OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1937:
Negro Motorist Green Book
The Negro Motorist Green Book was an annual guidebook for African Americans, commonly referred to simply as the "Green Book." It was published from 1936 to 1966, during the Jim Crow era, when discrimination against non-whites was widespread. Middle-class blacks took to driving in part to avoid segregation on public transportation. Blacks employed as salesmen, entertainers, and athletes also traveled frequently for work purposes.
African American travelers faced a variety of dangers and inconveniences, such as white-owned businesses refusing to serve them or repair their vehicles, being refused accommodation or food by white-owned hotels, and threats of physical violence and forcible expulsion from whites-only "sundown towns". New York mailman and travel agent Victor H. Green published The Negro Motorist Green Book to tackle such problems and "to give the Negro traveler information that will keep him from running into difficulties, embarrassments and to make his trip more enjoyable."
The Green Book became "the bible of black travel during Jim Crow."
Historically, with America's racial discrimination and violence against blacks, do you notice one important thing?
For the most part, the black person accepts these injustices and doesn't retaliate, not because he's afraid, but because he just wants to get along and hopes one day soon it will end. White people never understood that, because history shows their nature is aggressive and extremely violent, contrary to the peaceful and righteous goodie-goodie nature our American brothers make a claim to.
But we could be wrong in saying if you were to ask the typical white person about the Negro's nature, they would say savage, violent beast. History doesn't support that claim. It just ain't so.
You can bet the Chitlin' Circuit entertainers used the Green Book. Being on the road from city to city, why wouldn't they?
We would like to give many thanks to Victor Green for having the presence of mind to create such a directory. We're sure it was an invaluable tool during a period in American history when violent hatred by white people was everywhere, including our highways.
We honor Victor with the 1937 Hamite Award for his thoughtful insight into creating the The Negro Motorist Green Book which made life just a little easier for the American Negro. Now please direct me to the nearest Soul food place, I have a taste for some Chitlin's and hot sauce!
The Negro Motorist Green Book and Route 66
How were blacks feeling in 1937?
This is the year my favorite singer Bessie Smith was critically injured in a car accident and would eventually die. Her boyfriend, Richard Morgan, was driving and, probably mesmerized by the long stretch of straight road, misjudged the speed of a slow-moving truck ahead of him. The car would go on to sideswipe the truck, and Bessie with her arm outside of the window took the full brunt of the force.
Bessie would later end up at a black hospital named Clarksdale's G. T. Thomas Afro-American Hospital, where her right arm was amputated. She died that morning without regaining consciousness. The whole Negro community is in shock. Bessie was loved by all and made many folks euphoric with her music. RIP Bessie.
(The Empress of the Blues) Bessie Smith (April 15, 1894 – September 26, 1937) photo #109-yr-1937
Fox Lake Resort
Moving on up to the eastside!!!! That's what I'm talking about. We finally have a place to travel for fun and relaxation. We just hope our white American brothers don't burn it down or deny/jack up the electricity and water rates or claim eminent domain like they did with other resorts blacks attempted to set up.
Even though the average black person cannot afford to visit or live in Fox Lake, it's still nice to know some of our peoples are enjoying the life and gives us the motivation to fight even harder this high wall of racism. I ain't mad at cha!
The Fox Lake resort community was developed in Angola, Indiana specifically for African Americans in the 1930s, when such communities were quite rare. In the years between World War I and World War II, and for some time after that, African American were not welcomed to traditionally white resort communities. Fox Lake provided black families with a place of their own where they could escape the heat of the cities and enjoy the pleasures of summertime activities. The historic district contains 32 relatively modest lake cottages, most of which were constructed before World War II.
Occasionally big-name musicians were booked for dances at the clubhouse, which was surrounded by tennis courts, horseshoe pits, and basketball hoops. Saddle horses were available until the early 1950s. Other activities included trap shooting matches, weekly Family Night at the restaurant, and Sunday school held on the beach under the trees.
Today, Fox Lake is still a prosperous black community. Its traditions are still maintained by many second- and third-generation owners, who occupy a large number of the cottages.
American Beach, Florida was founded in 1935 by Florida's first black millionaire, Abraham Lincoln Lewis, and his Afro-American Life Insurance Company. The plan was for his employees to have a place to vacation and own homes for their families by the shore.
(thank you so much Abraham, we needed this!) Throughout the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s, summers at American Beach were busy with families, churches, and children. It was a place where African Americans could enjoy "Recreation and Relaxation Without Humiliation." The beach included hotels, restaurants, bathhouses and nightclubs as well as homes and other businesses.
American Beach played host to numerous celebrities during this period, including: folklorist Zora Neale Hurston, singer Billie Daniels, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Billy Eckstein, Hank Aaron, Joe Louis, actor Ossie Davis,and Sherman Hemsley. We know they had some fun! That's what I'm talking bout!
HUGEAUX: The Archives 2006: American Beach Florida Those Porcelain Dunes
For the year 1937:
William H. Hastie was the first African-American federal magistrate and later the first African-American governor of the United States Virgin Island.
Joe Louis Tribute ~ Brown Bomber Greatest Knockouts
Sports in 1937
1937 - Joe Louis defeated James J. Braddock to become heavyweight boxing champion of the world.
August 30, 1937 - Joe Louis beats Tommy Farr in 15 for the heavyweight championship boxing title.
The New York Black Yankees was founded in Harlem as the Harlem Black Bombers in 1931 by financier James "Soldier Boy" Semler and dancer Bill "Bojangles" Robinson. The team was active in the Negro Leagues from 1931 to 1948.
Education in 1937
1937 - Hugh Morris Gloster founds the College Language Association (CLA) in Atlanta, Georgia.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt: Biography, Quotes, College, Education, Early Life, Facts, History
Political Scene in 1937
Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt commonly known by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States.
