Blast From The Past:
OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1924:
Moses Fleetwood Walker
Moses Fleetwood Walker was an American baseball player, inventor, and author. He is credited by many with being the first African-American to play Major League Baseball. Walker was born in Mount Pleasant, Ohio to a black father and a white mother, something that was very rare in those days if not outright illegal. Walker's dad was the first black physician in the city of Mount Pleasant. Walker also had a brother named Weldy.
Both he and his brother enjoyed a normal life by attending an integrated high school and later enrolling in Oberlin College
and played on the college's first varsity baseball team in the spring of 1881. Walker was a star catcher for Oberlin.
He was later recruited by the University of Michigan and played varsity baseball for Michigan in 1882. It was here that the young Walker experienced his first mistreatment based on his skin color when he was refused service at a hotel and white players refused to play against him. This was the beginning of Jim Crow separate but equal. He probably wasn't quite sure how to handle it.
In 1884 Toledo joined the American Association, which was a Major League at that time in competition with the National League. Walker made his Major League debut on May 1 against the Louisville Eclipse. His brother, Weldy Walker, later joined him on the team, playing in six games. The Walker brothers are the first known African Americans to play baseball in the Major Leagues.
Listen to this excellent example of teamwork by Walker's teammates: "Walker was the best catcher I ever worked with, but I disliked a Negro, and whenever I had to pitch to him I used to pitch anything I wanted without looking at his signals." Of course, you can imagine with an attitude like that, the team didn't do very well.
The color line was officially being drawn and wouldn't be erased until Jackie Robinson arrived on the scene.
But baseball wasn't the only thing this man knew how to do; he was also a successful businessman. Walker purchased the Union Hotel in Steubenville, Ohio. Seeing that moving pictures could be very attractive, Walker bought a theater in nearby Cadiz. Walker applied for patents on several inventions for moving-picture equipment and even published a weekly newspaper. Also in 1891, Walker received patents for an exploding artillery shell.
At one point in Walker's life, he was attacked by a group of white men who tried to kill him, but in defending himself he stabbed and killed one of them. Walker escaped with his life and was later arrested and put on trial. Walker was charged with second-degree murder and claimed self-defense.
He was acquitted of all charges on June 3, 1891, by an all-white jury, which is amazing considering the racist environment he lived. Either the white guy he killed was a complete scumbag that was hated even by his fellow whites or Walker was very well liked in the community for that to happen.
The Cleveland Gazette reported, "When the verdict was announced the courthouse was thronged with spectators, who received it with a tremendous roar of cheers... Walker is the hero of the hour."
Walker believed because of racism that blacks should move to Africa. He felt that integration would never work, being a living example of that belief. He warned:
"The Negro race will be a menace and the source of discontent as long as it remains in large numbers in the United States. The time is growing very near when the whites of the United States must either settle this problem by deportation or else be willing to accept a reign of terror such as the world has never seen in a civilized country."
Moses Fleetwood Walker deserves to go down in history as a trailblazer for the Negro cause. He was raised by educated parents who wanted the best for him by making sure he received a good education. It paid off for him because even though his sports career didn't take off like I'm sure he had hoped, he had his education to fall back on, becoming a very successful businessman in Ohio.
He was a positive role model to other blacks watching at that time when we didn't have many role models. His actions still inspires us to this day. We would like to take this opportunity to say thanks, and award Moses with the 1924 Hamite Award which is given to exemplary individuals who have excelled beyond expectations in a very adverse racial climate.
Moses Fleetwood Walker died on May 11, 1924, in Cleveland, Ohio.
Moses Fleetwood Walker
Top row left: black baseball player Moses Fleetwood Walker.
Walker remained in Syracuse until the team released him in August 1889.
Shortly after, the American Association and the National League both unofficially banned
African-American players, making the adoption of Jim Crow in baseball complete.
Baseball would remain segregated until 1946 when Jackie Robinson
"broke the color barrier" in professional baseball.
|How were blacks feeling in 1924?
It would be so lovely to just once hear a story about a black person that doesn't involve racism.
It's a part of each, and every black people live in America and proves how prevalent racism is.
We don't have to feel real American stories to tell like other races of people that don't involve hate by whites against us.
Since freedom from slavery, we haven't had a chance to breathe.
For the year 1924:
- DeHart Hubbard was the first African-American to win individual Olympic gold medal.
| Sports in 1924 |
- The 1924 Colored World Series was a best-of-nine match-up between the Negro National League champion Kansas City Monarchs and the Eastern Colored League champion Hilldale. In a ten-game series, the Monarchs narrowly defeated Hilldale 5 games to 4, with one tie game. Five members of the Baseball Hall of Fame participated in the series: Biz Mackey, Judy Johnson, and Louis Santop played for Hilldale, while Bullet Rogan and José Méndez played for the Monarchs. In addition, Monarchs owner J.L. Wilkinson was also inducted into the Hall.
- 1924 - DeHart Hubbard was the first African American to win an Olympic gold medal, in the long jump at the Paris games.
- Robert L. "Bob" Douglas founded the New York Renaissance basketball team. Nicknamed the "Father of Black Professional Basketball", Douglas owned and coached the Rens from 1923 to 1949, guiding them to a 2,318-381 record (.859). He was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame as a contributor in 1972, the first African American enshrined.
- Rube Foster organized the Negro National League, the first long-lasting professional league for African-American ballplayers, which operated from 1920 to 1931. He is known as the "father of Black Baseball."
