Blast From The Past:
OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1907:
Thornton Blackburn and his wife Lucie were escaped slaves from Louisville, Kentucky. They had been settled in Detroit, Michigan two years when, in 1833, Kentucky slave hunters located, re-captured, and arrested the couple. The Blackburns were jailed but allowed visitors, which provided the opportunity for Lucie to cunningly exchange identities with another woman while she escaped to Essex County, Upper Canada (U.C.).
Thornton's exit was more difficult as he was heavily guarded, bound and shackled. The day before Thornton was to be returned to Kentucky, Detroit's African American community rose up in protest. This couple had to be very well liked in their community to get such strong support. A crowd of some 400 men stormed the jail to free him.
During the commotion that ensued, two individuals called Sleepy Polly and Daddy Walker helped Thornton escape by tricking a posse in believing Thornton was traveling in a horse-cart they had stopped just outside of city limits, but by then Thorton's rescuers had him another route, making it to the south of the town and boarding a boat to safety with his wife in Essex County, Upper Canada (U.C.).
Thornton's escape caused a 2-day riot, with the sheriff being fatally wounded resulting in the U.S. government to form the first ever Riot Commission. Once in Essex County, Thornton was jailed briefly, while a formal request for his return was issued by the Michigan territorial governor. A reply came from the Lieutenant-Governor of U.C., Major-General Sir John Colborne, who refused extradition to the United States, noting that a person could not steal himself. Way to go Canada!
Thornton eventually reunited with his wife Lucie in the newly incorporated City of Toronto, arriving in 1834, where he worked as a waiter at Osgoode Hall. Though illiterate, he saw the need for a taxi service, so obtained blueprints for a cab from Montreal, and commissioned its construction.
By 1837, he had it: a red and yellow box cab named "The City," drawn by a single horse, and able to carry four passengers, with a driver in a box at the front, which he, himself, would operate. It became the nucleus of a taxicab company, the city's first, a successful venture that had others soon following his example.
Taxi cabs first made their appearance in New York in the year 1907. This is the reason we chose this year to award Thornton Blackburn with the 1907 Hamite Award. This man couldn't even read and write and looked how much he accomplished with his big dreams. Just think if he would have had a level playing field.
There are much more examples of black people of that day just like Thornton Blackburn who was a real inspiration to all Americans. Wouldn't his life make a great Hollywood movie? Maybe get Danny Glover to play his role.
Thornton died February 26, 1890, leaving an estate of $18,000 and six properties, and is buried at Toronto's Necropolis Cemetery. Lucie died five years later, on Feb. 6, 1895.
End of the 19th century taxi cab |
Drawing of a hansom cab
|How were blacks feeling in 1907?
People are still slowly but surely leaving the South for better opportunities in the North. They have much industrial work and need labor badly. They offer jobs to local whites first, then the immigrants from various countries and then the lowly black person has to take the leftovers. But as long as it's steady, we will do what we have to survive.
We heard the Europeans are doing the same things in Africa, that they did to the American Negro, with the scramble for Africa that began some years ago. It seems like whites have a natural aggression and hate of humanity to dominate peaceful people such as the Africans and then justify it with the bible. The Bible was written for everyone to read and follow, and even though the black person was behind in that regard, because of being illiterate, we now recognized it as the source of truth. When in Africa our ancestors sincerely believed in magic as religion, and still do to this day.
An example of that is The Maji Maji Rebellion which ended this year. It was triggered by a German policy designed to force the indigenous population to grow cotton for export and lasted from 1905 to 1907. A spirit medium named Kinjikitile Ngwale claimed to be possessed by a snake spirit called Hongo. Ngwale began calling himself Bokero and developed a belief that the East Africans had been expected to eliminate the Germans.
He gave his followers War medicine that would turn German bullets into water. This "war medicine" was, in fact, water (major in Kiswahili) mixed with castor oil and millet seeds. Empowered with this new liquid, Bokero's followers began what would become known as the Maji Maji Rebellion. This spirit medium told the warriors the bullets would not hurt them, and what was the result?
