacks to be associated with superior whites in the building of America. So white Americans kidnapped the U.S. Constitution and created laws (Jim Crow) to keep things entirely separate and achieved like crazy in all aspects of life, and boasting white superiority.

It has not been proven that competitiveness is better than teamwork. View this small list of words associated with competitiveness out of the dictionary and you'll have to agree this is the state of America today.

aggressive, brutal, cutthroat, every person for themselves, fierce, merciless, ruthless, unmerciful, vicious, voracious, without mercy, adverse, alien, argumentative, belligerent, bitter, cold, contentious, contrary, disapproving, dour, hateful, ill-disposed, inhospitable, inimical, malevolent, malicious, malignant, militant, nasty, ornery, pugnacious, rancorous, scrappy, sour, spiteful, unfriendly, unkind, unpropitious, unsociable, unsympathetic, unwelcoming, viperous, warlike.

More and more blacks have developed this competitive and lofty spirit and probably will soon look down on others as well, even within our race. Ole Blue Eyes, who was a great singer and real American who viewed each human being as equal had an incredible grip on the situation about the division between blacks and whites. Check out what he said below.

Frank Sinatra
photo#101-yr-1915

One of the greatest entertainers of all times, Frank Sinatra once made a quote about the damaging effects of ones who subscribe to white superiority whether covertly or overtly.

"We've got a hell of a long way to go in this racial situation. As long as most white men think of a Negro first and a man second, we're in trouble. I don't know why we can't grow up."


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slang and memorable quotes
slang african americans      sLANG tALK in 1952
  • Baby - term of endearment to the opposite sex

  • Bread - money, cash, moola

  • Cookin' - doing something very well

  • Cool it - forceful way of saying to stop doing what you're doing fool

  • Cooties - considers another person dirty in a playful way

  • Cut out - to leave the scene

  • Dibs - wants a share

  • Dig - understand

  • Flick - a movie

  • Gig - a job

  • Give me five - a favorable greeting

  • Heat - danger, usually the police are close or could mean a gun

  • Hip - cool, everything under control, up to date, trendsetter

  • Made in the shade - complete success at something

  • Make out - kissing or could mean to be discovered by someone

  • No sweat - no problem, everything is under control

  • Pad - the house, home

  • Punk - weak person, considered not cool to hang around

  • Split - leave the scene

  • Square - a person who is not hip, slow, not with the times

  • The man - police

  • Tight - everything is completely together, flawless.



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education and hate



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black Movies in America
Movies in America

Eddie Rochester Anderson
Eddie "Rochester" Anderson
photo #103-yr-1937

Lillian Randolph
Lillian Randolph as Beulah
photo #107-yr-1898

Jack Benny's radio shows cast
Jack Benny's radio shows cast
photo #104-yr-1937

Louise Beavers
The Beulah TV Show with Louise Beavers
photo #102-yr-1952

     Radio / Television / Movies in 1952
    Television:
  • Starting in the year of 1937, a new funny man would co-star on the Jack Benny Show. This man went by the name of Eddie "Rochester" Anderson. Eddie's character of "Rochester" generated much laughter, becoming immensely popular and would become a household name from 1937 to 1965 in America. The humor on the show was the usual stereotypical stuff that blacks had to endure, but later it would become a stepping stone for many successful comedians to follow. Eddie became the first black to have a regular role on a nationwide radio program. The show started on radio and moved to television in 1951 until it went off the air in the 1964-1965 season. Trivia:  Anderson was frequently late for the show. Benny attempted to instill punctuality in Anderson by fining him $50 each time he arrived late at the studio. Anderson had a habit of losing track of time, especially when he was talking with someone. Must have had something to say huh Eddie?

  • The Beulah TV Show ran for three seasons, Tuesday nights at 7:30 ET from October 3, 1950 to December 23, 1952. starring Louise Beavers.



  • Radio:
  • The Beulah Show is an American situation-comedy series that ran on CBS Radio from 1945 to 1954, and on ABC Television from 1950 to 1952. The show is notable for being the first sitcom to star an African American actress. Trivia: Actress Hattie McDaniel played the role of Beulah on November 24, 1947, earningd $1000 a week for the first season, doubled the ratings of the original series (played by white actors) and elated the NAACP to see a black woman as the star of a network radio program. McDaniel became ill in 1952 and was replaced by Lillian Randolph, who was in turn replaced for the 1953-54 radio season by her sister, Amanda Randolph.