Foster adopted his longtime nickname, "Rube", as his official middle name later in life.
| 1924 Colored World Series |
| Kansas City Monarchs||6||0||6||3||3||6||4||3 ||3||5||5 |
|Hilldale Club ||2||11||6||4||5||5||3||2 ||5||0||4|
|* indicates extra innings|
Location: Philadelphia: Baker Bowl (1,2)
Baltimore: Maryland Baseball Park (3,4)
Kansas City: Muehlebach Field (5,6,7)
Chicago: Schorling Park (8,9,10)
Managers: Kansas City: José Méndez
Hilldale: Frank Warfield
Dates: October 3–20
Hall of Famers: Kansas City: José Méndez (mgr.), Bullet Rogan,
Hilldale: Judy Johnson, Biz Mackey,
| Political Scene in 1924 |
- Republican John Calvin Coolidge was the 30th President of the United States (1923–1929) A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics, eventually becoming governor of that state.
Analysis: John Calvin Coolidge probably came as close in character
to Abraham Lincoln than any other President. This man had compassion, common sense and was a great motivator. He wanted all Americans to get along. At the beginning of his term, he had the blacks pumped up with his beautiful speeches, saying everything they wanted to hear. Consider one of John Calvin Coolidge's speeches:
The propaganda of prejudice and hatred which sought to keep the men of color from supporting the national cause completely failed. The black man showed himself the same kind of citizen, moved by the same kind of patriotism, as the white man. They were tempted, but not one betrayed his country. ... They came home with many decorations, and their conduct repeatedly won high commendation from both American and European commanders. ... No part of the community responded more willingly, more generously, more unqualifiedly, to the demand for individual extraordinary exertion, than did the members of the Negro race. Whether in the military service or in the large mobilization of industrial resources which the war required, the black person did his part precisely as did the white man. He drew no color line when patriotism made its call upon him. He gave precisely as his white fellow citizens gave, to the limit of resources and abilities, to help the general cause. Thus the American black person established his right to the gratitude and appreciation which the Nation has been glad to accord.
Dang, almost brought tears to my eyes. Finally a president who can feel our pain!!! Mr. Coolidge was a President who knew little about Negroes and the problems they were facing. He surrounded himself with black advisors who were actually out of touch with the black community and were only interested in patronage jobs for their following. These black advisors would give him bad advice, one, in particular, was William H. Lewis, who had attended Amherst College the same time as Coolidge. Lewis told the President to 'play politics' with W.E.B. Dubois, offering him a high political position so Dubois would write favorably about him. Dubois recognized the 'political play' and declined the offer. Another example was Jay Scott who later became the most influential Afro-American political adviser to the President. During all the time he spent with Coolidge he only brought up segregation and the lynching issue a couple of occasions. But he did assist in getting funding Howard University and other acts that benefited blacks. But how can I put this in a way that doesn't sound ungrateful for what he did do? His help, though appreciated was primarily cosmetic. He ended up letting down many blacks. The fact that he got bad advice from questionable black leaders doesn't matter. I'm sure he got bad advice from white advisors from time to time, but he still went on to get the job done. Black voters who had voted Republican since Lincoln began to give second thoughts of remaining loyal to a party who refused to offer real concrete help and reform in a racist society. Sorry, John Calvin Coolidge. I think you were sincere, but there was not enough motivation to match your excellent speeches. I was pulling for you, but history proves that you didn't tackle Negro issues like Abe Lincoln did.
HOW LONG WILL WHITE-AMERICANS |
SIT ON THE FENCE?
The purpose of this feature is to arrive at an honest and reliable answer how white Americans feel about black citizens. What better way to accomplish this than to examine its past leaders who represented the communities they served. The three greatest Presidents in American history are revisited for their treatment of black people. Their actions or inactions will without a doubt give us a clue.
George Washington is considered the Father of our country. His contemporaries which included men such as John Adams, John Dickinson, and Willam Whipple just to name a few disliked slavery. Whipple, who was a signer of the Declaration couldn't bring himself to sign the document without first freeing his slave and Dickinson did the same. These men, among others, sincerely believed in the principle that all men are created equal and have the right to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
Another of Washington's contemporaries was British author Thomas Day who made the following comment about America's founders:
"If there be an object truly ridiculous in nature, it is an American patriot, signing resolutions of independency with the one hand, and with the other brandishing a whip over his affrighted slaves."
While the Declaration was being created and debated most founders were content in sweeping the slave issue under the rug by leaving out much mention of black slaves because many of them were slaveholders themselves and figured this would make them look like hypocrites.
During the war, the colonist and British actively sought and recruited black slaves to fight and promised freedom after the victory. It's well recorded that slaves fought with courage and valor that ensured American success. George Washington himself remarked in writing:
Washington wrote a letter to Colonel Henry Lee III stating that success in the war would come to whatever side could arm the blacks the fastest.
But after victory, America didn't keep its promises, and most blacks were forced back into slavery. Of course, George Washington had to know about this but did nothing. Washington had many slaves himself and didn't want to free them and damage his financial stake. History shows he put money interests ahead of principle. Washington was a brilliant soldier but failed as an upholder of truth and justice. As a leader, Washington's inaction would set the tone for future race relations in our country.
Washington had trivialized the principle of human rights for black people, the very complaint the Patriots had against England and the reason the war was fought. It's sad to say, but Washington didn't stay in the truth, but at least the British kept their promise by shipping the many blacks who fought on their side to Sierra Leone Africa and Nova Scotia for a new life.
In contrast to George Washington, Abraham Lincoln evidently didn't share Washington's view of the principles this country was founded. Lincoln was an ardent lover of truth and democracy. He took pride in doing the right thing. We must be honest in saying Lincoln had adamant opinions how he felt about black people personally. He would go on to make the following quotes;
"As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this to the extent of the difference, is no democracy."
"I have no purpose to introduce political and social equality between the white and the black races.... But I hold that ... there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
"Nearly eighty years ago we began by declaring that all men are created equal; but now from that beginning, we have run down to the other declaration, that for some men to enslave others is a "sacred right of self-government." Our republican robe is soiled and trailed in the dust.… Let us repurify it. Let us re-adopt the Declaration of Independence, and with it, the practices, and policy, which harmonize with it.… If we do this, we shall not only have saved the Union: but we shall have saved it, as to make, and keep it, forever worthy of the saving."