The Rebellion left tens or even hundreds of thousands of African people dead. Living here in America we now realize how foolish these witch doctors are, education is the key and helped to shed light on that.
For the year 1907:
- Alain Locke a Harvard graduate, becomes the first African-American Rhodes Scholar.
- Rev. Robert Josias Morgan was the first African-American Greek Orthodox priest and missionary in America.
The 26th President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt standing next to the elephant
he shot on safari. Roosevelt and his companions killed or trapped approximately 11,400
animals, from insects and moles to hippopotamuses and elephants. The 1000 large animals
included 512 big game animals, including six rare White rhinos. It took years to mount them all.
| Political Scene in 1907 |
- Theodore Roosevelt became the 26th President of the United States after the assassination of William McKinley. Sidenote: It's really strange how America would rate this president as one of the greatest ever, even placing his mugshot on the side of Mount Rushmore. Well from a Negro perspective Mr. Theodore Roosevelt didn't measure up in the least.
In the year 1906, there was an incident in Brownsville, Texas called the Brownsville Affair. It was a racial incident that arose out of tensions between black soldiers and white citizens in Brownsville, Texas, in 1906. When a white bartender was killed and a police officer wounded by gunshot, townspeople accused the members of the 25th Infantry Regiment, a unit of Buffalo Soldiers stationed at nearby Fort Brown. Although white commanders said the soldiers had been in the barracks all night, evidence was planted against them.
What did Roosevelt do about this matter? He ordered the dishonorable discharge of 167 soldiers of the 25th Infantry Regiment, costing them pensions and preventing them from serving in civil service jobs. Some of these men had served their country for over 20 years and were close to retirement. Roosevelt didn't even give them due process. A renewed investigation in the early 1970s exonerated the discharged black troops. The government pardoned them and restored their records to show honorable discharges but did not provide retroactive compensation. But the damage was already done. ABSOLUTELY SHAMEFUL, FROM THE TOP DOWN
Another incident that gives up a look into the character of this President was shortly after entering office Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington to dinner at the White House, but got bitter resentment from the South, and guessed what? Yes, that was the last invite Washington received from Roosevelt. He was a passive sort. He admitted that the South made a huge mistake with the slave trade because America has a huge population of black people and his wise words of wisdom were:
I have not been able to think out any solution of the terrible problem offered by the presence of the Negro on this continent, but of one thing I am sure, and that is that inasmuch as he is here and can neither be killed nor driven away, the only wise and honorable and Christian thing to do is to treat each black man and each white man strictly on his merits as a man, giving him no more and no less than he shows himself worthy to have.
Did he mean that if the black person could be killed or driven away, it would be a preferable option for America to use? I don't know; maybe I understood him the wrong way. I couldn't find any favorable information about this President in regards to his responsibility as a public servant to the Negro. He will just pass this ever-growing problem to the next President. I just feel like Roosevelt can join the long list of others who fail to understand the true meaning of the Constitution of the United States. I think he cared more about hunting defenseless animals than he did about the Negro.
HOW LONG WILL WHITE-AMERICANS |
SIT ON THE FENCE?
To arrive at an honest and reliable answer how whites honestly feel today about black citizens in America what better way than to examine its past leaders. The three greatest Presidents in American history are revisited for their treatment of black people. Their actions or inactions has without a doubt aided in creating the racial climate we live in today.
George Washington is considered the Father of our country. His contemporaries which included men such as John Adams, John Dickinson, and Willam Whipple just to name a few disliked slavery. Whipple, who was a signer of the Declaration couldn't bring himself to sign the document without first freeing his slave and Dickinson did the same. These men, among others, sincerely believed in the principle that all men are created equal and have the right to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
Another of Washington's contemporaries was British author Thomas Day who made the following comment about America's founders:
"If there be an object truly ridiculous in nature, it is an American patriot, signing resolutions of independency with the one hand, and with the other brandishing a whip over his affrighted slaves."
While the Declaration was being created and debated most founders were content in sweeping the slave issue under the rug by leaving out much mention of black slaves because many of them were slaveholders themselves and figured this would make them look like hypocrites.