Analysis: O.K. Mr. Roosevelt, we have studied your record on civil rights for the African-American and came to the conclusion that you put the problems of the world first before your black American citizens and perhaps if it weren't for your wife, Eleanor the civil rights movement would have taken longer to get off the ground. We know Roosevelt was loved by blacks and other races in his day, but from our vantage point in time, I searched high and low for concrete facts about laws he initiated to help black citizens. He did have some shining moments, though, but to me, it always seemed like he did it after being pushed into it by someone. Maybe I'm wrong, and if anybody knows something I don't I will be more than happy to change my assessment of this president, because believe it or not, we don't look for bad, we want to find good things they did for American citizens, and history won't lie. Franklin D. Roosevelt was the typical politician when it came to Negro civil rights, which meant they were not serious in demanding the enforcement of our rights. Roosevelt, like previous presidents, was afraid of the racist Southerners vote who in effect held America as a hostage with weak, spineless leaders. To Roosevelt's credit when he had Henry A. Wallace in 1941 as his Vice President this spoke volumes about the type of person Roosevelt was. Wallace had once studied under George Washington Carver as a young boy. Carver was a well respected black scientist by most which led Wallace to make the claim that white superiority was a hoax and all men were created equal in ability if given the opportunity. White racist was livid and demanded Roosevelt drop Wallace from the ticket to which he refused and threatened to drop out of the race all together until Eleanor addressed the convention floor to change the party's mind and her eventually her husband's also. We give big kudos to Roosevelt for this and notice a change in the air for human rights. But on the other hand, former Presiden Woodrow Wilson who went down in history as one of the most racist Presidents in America was a hero to Roosevelt who admired his vision for America and the world. Also during WWII Winston Churchhill was in dire need of assistance from the U.S. to fight Hitler's Germany and didn't have the money to complete a successful war campaign. Roosevelt offered him help under one condition that he dissolved colonial rule over the many countries around the world that Britain controlled, of course, Churchill didn't have a choice and agreed. So Roosevelt envisioned a new society where all the world could live in peace and free from the domination of other governments, but of course, the black citizens in his country would take the back burner. But at least he was trying, unlike his predecessors. Roosevelt came from a Dutch family, and the Dutch in America had a history of being fair to blacks and looked upon them as regular people like themselves, so we thought this president would actually WANT to help us. He never instigated any helpful Negro policy on his accord, for example, he signed an important piece of legislation to put America to work with the (Work Projects Administration; WPA program) in his New Deal promises. But because of racism blacks were being left out. He didn't have the motivation to act on his own to find the reason for this, it took his concerned wife Eleanor to speak up to this injustice against the American black person and eventually put many blacks to work. Eleanor had blacks coming and going out of the White House, and it probably got to the point where white people were saying to themselves "There's goes the neighborhood" She was a trendsetter for sure, loved by all races of people. Believe it or not, we think without a doubt she was the real catalyst for the Civil Rights movement, because of her concern for black citizens and the influence she had on her husband in getting favorable results. She helped opened the door for us, and we took advantage with the burgeoning rights movement. She, in my opinion, was a real first lady. Blacks loved her. Another occasion was when blacks were demanding an integrated Federal government, which he didn't want to get involved with until Civil Rights leader A. Philip Randolph threatened to march thousands of protesters on Washington D.C. This was the beginning of the integration of the Federal government providing fruits even today because of the multitude of black government workers we have. With Roosevelt's handling of the Japanese citizens by sending them to prison camps wasn't a good idea, and resentment still holds today for many. Franklin Roosevelt has been rated as one of the top three presidents ever, and after much thought, I think we agree. He wasn't a particularly bad or mean president, and he was better than the recent ones we've had. Franklin Roosevelt loved women and had affairs while serving as U.S. President. Eleanor was acutely aware of his womanizing ways and still supported him but lived separately from him. She still had influence over him, because if not the black person would have been in worse shape because she was a real American who wanted all citizens to enjoy a fair slice of America success. She was an excellent first lady who understood.
March 26 - 1937 - William H. Hastie, former advisor to President Franklin Roosevelt, is confirmed as the first black federal judge after his appointment by Roosevelt to the federal bench in the Virgin Islands.
1930s - Blacks were appointed to positions of responsibility within numerous governmental agencies, the 'Black Cabinet' or 'Black Brain Trust' - a vocal and eloquent group of highly trained and politically astute African American intellectuals who spearheaded the struggle for civil rights during the 1930s.
Who is this man?
His name was James F. Byrnes who was a major advisor/contributor to the events of World WarII. Byrnes was a protégé of Benjamin Tillman (who was known as "Pitchfork Ben") and often had a moderating influence on the fiery segregationist Senator of South Carolina. He would later go on to work for the very prejudice President Woodrow Wilson who often entrusted important political tasks to the capable young representative rather than to more veteran lawmakers.
During his time in the U.S. Senate, he was regarded as the most influential man on the floor. He had long been friends with Franklin D. Roosevelt, whom he supported for the Democratic nomination in 1932, and made himself the President's spokesman on the Senate floor.
Byrnes played a key role in blocking anti-lynching legislation, notably the Castigan-Wagner bill of 1935 and the Gavagan bill of 1937. Byrnes even claimed that lynching was necessary "to hold in check the Negro in the South," saying "rape is responsible, directly and indirectly, for most of the lynching in America"
During the war, Byrnes would advise the President on vital and grave matters which very often he embellished details. Roosevelt trusted him. A very popular Henry A. Wallace was Roosevelts Vice President, and the two would grow to dislike each other. Wallace was a man of the people. He felt that blacks should receive equal pay for equal work and was against the superior white theory and felt if blacks were given opportunity they would be just as successful as whites.
As a boy, Wallace had the honor of studying under the famous black scientist George Washington Carver. Many racist southerners didn't care for Wallace and worked with Byrnes to get him off the ticket. When Wallace ran for a second term for the Democratic nomination, he was seconds away from grabbing the honor but lost out on the convention floor because of shady backdoor politics Byrnes had managed against him, and the party ended up choosing Harry Truman as the Vice President nominee.
Roosevelt during this time was frail and sickly and perhaps didn't have the energy to stand up for Wallace who he liked just as much as Byrnes. After Roosevelt's death, Bynes would advise Harry Truman in important matters often omitting critical information the President should have known. In time Truman grew weary of Byrnes and got rid of him. Byrnes would then go on to becoming the Governor of South Carolina from 1951 to 1955, in which capacity he vigorously criticized the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education. Supporting segregation in education, the Democratic governor stated in his inaugural address.
"Whatever is necessary to continue the separation of the races in the schools of South Carolina is going to be done by the white people of the state. That is my ticket as a private citizen. It will be my ticket as governor." —James F. Byrnes
HOW LONG WILL WHITE-AMERICANS SIT ON THE FENCE?
Since the beginning of American history, there's always been a battle between those in authority. The problem is that some of these authorities view democracy differently. According to the dictionary, the word truth can be described as fidelity to an original or standard. Of course, we know the popular standard for American democracy is "all men are created equal and entitled to liberty, justice and the pursuit of happiness. But these authorities have disagreed for centuries if blacks should truthfully have a part in these promises.