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famous black birthdays

Mr T
Mr. T in the year 1970
photo #100

Marcia L. Fudge
Marcia L. Fudge
photo #106-yr-1952

     Famous Birthdays in 1952
  • January 4, 1952 - Michele Faith Wallace a black feminist author, cultural critic, and daughter of artist Faith Ringgold.

  • January 12, 1952 - Walter Ellis Mosley an American novelist, most widely recognized for his crime fiction.

  • February 15, 1952 - Bill T. Jones an American artistic director, choreographer and dancer. Jones has received numerous awards for his work and is the co-founder of the Bill T. Jones/Arnie Zane Dance Company.

  • May 21, 1952 - Mr. T  is an African American actor known for his roles as B. A. Baracus in the 1980s television series The A-Team, and as boxer Clubber Lang in the 1982 film Rocky III. Mr. T is known for his trademark African Mandinka warrior hairstyle, his gold jewelry, and his tough-guy image.

  • August 24, 1952 - Linton Kwesi Johnson a UK-based dub poet. In 2002 he became the second living poet, and the only black poet, to be published in the Penguin Modern Classics series.

  • October 29, 1952 - Marcia L. Fudge  U.S. Representative for Ohio's 11th congressional district, serving since 2008. She is a member of the Democratic Party.

  • November 8, 1952 - Alfre Woodard is an American film, stage, and television actress, producer, and political activist.



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black american deaths

Hattie McDaniel
Actress Hattie McDaniel
photo #104-yr-1940

George H. Reed
George H. Reed
photo #107-yr-1866

Charles Clinton Spaulding
Charles Clinton Spaulding
photo #109-yr-1874

Frederick Madison Roberts
Frederick Madison Roberts
photo #105-yr-1879

     Famous Deaths in 1952
  • July 6, 1952 - Carlotta Stewart was an educator in Hawaii.

  • July 19, 1952 - Frederick Madison Roberts was an American newspaper owner and editor, educator and business owner; he became a politician, the first known man of African American descent elected to the California State Assembly.

  • August 1, 1952 - Charles Clinton Spaulding was a prominent business leader who founded North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, which became America's largest black-owned business, with assets of over US$ 40 million at his death, which was on his birthday.

  • October 26, 1952 - Hattie McDaniel was an African-American actress. She is best known for her role as Mammy in Gone with the Wind (1939) for which she won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, making her the first black to win an Academy Award.

  • November 6, 1952 - George H. Reed  was an African American actor working in the Hollywood film industry in both the silent and sound eras. His first major film was the 1920 Huckleberry Finn.

  • December 29, 1952 - James Fletcher Hamilton Henderson, Jr.   was an American pianist, bandleader, arranger and composer, important in the development of big band jazz and swing music.



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famous african american weddings

 Pearl Mae Bailey
Pearl Mae Bailey
- photo#100-yr-1918 -

William Caesar Warfield
William Warfield by Carl Van Vechten
photo #111-yr-1920

Porgy and Bess 1953
Leontyne Price from Porgy and Bess
photo #106-yr-1953

Gladys Bentley
Gladys Bentley
photo #108-yr-1907

     Famous Weddings in 1952
  • November 19, 1952 - Pearl Bailey  and  Louie Bellson are joined in holy matrimony.

  • 1952 - Maya Angelou  and Tosh Angelos are wed in holy matrimony.

  • 1952 - Leontyne Price and  William Warfield are joined in holy matrimony.

  • 1952 - Benjamin Hooks and Frances Dancy are wed in holy matrimony.

  • 1952 - Gladys Bentley and Charles Roberts are wed in holy matrimony.



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famous african american divorces

Ray Charles
Ray Charles
photo #100-yr-1961

     Famous Divorces in 1952
  • 1952 - Ray Charles and Eileen Williams were divorced.

  • 1952 - Pearl Bailey and John Randolph Pinkett were divorced.