During the war, the colonist and British actively sought and recruited black slaves to fight and promised freedom after the victory. It's well recorded that slaves fought with courage and valor that ensured American success. George Washington himself remarked in writing:
Washington wrote a letter to Colonel Henry Lee III stating that success in the war would come to whatever side could arm the blacks the fastest.
But after victory, America didn't keep its promises, and most blacks were forced back into slavery. Of course, George Washington had to know about this but did nothing. Washington had many slaves himself and didn't want to free them and damage his financial stake. History shows he put money interests ahead of principle. Washington was a brilliant soldier but failed as an upholder of truth and justice. As a leader, Washington's inaction would set the tone for future race relations in our country.
Washington had trivialized the principle of human rights for black people, the very complaint the Patriots had against England and the reason the war was fought. It's sad to say, but Washington didn't stay in the truth, but at least the British kept their promise by shipping the many blacks who fought on their side to Sierra Leone Africa and Nova Scotia for a new life.
In contrast to George Washington, Abraham Lincoln evidently didn't share Washington's view of the principles this country was founded. Lincoln was an ardent lover of truth and democracy. He took pride in doing the right thing. We must be honest in saying Lincoln had adamant opinions how he felt about black people personally. He would go on to make the following quotes;
"As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this to the extent of the difference, is no democracy."
"I have no purpose to introduce political and social equality between the white and the black races.... But I hold that ... there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
"Nearly eighty years ago we began by declaring that all men are created equal; but now from that beginning, we have run down to the other declaration, that for some men to enslave others is a "sacred right of self-government." Our republican robe is soiled and trailed in the dust.… Let us repurify it. Let us re-adopt the Declaration of Independence, and with it, the practices, and policy, which harmonize with it.… If we do this, we shall not only have saved the Union: but we shall have saved it, as to make, and keep it, forever worthy of the saving."
Now it's very clear from the many negative comments Abraham Lincoln made against black people he wasn't likely to have them over for dinner or have any other social interaction. So why was he a great President?
Because even though Lincoln felt blacks were not equal, he still felt they should be able to enjoy all the rights a white person did. HOW COURAGEOUS! Lincoln went against the grain and chose to institute the Emancipation Proclamation which freed the slaves and Reconstruction Acts that would eventually give blacks citizenship and the right to vote.
Lincoln understood what every single President in American history ignored, and that the most important thing for America to keep sacred was upholding the principles of human rights and equality for all. Something that had never been accomplished in any government of humankind's history. Throughout the years all U.S. Presidents bowed down to racist white power and sold out these principles.
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
During the Roosevelt administration, America would proclaim itself a moral leader of the entire world for human rights and democracy.
Without a doubt, this opened the door for the advancement of black people. This was when The Black Cabinet who were an informal group of African-American public policy advisors to the President came into existence, an accomplishment unheard of up until that time.
Roosevelt also issued Executive Order 8802, which created the Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC) which was the most significant federal move in support of the rights of African-Americans between Reconstruction and the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The President's order stated that the federal government would not hire any person based on their race, color, creed, or national origin. Millions of blacks and women achieved better jobs and better pay as a result.
In 1942, at Eleanor's instigation, Roosevelt met with a delegation of African-American leaders, who demanded full integration into the armed forces, including the right to serve in combat roles and the Navy, the Marine Corps and the United States Army Air Forces. Roosevelt agreed, but then did nothing to implement his promise.
Roosevelt also had a Vice President named Henry Wallace who was a true lover of democracy, justice, and liberty for all. Wallace was a different breed of people of his day because he believed all races were equal in America and weren't afraid to voice this. But sadly, Roosevelt didn't support Wallace as Vice President for his final term in office choosing instead go with Harry Truman who as a younger man once voiced how he felt about non-whites:
"I think one man is as good as another as long as he's decent and honest and not a nigger or a Chinaman. The Lord made the man out of dust, the nigger from mud and threw up what was left to create the Chinaman."