Now it's very clear from the many negative comments Abraham Lincoln made against black people he wasn't likely to have them over for dinner or have any other social interaction. But if living in our day would have probably changed his views. He was well known for his ability to adapt. So why was he a great President?
Because even though Lincoln felt blacks were not equal, he still felt they should be able to enjoy all the rights a white person did. HOW COURAGEOUS! Lincoln went against the grain and chose to institute the Emancipation Proclamation which freed the slaves and Reconstruction Acts that would eventually give blacks citizenship and the right to vote.
Lincoln understood what every single President in American history ignored, and that the most important thing for America to keep sacred was upholding the principles of human rights and equality for all. Something that had never been accomplished in any government of humankind's history. Throughout the years all U.S. Presidents bowed down to racist white power and sold out these principles.
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
During the Roosevelt administration, America would proclaim itself a moral leader of the entire world for human rights and democracy.
Without a doubt, this opened the door for the advancement of black people. This was when The Black Cabinet who were an informal group of African-American public policy advisors to the President came into existence, an accomplishment unheard of up until that time.
Roosevelt also issued Executive Order 8802, which created the Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC) which was the most significant federal move in support of the rights of African-Americans between Reconstruction and the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The President's order stated that the federal government would not hire any person based on their race, color, creed, or national origin. Millions of blacks and women achieved better jobs and better pay as a result.
In 1942, at Eleanor's instigation, Roosevelt met with a delegation of African-American leaders, who demanded full integration into the armed forces, including the right to serve in combat roles and the Navy, the Marine Corps and the United States Army Air Forces. Roosevelt agreed, but then did nothing to implement his promise.
Roosevelt also had a Vice President named Henry Wallace who was a true lover of democracy, justice, and liberty for all. Wallace was a different breed of people of his day because he believed all races were equal in America and weren't afraid to voice this. But sadly, Roosevelt didn't support Wallace as Vice President for his final term in office choosing instead go with Harry Truman who as a younger man once voiced how he felt about non-whites:
"I think one man is as good as another as long as he's decent and honest and not a nigger or a Chinaman. The Lord made the man out of dust, the nigger from mud and threw up what was left to create the Chinaman."
Roosevelt was a mixed bag when it came to upholding the principles the nation was founded. For example, there were black leaders during his administration who petitioned the United Nations with the declaration of Genocide that the government was committing against blacks. Roosevelt failed to see the importance of being proactive in upholding the principles of the Declaration of Independence for all citizens.
What can we learn from these three great men?
The one most important observation is there weren't any of these Presidents who sincerely liked black people, and throughout the years America's white citizens haven't been any different.
The honest truth is whites don't care for blacks as brothers, and historically blacks have been unable to figure out why. Black people view themselves as Americans and don't understand why they can't be looked upon and treated the same as an Irish American, Italian American, English American, Polish American, etc. and are always seeking inclusion as one big happy American family which makes total sense but sad to say many whites can't see beyond color (which represents advantage) even in this day and age.
When it's all said and done racism exist because of money and pride. Just imagine if every single black person in America was a millionaire and lacked for nothing and controlled the purse strings with all white people in extreme poverty begging and eating out of garbage cans. This would eliminate the bulk of racism because whites wouldn't have any power.
Money=power, but money doesn't have to equal hate, it what the one with the power chooses to do with it. This is where pride comes in because all racist feel they are special people and their way of doing things is the best way, the superior way and the only way as far as they are concerned. People have the power to opt for love, but always choose selfishness and hate.
Because of this, America has never been the one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all we see on television, and being the father of our country, George Washington started these false beliefs and practices.
White citizens today are not much different than these three past Presidents and through the years have become three classes:
(1) George Washington class: This shortsighted and selfish class puts money and greed interest ahead of principle that would promote peace and harmony for the whole.
(2) Abraham Lincoln class: This class puts the welfare of whole first and recognizes this earth doesn't belong to one single group of people and must be truthfully shared equitably.
(3) Franklin D. Roosevelt class: This class hopes for the best but won't lift a finger in achieving that. This class straddles the fence and can sympathize with both the Washington and the Lincoln class. They are wishy-washy and travels where the winds blow them.
It's important to remember that all three classes don't particularity like blacks and have minimal association with them if any, and this is said because even today it's rare for the races to mingle and when they do can be uncomfortable in a social setting, how ridiculous! The race with the power is the only one that can change this for the better. It's that simple.
In a sense, Washington created the blueprint for a distorted and false view of American principles that became the norm in much of America's dealings with black people. Abraham Lincoln tried to do away with this damaging logic and desired America to live up to the principles it was founded and died for his beliefs. Roosevelt dabbled on either side by sitting on the fence of inaction and did little for principle because being partakers of a privileged life was more advantageous to his class.
The danger of this, of course, was that in continuing to undermine principle, the prospect would exist of being faced with an America that wouldn't be recognizable. Lincoln was the only President to understand and appreciate this danger.
“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise
So has America changed, if yes, what has she become?
Good question, but you must answer yourself.
But there are many more questions that need to be answered. Because of the folly of greed and racism and lack of action to speak out by the real Americans, has this country morphed into another form of power that is completely different than it started out? Has it become like an insatiable, greedy, detestable and ugly monster without a soul or conscience?
SOUTHERN HATE if I said it once I must say it again, these people ain't normal!|
The Civil War Is Over, Why Do You Still Hate Me So Much Man?
There were over 179,000 black soldiers who fought in the Civil War for their freedom and the right to become American citizens. Many brave souls died. They thought once it was over things would be better for the colored people. But it wasn't and especially in the South.
What the HELL! Why do these southern whites hate blacks so much and fight against our pursuit of happiness at every turn? They ain't normal, and surely not American, because if they were they would believe all are created equal, which is what our country was founded on.