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juke joints, party for black people
chitlin circuit

negro green book

The Negro Motorist Green Book was an annual guidebook for African Americans, commonly referred to simply as the "Green Book". It was published from 1936 to 1966, during the Jim Crow era, when discrimination against non-whites was widespread. Middle-class blacks took to driving in part to avoid segregation on public transportation. Blacks employed as salesmen, entertainers and athletes also traveled frequently for work purposes. African American travelers faced a variety of dangers and inconveniences, such as white-owned businesses refusing to serve them or repair their vehicles, being refused accommodation or food by white-owned hotels, and threats of physical violence and forcible expulsion from whites-only "sundown towns". New York mailman and travel agent Victor H. Green published The Negro Motorist Green Book to tackle such problems and "to give the Negro traveler information that will keep him from running into difficulties, embarrassments and to make his trip more enjoyable." The Green Book became "the bible of black travel during Jim Crow." These people were crazy on the for real side! You can bet the Chitlin' Circuit entertainers used the Green Book.

     It's a Party in 1952
    Chitlin' Circuit:
  • Back in the early 1900s because of prejudice and racial discrimination, black entertainers had to be very careful where they traveled. They weren't always welcome in various venues, so they created what's called a Chitlin Circuit. They named it Chitlin Circuit because of blacks typical love for soul food with chitlins being near the top as favorite. So, in other words, they understood they would be love on the circuit. They knew that the clubs, juke joints, theaters, etc. in the circuit were welcoming of the black race and safe to visit. This way of life existing from the early 1900s - 1960s. Noted theaters and entertainers on the circuit included:

    The Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Cotton Club, Small's Paradise and the Apollo Theater in New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.;the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.

    Early figures of blues, including Robert Johnson, Son House, Charley Patton, and countless others, traveled the juke joint circuit, scraping out a living on tips and free meals. These entertainers provided much-needed joy and happiness for black folks. Once the band's gig was over, they would leave for the next stop on the circuit. Sounds like a lot of fun and an exciting life!

    Many notable performers worked on the chitlin' circuit, including Patti LaBelle, Count Basie, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, Sam Cooke, Jackie Wilson, Sheila Guyse, Peg Leg Bates, The Supremes, George Benson, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Gladys Knight & the Pips, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, The Miracles, Donna Hightower, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Duke Ellington, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Little Richard, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, Tammi Terrell, The Isley Brothers, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Muddy Waters, Flip Wilson and Jimmie Walker.


  • chitlin circuit
    Jitterbugging in Negro juke joint,
    Saturday evening, outside Clarksdale, Mississippi

    photo #111-yr-1930

    chitlin circuit
    An African American couple dance the jitterbug in front
    of a crowd. Los Angeles California.

    photo #112-yr-1930



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soul music orgin


inkwell beach

Fun At The Beach?

The Negro has historically been excluded from every aspect of American life and success, but what about the public beaches, was he made to feel unwelcome there also?

In a word. HELL YEAH. I'm sorry, that's two words.

If a Negro and his family attempted to visit a public beach, he would be met with sure violence from whites. It wasn't until after the Civil Rights protest in the 60s that the fight for equal access to public accommodations made it illegal to exclude the Negro.

One popular beach that blacks congregated was in Southern California. It was called "Ink Well" for obvious reasons. It served the black community very well.

You're not going to believe how blacks acquired another little piece of paradise in the same area called Bruce's Beach. A wonderful white American brother named George H. Peck who was a wealthy developer and the founder of Manhattan Beach, "bucked" the practice of racial exclusion and set aside two city blocks of the beachfront area and made them available for purchase by African Americans.

Jumping on this incredible opportunity, Willa and Charles Bruce purchased property in the Strand area and built a bathhouse, and dining area that catered to blacks. Peck would also go on to develop "Peck's Pier," the only pier in the area open to African Americans. In time because of increased racial tension and the value of beachfront property rising, the city pushed the blacks out claiming the eminent domain law. This type of exclusion was typical all across America for the Negro.