Who's right? You be the judge.
First, we need to define democracy, and we'll let two of America's greatest Presidents do this for us by their actions and famous quotes.
Abraham Lincoln made the following quotes:
"As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this to the extent of the difference, is no democracy."
"I have no purpose to introduce political and social equality between the white and the black races.... But I hold that ... there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
Now it's very clear from the many negative comments Abraham Lincoln made against black people he wasn't likely to have blacks over for dinner, in fact, most whites shared his views. But that's okay; he lived in a different era than today. This site believes he would have changed his views if living in our time because one of his most admirable qualities was flexibility.
In contrast to Abraham Lincoln, the first President of the United States, George Washington evidently didn't share Lincoln's view of democracy.
Black slaves were actively sought and recruited to fight for America in the Revolutionary War and promised freedom after the victory. It's well recorded that slaves fought with courage and valor that ensured American success. George Washington himself made the comment:
Washington wrote a letter to Colonel Henry Lee III stating that success in the war would come to whatever side could arm the blacks the fastest.
But after victory in the war, America didn't keep its promises, and most blacks were forced back into slavery. Of course, George Washington had to know about this but did nothing. Washington had many slaves himself and didn't want to free them and damage his financial stake. He put money interests ahead of real Democracy. Washington was a brilliant soldier but failed as an upholder of truth and justice and set the tone for future race relations in our country by trivializing and compromising Democracy. It's sad to say, but Washington didn't stay in the truth.
So in a sense, Washington created the blueprint for this distorted and false view of Democracy
This blueprint became the norm in much of America's dealings with black people. Whites felt if their supreme leader thought so lowly of black people, they would also. Washington's inaction cannot be taken lightly because every single President after him would ignore the "Negro Problem" as they called it and continued with their lie by going against the lofty standard this country was founded. They actually became anti-Americans.
Lincoln had faced the "Negro Problem" issue head on and was very brave in doing so by instituting the Emancipation Proclamation. So we had two great Presidents with different opinions of Democracy and what it meant to be on the side of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness for all. Abraham Lincoln chose to put Democracy first and his personal prejudices second, but Washington put his financial interest ahead of Democracy. This is what set these two great men apart in character.
After Lincoln's death, democracy would take a wild downward spiral. One of the most biased President in American history led the attack. His name was Andrew Johnson. He fought against Reconstruction aid for blacks tooth and nail. Every favorable bill for former slaves that appeared on his desk was immediately denied. Later, there were new illegal laws created to restrict black American citizens that worked very well. This was called the Jim Crow era. It was an all-out attack on Democracy by Anti-Americans and aided by good white Americans who remained neutral by sitting on the fence and not speaking up. Read for yourself.
There's not enough room on this web page to describe the hate and exclusion by the government and white Americans against blacks during this period. Jim Crow laws touched every part of life, all across America. Blacks and whites were kept apart as much as possible. Good jobs went to whites; blacks were given the worst with less pay. Many industries wouldn’t hire blacks. Many unions passed special rules to exclude them. All juries and judges were white; blacks were illegally denied voting rights. No blacks allowed in public pools. Many restaurants would not serve blacks, and those that did had a dirty colored section. Blacks and whites went to county fairs on different days. Blacks couldn't use public libraries.
Simple common courtesy was rarely shown the blacks. Whites beat, tortured, raped and killed blacks with no fear of punishment. Blacks were denied credit for businesses, housing, cars by the banks. Blacks were kept out of white neighborhoods with housing covenants. Oklahoma had black and white phone booths. Texas had cities where blacks were entirely restricted from living. Blacks could not leave their homes after 10:00 pm in Mobile Alabama. Blacks could not marry whites. Georgia had separate white and black parks. Prisons, hospitals, and orphanages were segregated as were schools and colleges. Blacks and whites had to use different sets of books in school, in Florida, they couldn't be stored together. When a person was sworn in at a trial, the whites used one Bible, and the blacks had a separate Bible. For those who did complete college, a crucial question had to be answered. Who was going to be their clients?
Whites didn't engage blacks in business, and the battered black person couldn't afford their services. These laws became so entrenched in American life; even unwritten laws affected black citizenship; blacks understood to stay out of white stores and establishments. Segregation was so complete that whites did not see blacks except when being served by them. After the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, blacks have made enormous gains. This is how the United States of America became a polarized country. Each and every President knew what was going on and allowed this illegal activity for 87 years. Were they guilty of not upholding the United States Constitution in the black people behalf? Is this the reason why many other nations laugh at America with its constant claims of being on the side of good and high morality?
Religion made things worse
Even though the U.S. was not founded as a Christian nation and existed solely as a secular state entirely free of religious influence in lawmaking, religion would soon be thrown into the loop. This made American people feel righteous and just in their own eyes. White's believed they were "good" and made in God's image and blacks were not. In time slogans such as "In God, We Trust" were printed on money to describe people who had snuffed out Democracy by living a lie. They felt God was on their side and loved only them.
Countless movies, radio shows, newspapers, magazines and other media would consistently portray these anti-Americans as on the side of good, morally upstanding and righteous to the world. Good white Americans that were sitting on the fence had to know this was a farce because of the way its black citizens were being treated and did nothing.
But there was a relative few brave, justice loving white Americans who spoke up and got involved for democracy with some even losing their lives, but the majority did nothing. They remained on the fence because they were also partakers of the privileged American way of living and failed to realize how this was undermining true Democracy with the prospect of one day being faced with an America they wouldn't recognize.
“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.”Tim Wise
So, what has America become?
Because of the folly of racism and privilege by anti-Americans and the lack of action to speak out by good Americans, it appears this country has morphed into another form of power. Something that is completely different than it started out as, like an insatiable, greedy, detestable and ugly monster without a soul or conscience?
Black Legion Uniforms with Skull-and-Crossbones
Race in 1937
1937 - The Black Legion was a secret vigilante terrorist group and a white supremacist organization in the Midwestern United States that splintered from the Ku Klux Klan and operated during the Great Depression of the 1930s. In 1931 a chapter was formed in Highland Park, Michigan, expanding to an estimated total membership in the state estimated between 20,000 and 30,000 by the mid-1930s during the Great Depression. Its members were generally native-born Protestant men, many who had migrated from the South. One third of the members lived in Detroit, which had also been a strong center of KKK activity in the 1920s.