Southern whites had enjoyed a lifestyle much better than their ancestors before them. Before arriving in America, most white immigrants were destitute and severely oppressed by their governments. Many were uneducated peasants and serfs not much better off than a black slave. When they finally encountered blacks in America, they showed little empathy toward them.
No longer on the bottom rung of the ladder of humanity, these white immigrants would also proclaim themselves superior and joined the higher class of whites in dominating blacks unmercifully for many years. Whites as a group was happy as a lark even the not so intelligent ones.
The North understood slavery to be a temporary situation, but in contrast Southern whites viewed it as a permanent institution that should be expanded into new territories that hadn't been admitted to the union yet. Stop the Slave Power at all cost was the North's goal. This reason the Civil War started, not because Abraham Lincoln had this burning desire to free the slaves.
Before the war, southern whites grew very comfortable with their lifestyle and after losing it blamed blacks for everything. Many were brilliant and proud people. Now can you imagine proud, intelligent white people who had dominated blacks for hundreds of years, and faced with the possibility of black equality and being governed by the same individuals they mistreated and spit on and looked upon as ignorant savage beast?
They viciously fought against equality for black people at every turn and opportunity. They considered themselves true Sons of the South, do or die.
They had to feel like the North was punishing and embarrassing them by giving blacks American citizenship and the right to vote. Southern whites would kill many blacks for what they perceived as upholding their honor. What did the North do? They made a show of attempting to help black people, but in the end, that's all it was a show. In reality, they used blacks as a pawn to teach the South a lesson in hopes that one day the southern faithful would reconcile their hearts to the Union of America as one big happy white American family.
Cab Calloway, who wrote a Hepster's dictionary about the language of jive.
|sLANG tALK in 1924 |
- Jive talk - harlmese speech, slang talking
- Bringer-Downer - a disappointment
- Alligator - a devotee of jazz or swing music
- Chops - refers to any musician's level of ability
- Frail - a noun for any hepster woman
- G-man - government man, especially one harasses people
- Gage - marijuana, particularly associated with Louis Armstrong
- Gate - any man, usually used as a greeting
- Hep - in the know, hip
- Hep cat - smart and knowledgeable person, also hipster
- High - happy, content, mellow
- Hoochie Coocher - hot woman who dances laying down
- Hoochie coochie - sexy dance
- Jeff - opposite of hep; unhip, uncool
- Jitterbug - a dance created in the 1920s and 1930s
- Light up - to light a stick of T or reefer
- Lid - a Prince Albert tobacco can filled to the lid
- Man! - commonly used as an interjection or for emphasis
- Mighty Mezz - an expertly rolled joint
- Mop - woman, often meaning another hepster's girlfriend
- Ofay - police
- Puff - to smoke weed
- Stick of tea - joint, reefer, left-handed cigarette
- Zoot suit - suits popular with dancers of the swing era
The Homesteader (1919) is a lost black-and-white silent race film by African American
author and filmmaker Oscar Micheaux. This is a newspaper advert for the film.
Movies in America
Actress Evelyn Preer
American film director Oscar Micheaux
Actress Rose McClendon
| Movies in 1924 |
- Evelyn Preer was a pioneering African-American stage and screen actress and blues singer of the 1910s through the early 1930s. Preer was regarded by many as the greatest actress of her time and was known within the black community as "The First Lady of the Screen"
- 1924 - Oscar Micheaux was an African-American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 films. The first of which was released in 1919 called The Homesteader which was met with critical and commercial success.
Trivia: Image is everything and Oscar recognized that fact. Up unto the time, he began producing movies; the black person was portrayed as lazy, low morals, thieves, dishonest savage people you couldn't trust. Well guess what? Oscar changed all of that with his movies. He put positive role models on the silver screen and finally the world was able to see the black person in their true light, as intelligent, well to do honest people, hard working, industrious human beings who loved their families. Oscar was a critical aspect of active Negro development in this country. Are we continuing to lift the image of our people in this country today?
- African American Charles Sidney Gilpin became one of the most highly regarded actors of the 1920s. In 1920 he was the first black American to receive the Drama League of New York's annual award, as one of the ten people who had done the most that year for American theater.
- 1920s - Rose McClendon was a leading African-American Broadway actress of the 1920s. McClendon was a contemporary of Paul Robeson, Ethel Barrymore, Lynn Fontanne and Langston Hughes.
Dinah Washington earned 27 R&B top 10 hits, making her one of the most popular and successful singers.
| Famous Birthdays in 1924 |
- January 10, 1924 - Max Roach, drummer, and composer.
- January 22, 1924 - James Louis "J. J." Johnson, jazz trombonist, composer and arranger.
- February 8, 1924 - Joseph Black was an American right-handed pitcher in Negro League and Major League Baseball for the Brooklyn Dodgers, Cincinnati Redlegs, and Washington Senators who became the first black pitcher to win a World Series game, in 1952.
- March 27, 1924 - Harold Nicholas dancer, actor.
- March 27, 1924 - Sarah L Vaughan was an American jazz singer, described by music critic Scott Yanow as having "one of the most wondrous voices of the 20th century.
- April 17, 1924 - Althea T L Simmons human rights activist.
- April 18, 1924 - Clarence "Gatemouth" Brown blues singer.
- April 21, 1924 - Clara Ward was an American gospel artist who achieved great artistic and commercial success in the 1940s and 1950s, as leader of The Famous Ward Singers.
- April 22, 1924 - George "Harmonica" Smith was an American electric blues harmonica player.
- May 1, 1924 - Patricia Roberts Harris first US black woman cabinet member.
- May 10, 1924 – Teddy Riley jazz trumpeter.
- July 8, 1924 - Johnnie Johnson blues musician.
- August 2, 1924 - James Arthur Baldwin was an American novelist, essayist, playwright, poet, and social critic.