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Alan Freed
Alan Freed AKA 'Moondog'
photo #101

Dinah Washington
Dinah Washington
photo #101-yr-1948

Dinah Washington
Moondog Coronation Ball
photo #105-yr-1952

     Music in 1952

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • January 12, 1952: "Weepin' & Cryin'" — Griffin Brothers Orchestra

  • January 12, 1952: "Cry" — Johnnie Ray and the Four Lads

  • February 2, 1952: "3 o’Clock Blues" — B.B. King

  • March 15, 1952: "Night Train" — Jimmy Forrest

  • March 15, 1952: "Booted" — Roscoe Gordon

  • May 3, 1952: "5–10–15 Hours" — Ruth Brown

  • June 14, 1952: "Have Mercy Baby" — The Dominoes

  • June 21, 1952: "Goin' Home" — Fats Domino

  • July 12, 1952: "Lawdy Miss Clawdy" — Lloyd Price

  • August 23, 1952: "Mary Jo" — Four Blazes

  • September 6, 1952: "Ting-A-Ling" — The Clovers

  • September 27, 1952: "My Song" — Johnny Ace

  • September 27, 1952: "Juke" — Little Walter

  • November 8, 1952: "Five Long Years" — Eddie Boyd

  • November 8, 1952: "You Know I Love You" — B.B. King

  • December 27, 1952: "I Don't Know" — Willie Mabon and His Combo



  Popular Soul Dances:
  • The Bop

  • The Stroll

  • Swing

  • The Hand Jive

  • The Cha Cha

  • The Twist

  • Bosa Nova



  Musical Happenings in 1952:
  • Cleveland-area radio personality Alan Freed hosts the Moondog Coronation Ball, a rock concert that ended in a riot after running out of room for ticket-holding fans; the crowd was estimated at between 6,000 and 25,000 black teenagers. Analysis: More tickets were printed than the arena's actual capacity, in part due to counterfeiting, and a printing error. You can bet it was planned for failure. This was the first racially mixed concert and it seems some were intent on making it the last.

  • Johnnie Ray's "Cry" is the first song by a white rhythm and blues singer to top both the pop and R&B charts.

  • The last film studios switch to using 35 mm tape, allowing "music to be recorded more quickly and easily than ever before; music tracks had greater fidelity and less background noise, and could be cut and edited with unprecedented ease and precision.

  • Doo-wop is a genre of music that was developed in African-American communities across the United States in the 1940s, achieving mainstream popularity in the 1950s and early '60s. Built upon vocal harmony, doo-wop was one of the most mainstream, pop-oriented R&B styles of the time. In it's beginning, singers would gather on street corners, and in subways, generally in groups of three to six. They sang a cappella arrangements, and would mimic certain instruments since instruments were little used: the bass singing "bom-bom-bom", a guitar rendered as "shang-a-lang" and brass riffs as "dooooo -wop-wop".




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mens fashion
1950s Mens Fashions
photo #105-yr-1950

mens fashion
1950s Men's Fashions
photo #106-yr-1950

womens fashion
1950s Women's Fashions
2.Actress Diahann Carroll wears a full-skirted dress with a small Peter Pan collar

photo #107-yr-1950

360 Waves hairstyle
360 Waves hairstyle
photo #104-yr-1950



Eddie South
American jazz violinist Eddie South
with a conk hairdo.

photo #104-yr-1920

1950 fashion
Black couple in the 1950s
photo #library

     Fashions in 1952

  Popular Fashions:

  • Men:
    Immediately after the war, men's suits were broad-shouldered and often double-breasted. As wartime restrictions on fabric eased, trousers became fuller, and were usually styled with cuffs (turn-ups). Dark charcoal gray was the usual color, and the era of the gray flannel suit was born. By the later 1950s, a new Continental style of suit appeared from the fashion houses of Italy, with sharper shoulders, lighter fabrics, shorter, fitted jackets and narrower lapels. Hawaiian shirts, worn untucked from suspenders, also became widely popular during this era. Some young men wore tight trousers or jeans, leather jackets, and white tee shirts. Browline eyeglasses were commonly worn by men during the 1950s and early 1960s.