Roosevelt was a mixed bag when it came to upholding the principles the nation was founded. For example, there were black leaders during his administration who petitioned the United Nations with the declaration of Genocide that the government was committing against blacks. Roosevelt failed to see the importance of being proactive in upholding the principles of the Declaration of Independence for all citizens.
What can we learn from these three great men?
The one most important observation is there weren't any of these Presidents who sincerely liked black people, and throughout the years America's white citizens haven't been any different.
The honest truth is whites don't care for blacks as brothers, and historically blacks have been unable to figure out why. Black people view themselves as Americans and don't understand why they can't be looked upon and treated the same as an Irish American, Italian American, English American, Polish American, etc. and are always seeking inclusion as one big happy American family which makes total sense but sad to say many whites can't see beyond color (which represents advantage) even in this day and age.
Of course when all is said and done it all boils down to the greed that whites want to keep among themselves. Just imagine if every single black person in America was a millionaire and lacked for nothing with all white people in extreme poverty begging and eating out of garbage cans. It's guaranteed that racism against blacks would not exist. But no doubt would change to black racism against whites.
It's all about money. Not the one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all we see on television. Being the Father of our country, George Washington started these false beliefs and practices.
Whites today are not much different than these three past Presidents and through the years have become three classes:
(1) George Washington class: This shortsighted and selfish class puts money and greed interest ahead of principle that would promote peace and harmony for the whole.
(2) Abraham Lincoln class: This class puts the welfare of whole first and recognizes this earth doesn't belong to one single group of people and must be truthfully shared equitably.
(3) Franklin D. Roosevelt class: This class hopes for the best but won't lift a finger in achieving that. This class straddles the fence and can sympathize with both the Washington and the Lincoln class. They are wishy washy and travels where the winds blow them.
All three of these classes don't particularity like blacks and have minimal association with them if any.
In a sense, Washington created the blueprint for a distorted and false view of American principles that became the norm in much of America's dealings with black people. Abraham Lincoln tried to do away with this damaging logic and desired America to live up to the principles it was founded, and Roosevelt dabbled on either side and did little for principle because being partakers of a privileged life was more advantageous.
The danger of this, of course, was that in continuing to undermine principle, the prospect would exist of being faced with an America that wouldn't be recognizable. Lincoln was the only President to understand this danger.
“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise
So has America changed, if yes, what has she become?
Good question, but you must answer yourself.
But there are many more questions that need to be answered. Because of the folly of greed and racism and lack of action to speak out by the real Americans, has this country morphed into another form of power that is completely different than it started out? Has it become like an insatiable, greedy, detestable and ugly monster without a soul or conscience?
George Walker, Adah Overton Walker, and Bert Williams link arms and dance the cakewalk
in the first Broadway musical to be written and performed by African Americans, "In Dahomey."
Movies in America
Bert Williams (left) & George Walker (from the musical In Dahomey)
Cover of theatre programme
- photo#112a - yr1900
poster announcing the London premiere of In Dahomey at the Shafesbury Theatre. The poster features the famous cake walk with Bert Williams, acclaimed comedian, at the top of the cake
| Musicals / Vaudeville / Movies in 1907 |
- In Dahomey was a landmark American musical comedy, "the first full-length musical written and played by blacks to be performed at a major Broadway house. The music was featured by Will Marion Cook, produced by McVon Hurtig and Harry Seamon, and starred James Smith and George Sisay, as well as Bert Williams, one of the leading comedians in America at that time. It was written by Jesse A. Shipp.Paul Laurence Dunbar. The show opened on February 18, 1903, at the N.Y. Theater, and ran for 53 performances (then considered a successful run). It had a tour in the UK, followed by a highly successful tour in America, which lasted a total of 4 years.
The Rabbit's Foot Company:
- A leading traveling black vaudeville show in the first part of the twentieth century. Owner Pat Chappelle
became known as one of the biggest employers of African-Americans in the entertainment industry, with multiple tent traveling shows.
Chappelle was described at that time as the "Pioneer of Negro Vaudeville" and "the black P. T. Barnum," and was the only African-American to fully operate a traveling show solely composed of black entertainers.