- September 15, 1924 - Bobby Short was an American cabaret singer and pianist.
- August 29, 1924 - Dinah Washington singer and pianist.
- September 26, 1924 - Lammar Wright, Jr. jazz trumpeter.
- October 24, 1924 - Graham Brown was an American actor best known for his work in the theatre.
- October 27, 1924 - Ruby Dee was a very popular actress.
- November 30, 1924 - Shirley Chisholm was the first black congresswoman.
- December 31, 1924 - Wilbur Harden jazz trumpeter, flugelhornist and composer.
Frazier Boutelle, 1870
Moses Fleetwood Walker
| Famous Deaths in 1924 |
- February 12, 1924 - Frazier Augustus Boutelle served in the US Army for 57 years, fighting in the Civil War and the Indian Wars and working as a recruiter in World War I. In 1889-1890 he was Superintendent of Yellowstone National Park.
- March 5, 1924 - Isaiah Montgomery was the son of Ben Montgomery, and the founder of Mound Bayou, Mississippi. Soon elected mayor, he was an active politician, even participating in the 1890 Mississippi state constitutional convention which disfranchised black voters.
- March 13, 1924 - Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin was an African-American publisher, journalist, civil rights leader, suffragist, and editor of Women’s Era, the first newspaper published by and for African-American women.
- May 11, 1924 - Moses Fleetwood "Fleet" Walker was an American baseball player, inventor, and author. He is credited by some with being the first African American to play Major League Baseball.
- May 20, 1924 - William Francis Yardley was an American attorney, politician and civil rights advocate, operating primarily out of Knoxville, Tennessee, in the late 19th century. He is believed to have been the first African-American attorney to argue a case before the Tennessee Supreme Court.
- August 7, 1924 - John Edward Bruce, also known as Bruce Grit or J. E. Bruce-Grit born a slave in Maryland, United States, became a journalist, historian, writer, orator, civil rights activist and Pan-African nationalist.
- 1924 - Black Benny was a New Orleans-based bass drummer.
- 1924 - William H. Tyers was a prominent musician among the new generation of black musicians and performers.
- 1924 - Oliver Lewis was an African-American jockey in Thoroughbred horse racing. In 1875, Lewis rode in the very first Kentucky Derby on the winning horse, Aristides. Lewis and Aristides took second place in the Belmont Stakes, which is now the third race of the Triple Crown.
- 1924 - Charles Octavius Boothe was a pastor at the First Colored Baptist Church, in Meridian, Mississippi, and the Dexter Avenue Church in Montgomery, AL.
Florence Cole Talbert-McCleave
Adelaide Louise Hall
| Famous Weddings in 1924 |
- February 5, 1924 - Louis Armstrong marries pianist and composer Lil Hardin.
- 1924 - Actress and singer Evelyn Preer marries Edward Thompson.
- 1924 - Singer Florence Cole Talbert-McCleave marries William P. Talbert.
- 1924 - Singer Adelaide Louise Hall marries Bertram Errol Hicks.
| Famous Divorces in 1924 |
- 1924 - Jack Johnson and Lucille Cameron were divorced.
Cotton Club on 125th Street in New York City
Cotton Club dancer Mildred Dixon - Duke Ellington's wife
|It's a Party in 1924 |
- 1923 - the Cotton Club on 142nd St & Lenox Ave in the heart of Harlem, New York was operated by white New York gangster Owney Madden. Madden used the Cotton Club as an outlet to sell his “#1 Beer” to the prohibition crowd. Although the club was briefly closed several times in the 1920s for selling alcohol, the owners’ political connections allowed them to always reopen quickly. The club was a whites-only establishment even though it featured many of the best black entertainers of the era.
- Back in the early 1900s because of prejudice and racial discrimination, black entertainers had to be very careful where they traveled. They weren't always welcome in various venues, so they created what's called a Chitlin Circuit. They named it Chitlin Circuit because of blacks typical love for soul food with chitlins being near the top as favorite. So, in other words, they understood there would be love on the circuit. They knew that the clubs, juke joints, theaters, etc. in the circuit were welcoming of the black race and safe to visit. This way of life existing from the early 1900s - 1960s. Noted theaters and entertainers on the circuit included:
The Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Cotton Club, Small's Paradise and the Apollo Theater in New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.;the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.
Early figures of blues, including Robert Johnson, Son House, Charley Patton, and countless others, traveled the juke joint circuit, scraping out a living on tips and free meals. These entertainers provided much-needed joy and happiness for black folks. Once the band's gig was over, they would leave for the next stop on the circuit. Sounds like a lot of fun and an exciting life!
Many notable performers worked on the chitlin' circuit, including Patti LaBelle, Count Basie, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, Sam Cooke, Jackie Wilson, Sheila Guyse, Peg Leg Bates, The Supremes, George Benson, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Gladys Knight & the Pips, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, The Miracles, Donna Hightower, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Duke Ellington, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Little Richard, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, Tammi Terrell, The Isley Brothers, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Muddy Waters, Flip Wilson and Jimmie Walker.
Florence Cole Talbert-McCleave
Black Swan record label
Thomas "Fats" Waller
| Music in 1924 |
Popular Soul Dances:
- Quality Cafe was a historical restaurant and jazz club located at 1143 East 12th Street near the corner of Central Avenue in Downtown Los Angeles. Quality Four, a jazz quartet founded by saxophonist Paul Howard and featuring young vibraphonist Lionel Hampton, was formed in 1924 to play at Quality Cafe.
- The Breakaway
- The Charleston
- The Black Bottom
- The Foxtrot
Musical Happenings in 1924:
- June 9, 1924 - "Jelly-Roll Blues" is recorded by blues great Jelly Roll Morton.
- September 30, 1924 - Loius Armstrong having left King Oliver's band in Chicago to be replaced by Lee Collins, arrives in New York City.