  • Women:
    A popular style of brassiere for women during the 1950s was the "bullet bra", where cups were pointed in a conical shape. This brassiere design was popularized by famous actresses of that day. Women who had worn trousers on war service refused to abandon these practical garments which suited the informal aspects of the post-war lifestyle. Casual sportswear was an increasingly large component of women's wardrobes. Casual skirts were narrow or very full. In the 1950s, pants became very narrow, and were worn ankle-length. Shorts were very short in the early '50s, and mid-thigh length Bermuda shorts appeared around 1954 and remained fashionable through the remainder of the decade. Loose printed or knit tops were fashionable with pants or shorts. They also wore bikinis to sport training. Swimsuits were one- or two-piece; some had loose bottoms like shorts with short skirts. Bikinis appeared in Europe but were not worn in America in the 1950s.


  • Men's Hairstyles:
    The conk, which was derived from congolene, a hair straightener gel made from lye was a hairstyle very popular among African-American men from the 1920s to the 1960s. This hairstyle called for a man with naturally "kinky" hair to have it chemically straightened using a relaxer, sometimes the pure corrosive chemical lye, so that the newly straightened hair could be styled in specific ways. Back in those days, you were cool to have a conk job done.

  • 360 Waves Hairstyle is generally worn by men. The hair is cropped short to the head in the styling of a Caesar cut. There are brushing techniques that will result in the resemblance of "oceanic waves" in the hair. In the 1950s African American males would straighten their hair with a homemade lye relaxer or one from the barber shop and have a texturizing cream put in for a wave pattern. This was commonly worn by young men in Doo-wop groups.

  • Women's Hairstyles:
    The hot comb was an invention developed in France as a way for women with coarse curly hair to achieve a fine straight look traditionally modeled by historical Egyptian women. However, it was Annie Malone who first patented this tool, while her protégé and former worker, Madam CJ Walker widened the teeth. Today, hot combs are still used by many African-American beauticians and families as an alternative to chemical hair straightening. Many African American and women of other races, still utilize hot combs because this form of straightening is temporary and less damaging to the hair if done properly.


  • Braiding Hairstyles:
    Historically, hair braiding was not a paid trade. Since the African diaspora, in the 20th and 21st centuries it has developed as a multi-million dollar business in such regions as the United States and western Europe. An individual's hair groomer was usually someone whom they knew closely. Sessions included shampooing, oiling, combing, braiding, and twisting, plus adding accessories.




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Dang it! We're so Tired of all the Hate

We can't wait to leave this wicked South,
and make the big bucks in the North!
Will our white American brothers love us there?

What type of employment awaits the Negro in the 1900s?



african americans working the farms
FSA photo of cropper family chopping the weeds from cotton near White Plains, in Georgia Postmarked 1912
photo #119-yr-1900

90% of Negroes still lived in the South up until the late 1910s. King Cotton was still a big source of income for blacks. These workers were hired as temporary help. Many were tenant farmers, renting a piece of land and some of their tools and supplies, and paying the rent at the end of the growing season with a portion of their harvest. White and black farm laborers were paid comparable wages, and rental rates. Blacks didn't exclusively work in the cotton fields, for example some blacks worked in the Turpentine industry.


african americans working the farms
"Dipping and scraping pine trees. Turpentine industry in Florida." Postmarked 1912
photo#126-yr-1900


Whites were much more likely to own land as opposed to blacks. Black children were unlikely to be in school because they helped the parents in the fields to support the family and also because of a lack of good quality schools. Funds that were intended for black schools went to white schools instead in the form of raising teacher salaries and per-pupil funding while reducing class size. Black schools suffered at this expense. Separate but Equal was a big lie, because it was anything but equal. The government didn't have a special watchdog organization to enforce these racist laws, and the requirement of equality was not enforced. Black children never really had a fair chance.


Boll weevil ruins Cotton Crops in the 1920s

Of course hindsight is 20-20. But wouldn't it have been nice if during slavery someone would have thought to travel to Mexico and bring back the Cotton boll weevil to transplant them into Southern cotton crops?
 boll weevil
Cotton boll weevil
Where were you when we really
needed you, pre-1863?

photo#127-yr-1900

A little integration of the boll weevil and Mr. King Cotton would have been a good thing for the Negro. We wonder what kind of effect that would have had on chattel slavery?

Well what the heck is a boll weevil?

The boll weevil is a beetle which feeds on cotton buds and flowers. Thought to be native to Central America, it migrated into the United States from Mexico in the late 19th century and had infested all U.S. cotton-growing areas by the 1920s, devastating the industry and the people working in the American south.