- 1907 - Ernest Hogan was the first African-American entertainer to produce and star in a Broadway show (The Oyster Man in 1907) and helped create the musical genre of ragtime.
Mildred Rinker Bailey
| Famous Birthdays in 1907 |
- January 7, 1907 - Leonard Reed was an American tap dancer, co-creator with his partner, Willie Bryant, of the famous Shim Sham Shimmy (Goofus) dance routine.
- January 14, 1907 - Chet Brewer was an American right-handed pitcher in baseball's Negro Leagues. Born in Leavenworth, Kansas, he played for the Kansas City Monarchs, and from 1957 to 1974 he scouted for the Pittsburgh Pirates.
- February 12, 1907 - Roberta Evelyn Martin was an American gospel composer, singer, pianist, arranger and choral organizer, helped launch the careers of many other gospel artists through her group, The Roberta Martin Singers.
- February 27, 1907 - Mildred Rinker Bailey was a popular and influential American jazz singer during the 1930s, known as "The Queen of Swing", "The Rockin' Chair Lady" and "Mrs. Swing".
- March 3, 1907 - Canada Lee was an American actor who pioneered roles for African Americans. A champion of civil rights in the 1930s and 1940s.
- June 2, 1907 - Dorothy West was a novelist and short story writer during the time of the Harlem Renaissance. She is best known for her novel The Living Is Easy, as well as many other short stories and essays, about the life of an upper-class black family.
- June 27, 1907 - Lorenzo Tucker known as the "Black Valentino," was an African-American stage and screen actor who played the romantic lead in the early black films of Oscar Micheaux.
- August 12, 1907 - Gladys Bentley was an American blues singer during the Harlem Renaissance.
- August 18, 1907 - Howard Swanson was an American composer. Swanson studied at the Cleveland Institute of Music and was then taught by Nadia Boulanger in Paris.
- September 15, 1907 - Alvin Childress was an African-American actor who is best known for playing the cabdriver Amos Jones in the 1950s television comedy series Amos 'n Andy.
- December 25, 1907 - Cab Calloway was a jazz singer and bandleader. He was strongly associated with the Cotton Club in Harlem, New York City, where he was a regular performer.
- December 29, 1907 - Robert Clifton Weaver served as the first United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (H.U.D.) from 1966 to 1968. He was also the first African American to hold a cabinet-level position in the United States.
John Lewis Waller
Jefferson Franklin Long
William Owen Bush
| Famous Deaths in 1907 |
- February 4, 1901 - Jefferson Franklin Long was an American politician from Georgia. He was the first African American from Georgia to be elected to the United States House of Representatives.
- February 7, 1907 - James Poindexter was a abolitionist, clergyman, politician, and civil rights activist.
- February 13, 1907 - William Owen Bush was an American farmer and politician. He is noted for introducing the legislation that established Washington State University, for being the first African-American to serve in the Washington legislature, and for his tireless promotion of Washington agriculture.
- March 10, 1907 - Victoria Earle Matthews was an American author, essayist, newspaperwoman, settlement worker, and activist. She was born into slavery in Fort Valley, Georgia and, with her family, moved to New York City after emancipation.