- October - Loius Armstrong joins Fletcher Henderson's band in New York City upon his wife's insistence. They begin performing at the Roseland Ballroom on 51st street and Broadway in Manhattan. His new style of jazz playing greatly influences the style of other New York musicians such as Coleman Hawkins and Duke Ellington.
- In 1924 in jazz, the improvised solo had become an integral part of most jazz performances. Standards published that year included "Everybody Loves My Baby" and Jelly Roll Morton's "King Porter Stomp". Musicians born in 1924 included the drummer Max Roach and singers Sarah Vaughan and Dinah Washington. In 1924, Leopold Stokowski, the British orchestral conductor of the Philadelphia Orchestra, observed that jazz had "come to stay
- 1924 - Soprano Florence Cole Talbert recorded at least two titles for Paramount Records.
- 1924 - Black Swan Records was a record label founded in 1921 in Harlem, New York. It was the first widely distributed label to be owned and operated by, and marketed to, African Americans. The production company declared bankruptcy in December 1923; and in March 1924 Paramount Records bought the Black Swan label.
- 1924 - The Oklahoma City Blue Devils was the premier Southwest territory jazz band in the 1920s. Originally called Billy King's Road Show, it disbanded in Oklahoma City in 1925 where Walter Page renamed it. The name Blue Devils came from the name of a gang of fence cutters operating during the early days of the American West.
- 1924 - Ma Rainey becomes a wildly popular blues singer across the country, with her band the Jazz Wild Cats.
- 1924 - James P. Johnson's musical Runnin' Wild introduces the Charleston dance.
- 1920s - "Fats" Waller was an important contributor to the popular stride piano style.
Hi there, I'm Annie.
Thanks for viewing my collection of wonderful soul-food dishes that my amazing ancestors cooked, and more than likely yours did too.
We didn't have much of anything back in the day and had to live off the scraps we were given. But like a famous rapper once said in his songs, we knew how to "make a dollar out of 15 cents" Enjoy.
Sweet Potatoes / Yams
Rice and Beans
Fish and Chips
Biscuits and Gravy
(images - https://pixabay.com/)
| Southern Cooking - Soul Food |
Have you ever wondered what African-Americans ate back in the day? Well, maybe we can help you with that. We've found the oldest known black cookbook to date.
This cookbook was written by an actual former slave woman that had once lived on a plantation, but gained her freedom with the Emancipation Proclamation moving from Mobile, Alabama to San Francisco, California where she published an entirely excellent collection of 160 authentic and tasty recipes of the Old South entitled;
"What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking"
This book is indeed a rare gemstone with tons of actual recipes that black folks enjoyed back in the day, but Mrs. Fisher cooking wasn't limited to blacks only, many whites also loved her delicious recipes and persuaded her to make a cookbook.
Here is just a sample of some of the southern foods mentioned in her book, and by the way, it wasn't called soul-food until the 1960's.
- Maryland Beat Biscuit
- Cream Cake
- Flannel Cakes
- Sallie Lund
- Egg Corn Bread
- Plantation Corn Bread
- Light Bread
- Lamb or Mutton Chops
- Pork Steak or Chops
- Ginger Cookies
- Sweet Wafers
Pickels, Sauces Etc.
- Sweet Cucumber Pickles
- Sweet Cucumber Mangoes
- Chow Chow
- Creole Chow Chow
- Cherry Chutney
- Game Sauce
- Compound Tomato
- Sweet Pickle Peaches
- Sweet Pickle Prunes
- Sweet Watermelon Kind Pickle
- Sauce for Boiled Fish or Mutton
- Milanese Sauce
- Sauce for Suet Pudding
- Pastry for making Pies of all kinds
- Preparing the Fruit for Pies
- Lemon Pies
- Cream Apple
- Sweet Potato
- Gooseberry and Cherry
- Light Bread
- Blackberry Roll
- Corn Fritters
Preserves, Spices, ETC.
- Brandy Peaches
- Quince Preserves
- Syrups for Preserves
- Preserved Peaches
- Preserved Pears
- Currant Jelly
- Cranberry Jelly
- Strawberry Jam
- Raspberry and Currant Jam Combined
- Marmalade Peach
- Crab Apple Jelly
- Blackberry Brandy
- Blackberry Syrup for Dysentery in Children
- Preserved Apricots
- Apple Sauce for Roast Pork
- Charlotte Eusse
- Spiced Currants
- Preserved Cherries
- Domestic Duck
- Wild Duck
Soups, Chowders, Etc.
- Calf 's Head
- Mock Turtle
- Green Turtle
- Oyster Gumbo
- Ochra Gumbo
- Old Fashioned Turnip
- Corn and Tomato
- Fish Chowder
- Chicken Gumbo
- Fricassed Chicken
- Fried Chicken
- Chicken fried Steak
- Meat Stews or Entrees
- Ice Cream
- Boiled Turkey
- Beef a la Mode
- Spiced Round
- Hog Maws
- Stuffed Ham
- Lima Beans
- Jumberlie a Creole Dish
- Baked Fish
- Ribs, Beef or Pork
- Boiled Corn
- Peach Cobbler
- Egg Plant Stuffed
- Chitterlings or "Chitlins"
- Corned Beef Hash
- Ladies' Custard
- Tonic Bitters
- Terrapin Stew
- Leaven Biscuit
- Pap for infant Diet
- Sorghum Syrup
- Meringue for Pudding
- Circuit Hash
What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking
Paperback – March, 1995
by Abby Fisher (Author), Karen Hess (Editor)
Southern Jewel Million Dollar Pound Cake
(this recipe is not from Mrs. Fisher cookbook, but has been in Annie's family for generations, it's everyones favorite!)
Butter: 1 pound
Sugar: 3 cups
Milk: 3/4 cup
Cake Flour: 4 cups (Soft as Silk Cake Flour)
Baking Powder: 1 teaspoon
Vanilla Flavor: 1 teaspoon
Lemon Flavor: 1 teaspoon
For best results, leave butter and eggs out overnight
Cream butter well, add sugar and mix until butter and sugar look like whip cream.