1930's Slang- Kim 2K13
sLANG tALK in 1937
Air out - to go, leave the scene
Bad Hair - kinky negro hair
Bailing - enjoying oneself, having a ball
Bam & down in Bam - the southern parts
Beating up your gums - not making sense when talking, big mouth
Blowing your top - someone getting mad, to the boiling point
Boogie-woogie - dancing, or could mean a venereal disease
Bull-skating - a person that brags
Butt sprung - whatever the person is wearing it doeasnt look good around the butt area
Coal scuttle blonde - black lady
Collar a nod - to go asleep
Collor a hot - to get something to eat
Conk buster - inexpensive liquor or could mean a smart black person
Dat thing - sex of either male or female
Diddy-Wah-Diddy - somewhere far away
Dig - understand the meaning of something
Dumb to the fact - don't know what you're talking about
Dusty butt - inexpensive prostitute
Eight-rock - super black person
First thing smoking - a coming train
Git up off of me - stop talking about me, leave me alone
Good hair - white folks hair type
Gut-bucket - a kind of music
Handkerchief-head - a uncle tom
I don't deal in coal - I don't hang with black females
I'm cracking but I'm facking - I'm talking shit but it's true
Inky dink - super black person
Jar head - black man
I shot him lightly and he died politely - I outsmarted him
Jelly - term for sex
Jig - short for zigaboo which means a negro
Juice - alcoholic beverage
July jam - super hot
Knock yourself out - have a ball, enjoy yourself
Liver-lip - black people's purple lips
Made hair - black kinky hair that has been straightened
Mammy - a word used to insult someone
Miss Anne - term used for a white lady
Mister Charlie - term used for a white man
Pancake - agreeable black person
Peckerwood - poor white folks
Playing the dozens - bad talking about each others family
Reefer - marijuana
Rug-cutter - good dancer
Scrap iron - inexpensive alcoholic beverage
Solid - absolutely perfect
Stomp - dance
Stormbuzzard - a useless homeless person
The man - The rule of the law or a person of authority
Thousand on a plate - a serving of beans
Tight head - a very kinky haired person
“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.”Tim Wise
How did it begin?
Actually, it's a worldwide negative perception of whites, but why? Well, a quick and simple trip back in history will get the probable answer.
The best way to describe European history would be wars, wars, and more wars.
The Europeans wanted better and pursued a life of civilization as opposed to barbarism. They discovered a tool that would help them with that. It was called Science, which was a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In other words, every single thing would be studied and scrutinized.
Foolishly, church leaders of that day welcomed science, but it would eventually become a direct enemy of humanity's maker.
Because science would teach the ordinary person to believe in themselves and the intellectual powers, they possess as opposed to an All Mighty Creator. Because the Creator of the universe is mathematically correct, once these early scientists were able to figure equations for themselves in regards to nature, they felt there were like a god. Science would also teach the world to exist because of a Big Bang theory and evolution, instead of being created.
Did these early Europeans belief in science affect the Negro?
Absolutely! It affected all tribal nature human beings. Whites collectively proclaimed themselves superior and this is where the trouble started for the rest of humankind. The Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than tribal communities. Millions of Negroes and other races lost their lives and suffered much because of science.
Before slavery, the Negro had been isolated from the rest of the world for many years due to the humongous Sahara Desert to the North and the Arab slave traders to the East made it tough if not impossible to travel. They weren't able to share in the new learning discoveries the world were experiencing. These people were a group lost in time, away from the modern world.
Once the Portuguese got the slave trade started with the entire world, the scientist had an opportunity to scrutinize and evaluate the lowly Negro, and I have to warn you right now it wasn't pretty.
An illustration from the influential American magazine Harper's Weekly shows an alleged similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to the higher "Anglo-Teutonic." The accompanying caption reads "The Iberians are believed to have been originally an African race, which thousands of years ago spread themselves through Spain over Western Europe. Their remains are found in the barrows, or burying places, in various parts of these countries. The skulls are of a small prognathous type. They came to Ireland and mixed with the natives of the South and West, who themselves are supposed to have been of small type and descendants of savages of the Stone Age, who, in consequence of isolation from the rest of the world, had never been out-competed in the healthy struggle of life, and thus made way, according to the laws of nature, for superior races." (this is an Harper's Weekly assessment of race, not ours)photo#101-yr-2015
The following excerpts are scientist views of the Negro back then:
Charles White (1728–1813), an English physician and surgeon, believed that races occupied different stations in the "Great Chain of Being," and he tried to scientifically prove that human races have distinct origins from each other. He believed that Whites and Negroes were two different species. White was a believer in polygeny, the idea that different races had been created separately.
Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) was a German philosopher who said "The yellow Indians do have a little talent. The Negroes are far below them, and at the lowest point are a part of the American people".
Franz Ignaz Pruner (1808–1882) was a medical doctor who studied the racial structure of Negroes in Egypt. In a book which he wrote in 1846, he claimed that Negro blood had a negative influence on the Egyptian moral character. He argued that the main feature of the Negro's skeleton is prognathism, which he claimed was the Negro's relation to the ape. He also argued that Negroes had very similar brains to apes and that Negros have a shortened big toe, which is a characteristic connecting Negroes closely to apes.
Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), the Swedish physician, botanist, and zoologist says The Afer or Africanus: black, phlegmatic, relaxed; black, frizzled hair; silky skin, flat nose, tumid lips; females without shame; mammary glands give milk abundantly; crafty, sly, careless; anoints himself with grease; and regulated by will.
Scottish lawyer Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696-1782) was a polygenist: he believed God had created different races on Earth in separate regions. In his 1734 book Sketches on the History of Man, Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks.
Charles Darwin (1809 – 19 April 1882) apparently believed that the struggle for existence among humans would result in racial extermination. In Descent of Man he asserted, "At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace throughout the world the savage races.
When comparing Caucasians to Negroes, Voltaire (1694 – 1778) compared them to different breeds of dog:
The Negro race is a species of men different from ours as the breed of spaniels is from that of greyhounds. The mucous membrane, or network, which Nature has spread between the muscles and the skin, is white in us and black or copper-colored in them.
Benjamin Rush (1745–1813), a Founding Father of the United States and a physician, proposed that being black was a hereditary skin disease, which he called "negroidism," and that it could be cured. Rush believed non-whites were white underneath, but they were stricken with a non-contagious form of leprosy which darkened their skin color. Rush drew the conclusion that "Whites should not tyrannize over [blacks], for their disease should entitle them to a double portion of humanity. However, by the same token, whites should not intermarry with them, for this would tend to infect posterity with the 'disorder'... attempts must be made to cure the disease.