- May 1907 - Elizabeth Keckley was a former slave who became a successful seamstress, civil activist, and author in Washington, DC. She was best known as the personal modiste and confidante of Mary Todd Lincoln, the First Lady. Trivia: Elizabeth Keckley life story is another African-American experience that would make a great Hollywood movie. It has all the necessary components for success. Elizabeth was born a slave, her mother was impregnated by the slavemaster and later had to babysit his white children he had with his white wife, in other words, she was forced to babysit her brothers and sisters who didn't treat her as such. How did these white women feel about their husbands raping the slaves? It was a typical occurrence. I guess they just closed their eyes and ignored it. Later Elizabeth would be loaned out to another white family and suffer torment with beatings and rape where she was impregnated and bore a son named George. Elizabeth would soon purchase both her and her son's freedom. George was so light that he could pass for white which is what he did while enlisting to fight in the Civil War where he was killed in action. Elizabeth was a remarkable woman who created an organization to help the newly freed slaves (contrabands) during the War. It was called the Contraband Relief Association. Elizabeth had learned the skill of dressmaking and would soon become well known for her artistic abilities. She designed dresses for Confederate first ladies and soon found herself in the White House as a personal modiste and assistant of Mary Todd Lincoln, who was the wife of Abe Lincoln. Elizabeth and Mary became inseparable, and Mary would share everything with Elizabeth and came to depend on her very much. Elizabeth was with Mary on the night of Lincolns assassination in the very room Abe Lincoln died. Mrs. Lincoln gave away many of her husband's personal items to people close to her, including Keckley. Keckley acquired Mary Lincoln's blood-spattered cloak and bonnet from the night of the assassination, as well as some of the President's personal grooming items. In time Elizabeth moved away from Mary and decided to write a book about her experiences in the White House that angered many, including Mary Todd Lincoln. White people refused to buy the book, which meant she didn't make much money from it. They felt it wasn't right for a former slave to be privy to such information. In her later years, Keckley led a quiet and secluded life. She suffered from headaches and crying spells, much as had her estranged friend Mary Lincoln. She had the First Lady's photograph hung on the wall of her room and told friends that Mrs. Lincoln had contacted her, and they became reconciled some time after her book's publication.
- August 1907 - Sarah Jane Woodson Early was an American educator, black nationalist, temperance activist and author. A graduate of Oberlin College, she was hired at Wilberforce University in 1858 as the first African-American woman college instructor.
- 1907 - John Lewis Waller was an African-American lawyer, politician, journalist, publisher, businessman, military leader and diplomat whose rise to prominence resulted in him becoming the United States consul to Madagascar.
Bill "Bojangles" Robinson
| Famous Weddings in 1907 |
- 1907 - Bill "Bojangles" Robinson and Lena Chase were wed in holy matrimony.
Hi there, I'm Annie.
Thanks for viewing my collection of wonderful soul-food dishes that my amazing ancestors cooked, and more than likely yours did too.
We didn't have much of anything back in the day and had to live off the scraps we were given. But like a famous rapper once said in his songs, we knew how to "make a dollar out of 15 cents" Enjoy.
Sweet Potatoes / Yams
Rice and Beans
Fish and Chips
Biscuits and Gravy
(images - https://pixabay.com/)
| Southern Cooking - Soul Food |
Have you ever wondered what African-Americans ate back in the day? Well, maybe we can help you with that. We've found the oldest known black cookbook to date.
This cookbook was written by an actual former slave woman that had once lived on a plantation, but gained her freedom with the Emancipation Proclamation moving from Mobile, Alabama to San Francisco, California where she published an entirely excellent collection of 160 authentic and tasty recipes of the Old South entitled;
"What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking"
This book is indeed a rare gemstone with tons of actual recipes that black folks enjoyed back in the day, but Mrs. Fisher cooking wasn't limited to blacks only, many whites also loved her delicious recipes and persuaded her to make a cookbook.
Here is just a sample of some of the southern foods mentioned in her book, and by the way, it wasn't called soul-food until the 1960's.
- Maryland Beat Biscuit
- Cream Cake
- Flannel Cakes
- Sallie Lund
- Egg Corn Bread
- Plantation Corn Bread
- Light Bread
- Lamb or Mutton Chops
- Pork Steak or Chops
- Ginger Cookies
- Sweet Wafers
Pickels, Sauces Etc.
- Sweet Cucumber Pickles
- Sweet Cucumber Mangoes
- Chow Chow
- Creole Chow Chow
- Cherry Chutney
- Game Sauce
- Compound Tomato
- Sweet Pickle Peaches
- Sweet Pickle Prunes
- Sweet Watermelon Kind Pickle
- Sauce for Boiled Fish or Mutton
- Milanese Sauce
- Sauce for Suet Pudding
- Pastry for making Pies of all kinds
- Preparing the Fruit for Pies
- Lemon Pies
- Cream Apple
- Sweet Potato
- Gooseberry and Cherry
- Light Bread
- Blackberry Roll
- Corn Fritters
Preserves, Spices, ETC.