Southern blacks were tied to the cotton fields in the early 1900s, but after 1914, many were fed up and wanted to try something new and different. By then they were open for a change because of restrictive Jim Crow laws and the boll weevil destroyed many crops, putting them out of work. They decided to take the plunge, a new and exciting life for them. Their move was called the Great Migration. News had spread to these poor black Southerners about better opportunities in the North, so many of them packed up their belongings and bid farewell to the South, never looking back.

During World War I, blacks were very much desired in the workplace. The United States had a quota for Colored soldiers to enlist for service. Blacks filled the quota very quickly, and many had to be turned back. With white men fighting in the war, this left openings in industry for blacks to fill. How did they do? Employers loved them and wanted more. They proved themselves to be excellent workers. This is probably one of the main reasons for so many riots when the white soldiers returned to America because blacks had taken their jobs. So by the early 1900s, we have proven ourselves to be excellent and courageous soldiers and dependable workers at home.

In other cases, some Negroes were recruited to travel North by agents of the businesses who would pay their fare. In some cases, these poor blacks were tricked into traveling a great distance for jobs only to discover they would be hired as strikebreakers, which was a very dangerous undertaking. Money was better for the Negro in the North, but in many cases, racism persisted with many riots happening. Many unions in the North had explicit rules barring membership by black workers.

Blacks had various successes at different job locations, for example when the auto industry took off, Ford Motor Co. hired many blacks to work in its automobile plant, but other auto plants often excluded them. Jobs were not a certainty for the Negro; he had to stay alerted and knock on many doors. But blacks were making a little advancement, by 1940 there were more than 200,000 African Americans in the CIO, many of them officers of union locals.

 boll weevil
A. Philip Randolph
photo#128-yr-1900

When the war broke out a very special man by the name of A. Philip Randolph petitioned President Roosevelt for jobs in the Defense plants which previously had been reserved for whites. Randolph had a special card up his sleeve in the form of 100,000 peaceful marchers on Washington to protest if Roosevelt declined.

Roosevelt half-heartedly gave in and created a new program for blacks called the Fair Employment Practice Committee which was designed to monitor the hiring practices of companies. The Committee did accomplish many blacks being hired into the Defense departments at very nice wages but closed down later because of a lack of funding from the U.S. Government.

After World War II, The G.I. Bill which was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans. Benefits included low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a business, cash payments of tuition and living expenses to attend university, high school or vocational education, as well as one year of unemployment compensation was a big boon for whites and was a major factor in the creation of the white American middle class.

But sadly because of racial inequality, many of the benefits of the G.I. bill were not granted to black soldiers. This is because "at the very moment when a wide array of public policies was providing most white Americans with valuable tools to advance their social welfare—insure their old age, get good jobs, acquire economic security, build assets, and gain middle-class status—most black Americans were left behind or left out." It seems like we can get off the ground with these people, but we never give up. Also the black middle class failed to keep pace with the white middle class because blacks had fewer opportunities to earn college degrees.

G.I. Bill

In time, it became critical to have a college degree, for better pay wages which many whites were now working toward with the help of the G.I. Bill, but blacks were left behind in dying trades or just making it the best way they could because of racial discrimination and National leaders doing absolutely nothing to help.

Once they returned home after the war, blacks faced not only discrimination but also poverty, which confronted most blacks during the 1940s and 1950s and represented another barrier to harnessing the benefits of the G.I. Bill, as poverty made seeking an education problematic to while labor and income were needed at home. Banks and mortgage agencies routinely refused loans to blacks, making the G.I. Bill even less effective for blacks.

In addition to the other obstacles, gaining admission to universities was no easy task for blacks on the G.I. Bill. Most universities had segregationist principles underlying their admissions policies, utilizing either official or unofficial quotas. Those blacks that were prepared for college level work and gained access to predominantly white universities still experienced racism on campus.

During the 70s and 80s, the number of employed blacks increased. The civil rights movement played a huge role in this development. There were heavy gains in blue-collar jobs, such as steel, automobile production, electrical and non-electrical machinery, appliances, food and tobacco manufacturing, and textiles, and also white-collar occupations, where the four major subcategories-professional and technical, managerial and administrative, sales, and clerical increased very sharply.