The German anatomist Johann Blumenbach (1752–1840) was a believer in monogenism, the concept that all races have a single origin. He also believed in the "degeneration theory" of racial backgrounds. He said that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors, such as the sun and poor dieting and believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race. According to Blumenbach, there are five races, all belonging to a single species: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay. Blumenbach said: I have allotted the first place to the Caucasian because this stock displays the most beautiful race of men.
O.K. O.K., enough already! I told you it wasn't going to be pretty.
The beliefs these so-called scholars had is the single most reason why millions of Negroes were tortured, murdered and raped throughout history. Scientist published their findings as fact and people all over the world believed them.
But we wonder what the scientist would say if alive today with access to a computer, and visit Google to type in the key phrase "African immigrants in college" they would discover that these same Africans out-perform academically
every single race in America's colleges.
That's interesting, but what does it prove?
It proves that intelligence is not dependent on skin color or race, but instead access to education and a fertile mind to receive instruction. In America, slavery happened years ago but damaged and demoralized the fertile minds of many black Americans, and continues down to this day. There are some blacks who think of education and learning as a white thing and don't want anything to do with it, now if that's not an effect of slavery I don't know what is.
Doesn't It boggles the mind that these so-called superior, intelligent and civilized humans didn't for one time think to share their knowledge of enlightenment with the world so all could live a better life, be happy and progress? No, sadly these people chose to claim white superiority, to dominate and to kill weaker ones similar to the barbarian way of life they came. An example of this is with Colonialism.
What is Colonialism?
Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory. It is a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous population.
Colonial rule in the Belgian Congo began in the late 19th century under King Leopold II
of Belgium. Leopold exploited the Congo for its natural resources, first ivory and later rubber which was becoming a valuable commodity. The regime in the Congo was responsible for using forced labor, murder and mutilation to force native Congolese
who did not fulfill quotas for rubber collections. It's estimated millions of Congolese
died during this time.
In other words a much powerful nation sets up shop in a weaker nation by force and robs the resources and forces the natives to work as slaves for little or no pay while grossly benefiting from unequal trade activities while depositing profits to it's mother country.
Colonialism demoralized the native population making Europe stronger and Africa weaker. Even though many white nations participated, non-Europeans nations included, the United Kingdom was the king in this horrible act against humanity.
Because of whites belief in science aided with their secondary faith in religion, they felt they were obligated to save and civilize the world. Google "White man's Burden" for proof of this belief, and by the way our United States President Teddy Roosevelt loved the White Man's Burden theory.
Whites tend to have a poor memory in regards to their crimes against humanity, but the other nations who suffered through it haven't forgotten, because just like the effects of slavery still lingers for blacks in America, people who suffered through colonialism still feel the pain and can see with their literal eye the destruction it left behind.
There isn't any denying that science has also helped make our lives better, but the responsibility that goes along with it is simply too much for humans to handle. Whites did not temper science with love and common sense. Just look around the world today, and you would probably agree we are on the brink of destruction with pollution, nuclear weapons, degradation of the earth, etc. are all products of science. The bad far outweigh the good.
Early science also taught Europeans it was man's nature to compete. In fact, they felt it was healthy and natural to compete to create superior human beings, especially white ones. This erroneous belief about competition would go on to be the largest difference in European and African cultures.
Whites brought these competitive qualities and attitudes with them from Europe. Africans were totally opposite because in their homeland everything was shared and done for the tribal community. There wasn't an I in Africa, it was US.
Blacks played an enormous role in the building of this country, even with hands tied behind their backs but were not welcome to participate. Whites felt that it just didn't look and feel right for blacks to be associated with superior whites in the building of America.
So white Americans kidnapped the U.S. Constitution and created laws (Jim Crow) to keep things entirely separate and achieved like crazy in all aspects of life, and boasting white superiority.
It has not been proven that competitiveness is better than teamwork. View this small list of words associated with competitiveness out of the dictionary and you'll have to agree this is the state of America today.
More and more blacks have developed this competitive and lofty spirit and probably will soon look down on others as well, even within our race. Ole Blue Eyes, who was a great singer and real American who viewed each human being as equal had an incredible grip on the situation about the division between blacks and whites. Check out what he said below.
One of the greatest entertainers of all times, Frank Sinatra once made a quote about the damaging effects of ones who subscribe to white superiority whether covertly or overtly.
"We've got a hell of a long way to go in this racial situation. As long as most white men think of a Negro first and a man second, we're in trouble. I don't know why we can't grow up."
Movies in America
Eddie "Rochester" Anderson
Photo of Jack Benny's radio shows cast
1937 film Harlem on the Prairie
Dorothy Dandridge Documentary Dandridge Movie
Radio / Television / Movies in 1937
Easy to Take - Dorothy Dandridge (role as member of the Dandridge Sisters)
It Can't Last Forever - Dorothy Dandridge (role as member of the Dandridge Sisters)
A Day at the Races - Dorothy Dandridge (role as Black Singer)
Harlem on the Prairie - is a race movie, billed as the first "all-colored" western musical. The movie reminded audiences that there were black cowboys and corrected a popular Hollywood image of an all-white Old West. Starred Herbert Jeffrey as Jeff Kincaid.
Starting in the year of 1937, a new funny man would co-star on the Jack Benny Show. This man went by the name of Eddie "Rochester" Anderson. Eddie's character of "Rochester" generated much laughter, becoming immensely popular and would become a household name from 1937 to 1965 in America. The humor on the show was the usual stereotypical stuff that blacks had to endure, but later it would become a stepping stone for many successful comedians to follow. Eddie became the first black to have a regular role on a nationwide radio program. The show started on radio and moved to television in 1951 until it went off the air in the 1964-1965 season. Trivia:
Anderson was frequently late for the show. Benny attempted to instill punctuality in Anderson by fining him $50 each time he arrived late at the studio. Anderson had a habit of losing track of time, especially when he was talking with someone. Must have had something to say huh Eddie?
January 25, 1937 - The Soap Opera "Guiding Light" premieres on radio.