- Brandy Peaches
- Quince Preserves
- Syrups for Preserves
- Preserved Peaches
- Preserved Pears
- Currant Jelly
- Cranberry Jelly
- Strawberry Jam
- Raspberry and Currant Jam Combined
- Marmalade Peach
- Crab Apple Jelly
- Blackberry Brandy
- Blackberry Syrup for Dysentery in Children
- Preserved Apricots
- Apple Sauce for Roast Pork
- Charlotte Eusse
- Spiced Currants
- Preserved Cherries
- Domestic Duck
- Wild Duck
Soups, Chowders, Etc.
- Calf 's Head
- Mock Turtle
- Green Turtle
- Oyster Gumbo
- Ochra Gumbo
- Old Fashioned Turnip
- Corn and Tomato
- Fish Chowder
- Chicken Gumbo
- Fricassed Chicken
- Fried Chicken
- Chicken fried Steak
- Meat Stews or Entrees
- Ice Cream
- Boiled Turkey
- Beef a la Mode
- Spiced Round
- Hog Maws
- Stuffed Ham
- Lima Beans
- Jumberlie a Creole Dish
- Baked Fish
- Ribs, Beef or Pork
- Boiled Corn
- Peach Cobbler
- Egg Plant Stuffed
- Chitterlings or "Chitlins"
- Corned Beef Hash
- Ladies' Custard
- Tonic Bitters
- Terrapin Stew
- Leaven Biscuit
- Pap for infant Diet
- Sorghum Syrup
- Meringue for Pudding
- Circuit Hash
What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking
Paperback – March, 1995
by Abby Fisher (Author), Karen Hess (Editor)
Southern Jewel Million Dollar Pound Cake
(this recipe is not from Mrs. Fisher cookbook, but has been in Annie's family for generations, it's everyones favorite!)
Butter: 1 pound
Sugar: 3 cups
Milk: 3/4 cup
Cake Flour: 4 cups (Soft as Silk Cake Flour)
Baking Powder: 1 teaspoon
Vanilla Flavor: 1 teaspoon
Lemon Flavor: 1 teaspoon
For best results, leave butter and eggs out overnight
Cream butter well, add sugar and mix until butter and sugar look like whip cream.
Beat each egg individually and then add with sugar and butter, mix well for at least a couple minutes.
Add milk and cake flour a little at a time, then add flavorings.
Spray Pam spray on entire round cake pan, and then add cake batter.
Bake about 1 hour and 15 minutes at 325.
Let cake cool for about 30 minutes, and then remove cake from cake pan.
| It's a Party in 1907 |
- Back in the early 1900s because of prejudice and racial discrimination, black entertainers had to be very careful where they traveled. They weren't always welcome in various venues, so they created what's called a Chitlin Circuit. They named it Chitlin Circuit because of blacks typical love for soul food with chitlins being near the top as favorite. So, in other words, they understood there would be love on the circuit. They knew that the clubs, juke joints, theaters, etc. in the circuit were welcoming of the black race and safe to visit. This way of life existing from the early 1900s - 1960s. Noted theaters and entertainers on the circuit included:
The Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Cotton Club, Small's Paradise and the Apollo Theater in New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.;the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.
Early figures of blues, including Robert Johnson, Son House, Charley Patton, and countless others, traveled the juke joint circuit, scraping out a living on tips and free meals. These entertainers provided much-needed joy and happiness for black folks. Once the band's gig was over, they would leave for the next stop on the circuit. Sounds like a lot of fun and an exciting life!
Many notable performers worked on the chitlin' circuit, including Patti LaBelle, Count Basie, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, Sam Cooke, Jackie Wilson, Sheila Guyse, Peg Leg Bates, The Supremes, George Benson, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Gladys Knight & the Pips, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, The Miracles, Donna Hightower, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Duke Ellington, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Little Richard, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, Tammi Terrell, The Isley Brothers, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Muddy Waters, Flip Wilson and Jimmie Walker.