Black professionals

The black labor force by the late 1990s, approximately sixty percent of these were white-collar sales and clerical personnel; many in this group were non-union workers with limited benefits and wages. However, another twenty percent of the black labor force, nearly three million workers, was classified as professional and technical employees and administrators. The percentage of the black labor force in the blue-collar field declined.

So what type of work did blacks do in the 1900s?

There were black doctors, dentist, newspaper editors, plumbers, mailman, teachers, singers, scientist, athletes, Pullman porters, laborers, politicians, judges, lawyers, mill workers, welders, domestic help, authors, factory workers, customer service, business owners, policemen, firemen, and every other profession you could think of. Sadly, their numbers and presence weren't as high as white Americans because of entrenched discrimination against the black race. It's in the history books, read it for yourself.

Black lady welder

Blacks have historically had a harder time than other races being employed in America, ever since emancipation, and for the most part it has to do with racism. We're not fooled into believing any different. But we don't let this stop us and continue to push on. Our amazing journey has had many barriers and roadbloocks every step of the way.

The Fair Employment Practice Committee of the 40s and the Civil Rights movement helped a bit, but after slavery and the following Jim Crow years, racism had become deeply entrenched in the American workforce. It's not out in the open as it was during Jim Crow days but today more subtle and hidden, but just as hurtful, degrading and discouraging. But to our credit, blacks seem always to find a way. Truly remarkable American people, and if it were possible, would make our battered ancestors who sailed deep seas, shout for joy in their graves.


Sources:
African Americans in the Twentieth Century
African Americans and the G.I. Bill
Blacks in the 1970's
Social and Economic Issues of the 1980s and 1990s
What The Negro Achieved in Industry



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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1950s

A man lynched from a tree
No Lynchings in 1952

 black family
Beautiful black family in the 50s

Our Community in 1952

Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • January 12, 1952 - The first African Americans were admitted to the graduate and law schools at the University of Tennessee following a suit filed in federal district court in 1952.

  • April 30, 1952 - Mr Potato Head is the first toy advertised on television.

  • June 30, 1952 - Television's Guiding Light soap opera moves from radio to the television.

  • 1952 - Lynchings, a thing of the past? For the first time in 71 years of keeping records, the Tuskegee Institute reported that none occurred in 1952.

  • 1950s Happenings in America - Car Hops at burger establishments where waitresses roller-skate to your car and take your order. 3D Movies which had been around since the 1920s was making a comeback, competing against the television. Everybody loved the Blackjack Chewing Gum which had a licorice flavor. Frisbee throwing was becoming a serious art form, the tricks some could do with a frisbee were amazing. Hula Hoop was a regular in everyones home, the inventors put sand or rocks inside the hoop to make noise while in use. Pez candy was a favorite for kids. Men of all races wore sideburns which was facial hair that grew down about an inch below the ears.

  • The United States Population is 150,697,361 with a total of 15,044,937 being African Americans. Negroes are having more babies, and more than likely it was because of the Great Migration and jobs opening up in the North with the war effort.



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RESOURCES:


Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License


#100 -   Public Domain image - Photo of Mr. T as a senior in high school. Date 1970 Source English: Prospectus, yearbook of Dunbar Vocational High School, Chicago, Illinois Author English: Dunbar Vocational High School

#101 -   Public Domain image - By TGC-Topps Gum Cards (eBay frontback) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#102 -   Public Domain image - By Production Company: Roland Reed Productions [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#103 -   Public Domain image - https://pixabay.com/en/woman-african-girl-black-hot-pink-312755/

#104 -   Public Domain image - By NBC Television (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#105-  This work is in the public domain because it was published in the United States between 1923 and 1977 inclusive, without a copyright notice. Unless the author has been dead for several years, it is not in the public domain in countries that do not apply the rule of the shorter term for US works. This includes Canada, China (not Hong Kong, Macao, or Taiwan Area), Germany, Mexico, Switzerland, and other countries with individual treaties. See also further explanation.

#106 -   Public Domain image - By United States Government (http://fudge.house.gov/) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


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