Miscellaneous: Negro Actors Guild of America:
Negro Actors Guild of America (NAG) was established in 1937 to create better opportunities for black actors during a period in America where the country was at a crossroads regarding how its citizens of color would be depicted in film, television and the stage. The Guild served as one of the primary financial and social resources for African American entertainers. It provided health care, arranged transportation and hotel accommodations, and financed funeral services for the black thespian community.
Johnny Brown on "Laugh-In" in 1971.
Nancy Wilson and Lloyd Haynes
Duane L. Jones
General Colin L. Powell photo #108-yr-1989
Famous Birthdays in 1937
January 1, 1937 - Matt Robinson, Jr. was an African American actor.
January 4, 1937 - Grace Melzia Bumbry an African American opera singer.
January 8, 1937 - Shirley Bassey is a Welsh singer with a career spanning more than 60 years.
February 1, 1937 - Garrett Morris an American comedian and actor.
February 2, 1937 - Donald Alvin Buford former Major League Baseball player.
February 2, 1937 - Duane L. Jones an American actor, best known for his leading role as Ben in the 1968 horror film Night of the Living Dead.
February 10, 1937 - Roberta Flack an American singer, and musician who is notable for jazz, Pop, R&B, and folk music.
February 20, 1937 - Nancy Wilson an American singer with more than 70 albums, and three Grammy Awards. She has been labeled a singer of blues, jazz, cabaret and pop; a "consummate actress"; and "the complete entertainer."
March 23, 1937 - Tony Burton is an African American actor. He is best known for his role as Tony "Duke" Evers in the Rocky series.
April 5, 1937 - Colin Powell an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army. He was the 65th United States Secretary of State, serving under U.S. President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2005, the first African American to serve in that position.
April 6, 1937 - Billy Dee Williams an American actor, artist, singer, and writer best known for acting in the movies Brian's Song and Lady Sings the Blues.
April 18, 1937 - Robert Hooks an American actor of films, television and stage.
June 1, 1937 - Morgan Freeman is an African American actor, film director, and narrator.
June 11, 1937 - Johnny Brown is an African American actor and singer, nightclub and stage performer as well as a comic actor. We can never forget his role on Good Times as the janitor, Bookman. Brown was also a regular cast member of the old television series Laugh-in.
June 18, 1937 - Dr. Barbara Ann Teer was an African-American writer, producer, teacher, actress and visionary.
July 12, 1937 - Bill Cosby is an African American comedian, actor, author, television producer, educator, musician and activist.
August 14, 1937 - Fran Bennett an American actress born in Malvern, Arkansas.
August 15, 1937 - Ella Mitchell an African-American soul singer and actress.
August 25, 1937 - Clarence "Choo-Choo" Coleman a Major League Baseball player.
September 1, 1937 - Ron O'Neal was an American actor, director and screenwriter, who rose to fame in his role as Youngblood Priest, a New York cocaine dealer in the 1972 blaxploitation film Super Fly.
September 5, 1937 - Lawerence Neal was a scholar of African-American theatre.
October 2, 1937 - Johnnie L Cochran was an African American lawyer best known for his leadership role in the defense and criminal acquittal of O. J. Simpson for the murder of his former wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman.
October 28, 1937 - Lenny Wilkens a retired American basketball player and coach in the National Basketball Association (NBA).
November 10, 1937 - Albert P. Hall is an American actor.
Famous African American Quotes
Colin Powell - an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.
"It was only once I was in college, about six months into college when I found something that I liked, and that was ROTC, Reserve Officer Training Corps in the military. And I not only liked it, but I was pretty good at it. That's what you really have to look for in life, something that you like, and something that you think you're pretty good at. And if you can put those two things together, then you're on the right track, and just drive on."
Blues singer Bessie Smith
Portrait of William H. Heard photo #102-yr-1895
Oliver Law photo #106-yr-1937
Famous Deaths in 1937
July 9, 1937 - Oliver Law was an African American communist and labor organizer, who fought for the Republic in the Spanish Civil War.
September 12, 1937 - William Henry (Harrison) Heard was a clergyman of the African Methodist Episcopal Church who served as United States Ambassador to Liberia from 1895 through 1898.
Sept 26, 1937 - Bessie Smith was an American blues singer, nicknamed The Empress of the Blues.
October 21, 1937 - Lucy Diggs Slowe was one of the original sixteen founders of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated, the first sorority founded by African-American women.
1937 - Maria Fearing was born on William O. Winston's Oak Hill Plantation, near Gainesville, Alabama on July 26, 1838. she died in 1937. She had worked her way through the Freedman's Bureau School in Talladega to become a teacher.
1937 - Marie Selika Williams was an American coloratura soprano. She was the first Black artist to perform in the White House.
1937 - Horace Wayman Bivins was a Buffalo Soldier who fought in the Indian Wars and the Spanish-American War.
Josephine Baker, Zouzou, Dances With Her Shadow
Famous Weddings in 1937
January 13, 1937 - Lena Horne married Louis Jordan Jones in in Pittsburgh.
January 27, 1937 - Nat King Cole and Nadine Robinson were married.
1937 - Josephine Baker and Jean Lion were married.
The Negro Motorist Green Book was an annual guidebook for African Americans, commonly referred to simply as the "Green Book". It was published from 1936 to 1966, during the Jim Crow era, when discrimination against non-whites was widespread.
Middle-class blacks took to driving in part to avoid segregation on public transportation. Blacks employed as salesmen, entertainers, and athletes also traveled frequently for work purposes. African American travelers faced a variety of dangers and inconveniences, such as white-owned businesses refusing to serve them or repair their vehicles, being refused accommodation or food by white-owned hotels, and threats of physical violence and forcible expulsion from whites-only "sundown towns". New York mailman and travel agent Victor H. Green published The Negro Motorist Green Book to tackle such problems and "to give the Negro traveler information that will keep him from running into difficulties, embarrassments and to make his trip more enjoyable." The Green Book became "the bible of black travel during Jim Crow." These people were crazy on the for real side! You can bet the Chitlin' Circuit entertainers used the Green Book.
It's a Party in 1937
Back in the early 1900s because of prejudice and racial discrimination, black entertainers had to be very careful where they traveled. They weren't always welcome in various venues, so they created what's called a Chitlin Circuit. They named it Chitlin Circuit because of blacks typical love for soul food with chitlins being near the top as favorite. So, in other words, they understood there would be love on the circuit. They knew that the clubs, juke joints, theaters, etc. in the circuit were welcoming of the black race and safe to visit. This way of life existing from the early 1900s - 1960s. Noted theaters and entertainers on the circuit included:
The Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Cotton Club, Small's Paradise and the Apollo Theater in New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.;the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.