Beat each egg individually and then add with sugar and butter, mix well for at least a couple minutes.
Add milk and cake flour a little at a time, then add flavorings.
Spray Pam spray on entire round cake pan, and then add cake batter.
Bake about 1 hour and 15 minutes at 325.
Let cake cool for about 30 minutes, and then remove cake from cake pan.
Women's fashion in 1920s
Women's fashion in 1920s
Men's fashion in 1920s
| Fashions in 1924 |
During the 1920s, the notion of keeping up with fashion trends and expressing oneself through material goods seized middle-class Americans as never before. Purchasing new clothes, new appliances, new automobiles, new anything indicated one's level of prosperity. Being considered old-fashioned, out-of-date, or—worse yet—unable to afford stylish new products was a fate many Americans went to great lengths to avoid.
- During the Harlem Renaissance, Black America’s clothing scene took a dramatic turn from the prim and proper. African-Americans wore clothing that was far from somber. Women were dressed in wide hats garlanded with flowers, modest veils, silk stockings that were held up by garters, open-toed slippers, and the low-slung dress, possibly with a ribbon at the hip. Though the 1920s cloche, a close-fitting number usually made of felt or wool, was extremely popular for casual wear and was worn gaily pulled down over the eyes. Popular by the 1930s was the trendy beret hat with stand-up or egret feather. Men wore zoot suits which were wide-legged, high-waisted, pegged trousers, and a long coat with wide padded shoulders and lapels. They also wore wide-brimmed hats, hand-colored socks, white gloves, and velvet-collared Chesterfield coats. African Americans also expressed respect for their heritage through a style of leopard-skin coats indicating the great power of the infamous African animal.
A young Malcolm X described the zoot suit as: "a killer-diller coat with a drape shape, reet pleats and shoulders padded like a lunatic's cell".
Dang it! We're so Tired of all the Hate|
We can't wait to leave this wicked South,
and make the big bucks in the North!
Will our white American brothers love us there?
What type of employment awaits the Negro in the 1900s?
FSA photo of cropper family chopping the weeds
from cotton near White Plains, in Georgia Postmarked 1912
90% of Negroes still lived in the South up until the late 1910s.
King Cotton was still a big source of income for blacks. These workers were hired as temporary help. Many were tenant farmers, renting a piece of land and some of their tools and supplies, and paying the rent at the end of the growing season with a portion of their harvest. White and black farm laborers were paid comparable wages, and rental rates. Blacks didn't exclusively work in the cotton fields, for example some blacks worked in the Turpentine industry.
"Dipping and scraping pine trees. Turpentine industry in Florida." Postmarked 1912
Whites were much more likely to own land as opposed to blacks. Black children were unlikely to be in school because they helped the parents in the fields to support the family and also because of a lack of good quality schools. Funds that were intended for black schools went to white schools instead in the form of raising teacher salaries and per-pupil funding while reducing class size. Black schools suffered at this expense. Separate but Equal was a big lie, because it was anything but equal.
The government didn't have a special watchdog organization to enforce these racist laws, and the requirement of equality was not enforced. Black children never really had a fair chance.
Boll weevil ruins Cotton Crops in the 1920s
Of course hindsight is 20-20. But wouldn't it have been nice if during slavery someone would have thought to travel to Mexico and bring back the Cotton boll weevil to transplant them into Southern cotton crops?
Cotton boll weevil |
Where were you when we really
needed you, pre-1863?
A little integration of the boll weevil and Mr. King Cotton would have been a good thing for the Negro. We wonder what kind of effect that would have had on chattel slavery?
Well what the heck is a boll weevil?
The boll weevil is a beetle which feeds on cotton buds and flowers. Thought to be native to Central America, it migrated into the United States from Mexico in the late 19th century and had infested all U.S. cotton-growing areas by the 1920s, devastating the industry and the people working in the American south.
Southern blacks were tied to the cotton fields in the early 1900s, but after 1914, many were fed up and wanted to try something new and different. By then they were open for a change because of restrictive Jim Crow laws and the boll weevil destroyed many crops, putting them out of work. They decided to take the plunge, a new and exciting life for them. Their move was called the Great Migration. News had spread to these poor black Southerners about better opportunities in the North, so many of them packed up their belongings and bid farewell to the South, never looking back.
During World War I, blacks were very much desired in the workplace. The United States had a quota for Colored soldiers to enlist for service. Blacks filled the quota very quickly, and many had to be turned back. With white men fighting in the war, this left openings in industry for blacks to fill. How did they do? Employers loved them and wanted more. They proved themselves to be excellent workers. This is probably one of the main reasons for so many riots when the white soldiers returned to America because blacks had taken their jobs. So by the early 1900s, we have proven ourselves to be excellent and courageous soldiers and dependable workers at home.
In other cases, some Negroes were recruited to travel North by agents of the businesses who would pay their fare. In some cases, these poor blacks were tricked into traveling a great distance for jobs only to discover they would be hired as strikebreakers, which was a very dangerous undertaking. Money was better for the Negro in the North, but in many cases, racism persisted with many riots happening. Many unions in the North had explicit rules barring membership by black workers.
Blacks had various successes at different job locations, for example when the auto industry took off, Ford Motor Co. hired many blacks to work in its automobile plant, but other auto plants often excluded them. Jobs were not a certainty for the Negro; he had to stay alerted and knock on many doors. But blacks were making a little advancement, by 1940 there were more than 200,000 African Americans in the CIO, many of them officers of union locals.
A. Philip Randolph|
When the war broke out a very special man by the name of A. Philip Randolph petitioned President Roosevelt for jobs in the Defense plants which previously had been reserved for whites. Randolph had a special card up his sleeve in the form of 100,000 peaceful marchers on Washington to protest if Roosevelt declined.