Early figures of blues, including Robert Johnson, Son House, Charley Patton, and countless others, traveled the juke joint circuit, scraping out a living on tips and free meals. These entertainers provided much-needed joy and happiness for black folks. Once the band's gig was over, they would leave for the next stop on the circuit. Sounds like a lot of fun and an exciting life!
Many notable performers worked on the chitlin' circuit, including Patti LaBelle, Count Basie, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, Sam Cooke, Jackie Wilson, Sheila Guyse, Peg Leg Bates, The Supremes, George Benson, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Gladys Knight & the Pips, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, The Miracles, Donna Hightower, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Duke Ellington, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Little Richard, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, Tammi Terrell, The Isley Brothers, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Muddy Waters, Flip Wilson and Jimmie Walker.
An African American couple dance the jitterbug in front of a crowd. Los Angeles California. photo #112-yr-1930
Playing the Chitlin Circuit: Victory Grill
Slaves kidnapped from their homes years ago belonged to tribes. Each tribe was as different as night and day to the next tribe.
They each had their individual languages and customs. So upon arriving in America they had to create a way to communicate with their master and each other, so over time they developed a spanking new and unique language called African American Vernacular English, and it didn't stop there.
Each group had their defined drum beat from their tribe that was added to the new way of life in the New World but with a new American twist with musical instruments they didn't have in Africa.
So to put it simply, soul or black music is a mixture of many different African beats incorporated into a new American culture. Think about how exciting that is, if it's possible to create anything positive at all from slavery it has to be African American music. It's admired all over the world.
We all originate from the same place, so it doesn't matter if we're listening to early 1900s blues singer "Ma Rainey" or the great 1940s singers "Billie Holiday" and "Nat King Cole" down to the famous rappers of our time such as the two late greats, "Biggie Smalls" or "Tupac", it all sounds good to us because we can feel and hear that beat.
Many cultures have contributed to the American way of life such as German Americans who introduced the Christmas tree tradition, or Italian Americans with their delicious pizza, or Mexican Americans with the tacos and delicious burritos, or the English Americans with their mainstays such as baseball and apple pie. The list goes on and on, and to add to those contributions, and without a doubt, soul music has changed the American way of life, it is truly an original, and one of our many proud contributions to our home here in America.
1937 film Harlem on the Prairie
Thomas "Fats" Waller
Music in 1937
Popular Soul Dances
The Big Apple is both a partner dance and a circle dance that originated in the Afro-American community of the United States in the beginning of the 20th century.
The Hully Gully is a type of unstructured line dance often considered to have originated in the sixties, but is also mentioned some forty years earlier as a dance common in the black juke joints in the first part of the twentieth century.
Shim Sham Shimmy, Shim Sham or just Sham originally is a particular tap dance routine and is regarded as tap dance's national anthem. For swing dancers, today it is a kind of line dance that recalls the roots of swing.
Musical Happenings in 1937:
Muriel Rahn was an American vocalist and actress. She co-founded the Rose McClendon Players with her husband, Dick Campbell and was one of the leading black concert singers of the mid-20th Century. In 1929, she launched her professional career in New York City. She is perhaps best known for her starring role in the original Broadway production of Carmen Jones.
Swing music, or simply swing, is a form of American music that developed in the early 1930s and became a distinctive style by 1940. The period between 1935 and 1946 is when big band swing music reached its peak and was the most popular music in America. As with jazz, swing was created by African Americans, and its impact on the overall American culture was such that it marked and named an entire era of the United States, the Swing Era.
Duke Ellington becomes the first jazz musician to use elements of Cuban music in his work.
The Golden Gate Quartet's "Jonah" becomes a massive hit, part of a "legendary two-hour recording session in Charlotte, North Carolina. They soon become one of the few African-American performers to appear on Magic Key Hour, an NBC show.
With Harlem on the Prairie, Herb Jeffries becomes the first African-American singing cowboy in a movie. It is the first black musical western. No prints are known to exist.
J. Mayo "Ink" Williams, a talent scout, makes Mahalia Jackson the first gospel artist to sign to Decca Records.
Kenneth Morris introduces the Hammond organ to gospel music.
Nat "King" Cole forms a piano, guitar and bass trio, which is credited as the beginning of a rhythm and blues style meant to accompany conversation instead of dancing, known as club blues or cocktail music in black and white clubs, respectively.
Tom Wince opens the Blue Room in Vicksburg, Mississippi, which will soon become of the premier jazz and blues music venues in the Mississippi Delta.
1930s - "Fats" Waller was an important contributor to the popular stride piano style.
Rose McClendon Fashion Statement
Black Theater Fashion Statement
At the juke joint stylin
Womens Fashions in the 1930s photo #110-yr-1930
Womens Fashions in the 1930s photo #107-yr-1930
Mens Fashions in the 1930s Charles Spurgeon Johnson, sociologist and first black president of Fisk University. Dressed to kill! photo #108-yr-1930
Mens Fashions in the 1930s Jazz bandleader Tiny Bradshaw photo #109-yr-1930
Fashions in 1937
Overview: The lighthearted, forward-looking attitude and fashions of the late 1920s lingered through most of 1930, but by the end of that year the effects of the Great Depression began to affect the public, and a more conservative approach to fashion displaced that of the 1920s. For women, skirts became longer and the waist-line was returned up to its normal position in an attempt to bring back the traditional "womanly" look. Other aspects of fashion from the 1920s took longer to phase out. Cloche hats remained popular until about 1933 while short hair remained popular for many women until late in the 1930s and even in the early 1940s.
For men, the most noticeable effect of the general sobering associated with the Great Depression was that the range of colors became more subdued. The bright colors popular in the 1920s fell out of fashion. Musicians and other fashion experimenters adopted the most extreme form of the drape, the zoot suit, with very high waists, pegged trousers, and long coats.
Feminine curves were highlighted in the 1930s through the use of the bias-cut in dresses. Madeleine Vionnet was the innovator of the bias-cut and used this method to create sculptural dresses that molded and shaped over the body's contours as it draped the female form.
Through the mid-1930s, the natural waistline was often accompanied by emphasis on an empire line. Short bolero jackets, capelets, and dresses cut with fitted midriffs or seams below the bust increased the focus on breadth at the shoulder. Most women wore skirts at or near knee-length, with simply-cut blouses or shirts and square-shouldered jackets.
Hi there, I'm Annie. Thanks for viewing my collection of wonderful soul-food dishes that my amazing ancestors cooked, and more than likely yours did too.
We didn't have much of anything back in the day and had to live off the scraps we were given. But like a famous rapper once said in his songs, we knew how to "make a dollar out of 15 cents" Enjoy.
Sweet Potatoes / Yams
Rice and Beans
Fish and Chips
Biscuits and Gravy
(images - https://pixabay.com/)
Southern Cooking - Soul Food
Have you ever wondered what African-Americans ate back in the day? Well, maybe we can help you with that. We've found the oldest known black cookbook to date.
This cookbook was written by an actual former slave woman that had once lived on a plantation, but gained her freedom with the Emancipation Proclamation moving from Mobile, Alabama to San Francisco, California where she published an entirely excellent collection of 160 authentic and tasty recipes of the Old South entitled;
"What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking"
This book is indeed a rare gemstone with tons of actual recipes that black folks enjoyed back in the day, but Mrs. Fisher cooking wasn't limited to blacks only, many whites also loved her delicious recipes and persuaded her to make a cookbook.
Here is just a sample of some of the southern foods mentioned in her book, and by the way, it wasn't called soul-food until the 1960's.
Maryland Beat Biscuit
Egg Corn Bread
Plantation Corn Bread
Lamb or Mutton Chops
Pork Steak or Chops
Pickels, Sauces Etc.
Sweet Cucumber Pickles
Sweet Cucumber Mangoes
Creole Chow Chow
Sweet Pickle Peaches
Sweet Pickle Prunes
Sweet Watermelon Kind Pickle
Sauce for Boiled Fish or Mutton
Sauce for Suet Pudding
Pastry for making Pies of all kinds
Preparing the Fruit for Pies
Gooseberry and Cherry
Preserves, Spices, ETC.
Syrups for Preserves
Raspberry and Currant Jam Combined
Crab Apple Jelly
Blackberry Syrup for Dysentery in Children
Apple Sauce for Roast Pork
Soups, Chowders, Etc.
Calf 's Head
Old Fashioned Turnip
Corn and Tomato
Chicken fried Steak
Meat Stews or Entrees
Beef a la Mode
Jumberlie a Creole Dish
Ribs, Beef or Pork
Egg Plant Stuffed
Chitterlings or "Chitlins"
Corned Beef Hash
Pap for infant Diet
Meringue for Pudding
What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking
Paperback – March, 1995
by Abby Fisher (Author), Karen Hess (Editor)
For best results, leave butter and eggs out overnight
Cream butter well, add sugar and mix until butter and sugar look like whip cream.
Beat each egg individually and then add with sugar and butter, mix well for at least a couple minutes.
Add milk and cake flour a little at a time, then add flavorings.
Spray Pam spray on entire round cake pan, and then add cake batter.
Bake about 1 hour and 15 minutes at 325.
Let cake cool for about 30 minutes, and then remove cake from cake pan.
Members of the Southern Negro Youth Congress Meet with Idaho Senator Glen Taylor
United States Census for African Americans in the 1930s
American jazz violinist Eddie South with a conk hairdo. photo #104-yr-1920
Zora Neale Hurston
Matthew Alexander Henson photo #107-yr-1955
Our Community in 1937 Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
January 25, 1937 - The Soap Opera "Guiding Light" premieres on radio.
May 6, 1937 - 36 people are killed when the German airship Hindenburg explodes in flames at Lakehurst, NJ.
October 1, 1937 - Pullman Train Company formally recognizes the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.
October 1937 - Katherine Dunham forms the Negro Dance Group, which were a company of black artists dedicated to presenting aspects of African American and African-Caribbean Dance.
1937 - Writer and poet, Claude McKay won the James Weldon Johnson Literary Guild Award, 1937.
1937 - Writer , Zora Neale Hurston is best known for her 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching Go
The Southern Negro Youth Congress was established in 1937 at a conference in Richmond, Virginia. The Southern Negro Youth Congress consisted of young leaders that were representatives from almost all the black colleges in the country, Boy and Girl Scouts, young steel workers, and even members of the YMCA all joined together to form the Southern Negro Youth Congress. Their goal was the betterment of the Negro race, politically and economically.
1937 - first African-American Arctic explorer Matthew Alexander Henson was invited in 1937 as a member of The Explorers Club due to his achievement and was the first African American to be accepted. In 1948 he was made an honorary member, a distinction for 20 persons annually.
1937 - In the 1930s, some believed the conk hairdo served as a rite of passage from adolescence into adulthood for black males. Because of the pain involved in the process, the conk represented masculinity and virility within the community. Many of the popular musicians of the early to mid 20th century, including Chuck Berry, Little Richard, James Brown, and the members of The Temptations and The Miracles, were well known for sporting the conk hairstyle.
The United States Population is 122,775,046 with a total of 11,891,143 being African Americans.
Hindenburg catching fire on May 6, 1937 at Lakehurst Naval Air Station in New Jersey. The disaster was the subject of spectacular newsreel coverage, photographs, and Herbert Morrison's recorded radio eyewitness reports from the landing field, which were broadcast the next day. photo #111-yr-1937
#100 - Public Domain image - Portraits of African American ex-slaves from the U.S. Works Progress Administration, Federal Writers' Project slave narratives collections. Born in slavery, slave narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938.
Federal Writers' Project (FWP) interviews with former slaves began as early as 1936 with initial efforts concentrated primarily in Florida. In 1937 an official project was organized and placed under the direction of folklorist John A. Lomax who coordinated and expanded data collecting activities throughout the South. The program continued up through the Spring of 1939. Photographs of former slaves were often taken at the time of the interviews. Photographs were taken by U.S. Government employees, and are therefore not eligible for copyright.
#103 - Public Domain image -
By NBC RadioUploaded by We hope at en.wikipedia [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#104 - Public Domain image - This work is in the public domain because it was published in the United States between 1923 and 1963 and although there may or may not have been a copyright notice, the copyright was not renewed. Unless its author has been dead for the required period, it is copyrighted in the countries or areas that do not apply the rule of the shorter term for US works, such as Canada (50 pma), Mainland China (50 pma, not Hong Kong or Macao), Germany (70 pma), Mexico (100 pma), Switzerland (70 pma), and other countries with individual treaties. See Commons:Hirtle chart for further explanation.via Wikimedia Commons
#105 - Public Domain image - By ABC Television (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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