Roosevelt half-heartedly gave in and created a new program for blacks called the Fair Employment Practice Committee which was designed to monitor the hiring practices of companies. The Committee did accomplish many blacks being hired into the Defense departments at very nice wages but closed down later because of a lack of funding from the U.S. Government.
After World War II, The G.I. Bill which was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans. Benefits included low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a business, cash payments of tuition and living expenses to attend university, high school or vocational education, as well as one year of unemployment compensation was a big boon for whites and was a major factor in the creation of the white American middle class.
But sadly because of racial inequality, many of the benefits of the G.I. bill were not granted to black soldiers. This is because "at the very moment when a wide array of public policies was providing most white Americans with valuable tools to advance their social welfare—insure their old age, get good jobs, acquire economic security, build assets, and gain middle-class status—most black Americans were left behind or left out." It seems like we can get off the ground with these people, but we never give up. Also the black middle class failed to keep pace with the white middle class because blacks had fewer opportunities to earn college degrees.
In time, it became critical to have a college degree, for better pay wages which many whites were now working toward with the help of the G.I. Bill, but blacks were left behind in dying trades or just making it the best way they could because of racial discrimination and National leaders doing absolutely nothing to help.
Once they returned home after the war, blacks faced not only discrimination but also poverty, which confronted most blacks during the 1940s and 1950s and represented another barrier to harnessing the benefits of the G.I. Bill, as poverty made seeking an education problematic to while labor and income were needed at home. Banks and mortgage agencies routinely refused loans to blacks, making the G.I. Bill even less effective for blacks.
In addition to the other obstacles, gaining admission to universities was no easy task for blacks on the G.I. Bill. Most universities had segregationist principles underlying their admissions policies, utilizing either official or unofficial quotas. Those blacks that were prepared for college level work and gained access to predominantly white universities still experienced racism on campus.
During the 70s and 80s, the number of employed blacks increased. The civil rights movement played a huge role in this development. There were heavy gains in blue-collar jobs, such as steel, automobile production, electrical and non-electrical machinery, appliances, food and tobacco manufacturing, and textiles, and also white-collar occupations, where the four major subcategories-professional and technical, managerial and administrative, sales, and clerical increased very sharply.
The black labor force by the late 1990s, approximately sixty percent of these were white-collar sales and clerical personnel; many in this group were non-union workers with limited benefits and wages. However, another twenty percent of the black labor force, nearly three million workers, was classified as professional and technical employees and administrators. The percentage of the black labor force in the blue-collar field declined.
So what type of work did blacks do in the 1900s?
There were black doctors, dentist, newspaper editors, plumbers, mailman, teachers, singers, scientist, athletes, Pullman porters, laborers, politicians, judges, lawyers, mill workers, welders, domestic help, authors, factory workers, customer service, business owners, policemen, firemen, and every other profession you could think of. Sadly, their numbers and presence weren't as high as white Americans because of entrenched discrimination against the black race. It's in the history books, read it for yourself.
Blacks have historically had a harder time than other races being employed in America, ever since emancipation, and for the most part it has to do with racism. We're not fooled into believing any different. But we don't let this stop us and continue to push on. Our amazing journey has had many barriers and roadbloocks every step of the way.
The Fair Employment Practice Committee of the 40s and the Civil Rights movement helped a bit, but after slavery and the following Jim Crow years, racism had become deeply entrenched in the American workforce. It's not out in the open as it was during Jim Crow days but today more subtle and hidden, but just as hurtful, degrading and discouraging. But to our credit, blacks seem always to find a way. Truly remarkable American people, and if it were possible, would make our battered ancestors who sailed deep seas, shout for joy in their graves.
African Americans in the Twentieth Century
African Americans and the G.I. Bill
Blacks in the 1970's
Social and Economic Issues of the 1980s and 1990s
What The Negro Achieved in Industry
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1920s
American jazz violinist Eddie South
with a conk hairdo.
| Our Community in 1924 |
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
- March 4, 1924 - "Happy Birthday To You" was published by Claydon Sunny. Trivia: Many attribute sister singers Patty Hill and Mildred J. Hill in 1893 for creating this very popular song. This is the most recognized song in the world. Mildred Hill, besides being a music teacher also specialized in the study of Negro spirituals.
- April 18, 1924 - The first crossword puzzle book was published by Simon & Schuster.
- June 15, 1924 - Native Americans are proclaimed US citizens. Analysis: Well it's about time, after most of them have died off.
- 1924 - In the 1920s, some believed the conk hairdo served as a rite of passage from adolescence into adulthood for black males. Because of the pain involved in the process, the conk represented masculinity and virility within the community. Many of the popular musicians of the early to mid 20th century, including Chuck Berry, Little Richard, James Brown, and the members of The Temptations and The Miracles, were well known for sporting the conk hairstyle.
- The United States Population is 105,710,620 with a total of 10,463,131 being African Americans.
#100 - Public Domain image - "First colored world series, opening game Oct. 11, 1924, Kansas City, Mo. / photo by J.E. Mille[r], K.C. " LOC states here that there are no restrictions on use of this image, therefore it is PD. Date 11 October 1924 Source Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ppmsca-18576 (digital file from original) LC-USZ62-132218 (b&w film copy neg.) Author J.E. Mille[r], K.C.
#101 - By World-Telegram staff photographer Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
#102 - Public Domain image - By Mills Artists; photographer: James Kriegsmann, New York (eBay item photo) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#103 - Public Domain image -See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#104 - Public Domain image -By J.E. Mille[r], K.C. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#105 - Public Domain image -
See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
If you have any more information about an item you've seen on our website or if you are the copyright owner and believe our website has not properly attributed your work to you or has used it without permission, we want to hear from you. Please email email@example.com with your contact information and a link to the relevant content.