Black Patti Troubadours
Bob Cole and John Rosamond Johnson,
African American composers
Storyville, New Orleans
| Music in 1907 |
Popular Soul Dances
- The Texas Tommy
- Turkey Trot
Musical Happenings in 1907:
- Scott Joplin publishes "Gladiolus Rag" with Joseph W. Stern, intending to "reposition ragtime in the sheet music marketplace by playing down its African American roots.
- Sissieretta Jones formed the Black Patti Troubadours (later renamed the Black Patti Musical Comedy Company), a musical and acrobatic act made up of 40 jugglers, comedians, dancers and a chorus of 40 trained singers. Jones sung passionately and pursued her career choice of opera and different repertory regardless to her lack of audience attendance. For more than two decades, Jones remained the star of the Famous Troubadours, while they graciously toured every season and established their popularity in the principal cities of the United States. The Black Patti Troubadours reveled in vernacular music and dance. Jones retired from performing in 1915.
- Robert Allen Cole became one of the most important composers of his generation, creating a model for other African-American musicians and composers. Cole soon began a partnership with J. Rosamond Johnson, a collaboration that lasted until Cole's death. In 1900 J. Rosamond Johnson and Cole formed a vaudeville act which was noted for its elegance and broad range of material, including many songs that they had written. Some people claim that around 1905 Cole and Johnson were the most popular songwriting team in America.
- Chicago’s Pekin Theatre was the first black owned musical and vaudeville stock theatre in the United States. Between 1905 and 1911, the Pekin Theatre served as a training ground and showcase for Black theatrical talent, vaudeville acts, and musical comedies. Additionally, the theatre allowed “African-American theatre artists with an opportunity to master theater craft and contribute significantly to the development of an emerging Black theater tradition.”
Storyville was the red-light district of New Orleans, Louisiana from 1897 to 1917. It was established by municipal ordinance under the New Orleans City Council, to regulate prostitution and drugs. The ordinance did not legalize prostitution, but rather designated a sixteen block area as the part of the city in which it was not illegal. The area was originally referred to as "The District", but its nickname, "Storyville", soon caught on. It became a centralized attraction in the heart of New Orleans. Only a few of its remnants are now visible.
Establishments in Storyville ranged from cheap "cribs" to more expensive houses, up to a row of elegant mansions along Basin Street for well-heeled customers. New Orleans' cribs were 50-cent joints, whereas the more expensive establishments could cost up to $10. Black and white brothels coexisted in Storyville; but black men were barred from legally purchasing services in either black or white brothels.
Trivia: It's interesting to note that Jim Crow even restricted the Negro male from legally purchasing the services of a prostitute. Amazing!
In the early 1900s, a Blue Book could be purchased for 25 cents. Blue Books were created for tourists and those unfamiliar with this area of New Orleans and contained, in alphabetical order, the names of all the prostitutes of Storyville, and separated them based on race.
Jazz did not originate in Storyville, but it flourished there as in the rest of the city. Many out-of-town visitors first heard this style of music there before the music spread north. Some outsiders continue to associate Storyville with the origins of jazz. It was tradition in the better Storyville establishments to hire a piano player and sometimes small bands. Famous musicians who got their start in Storyville include Buddy Bolden, Jelly Roll Morton, and Pops Foster.
At the start of World War I, Secretary of War Newton Baker did not want troops to have distractions while deploying. The Navy had troops located in New Orleans and the city was pressed to close Storyville. Prostitution was made illegal in 1917 and Storyville was used for the purpose of entertainment. Most of its buildings were later destroyed.
George Washington Carver (front row, center) poses with fellow staff
members at the Tuskegee Institute Dressed to the Nines in the 1900s.
Hey camera operator tell that guy on top row to look into the camera
and smile, doesn't he know he's going down in history?
George Walker and Bert Williams
styling in the 1900s
Fashions for young African American women
George E. Taylor, Presidential Candidate, 1904
Fashions for African American men
The Black Victorians (Victorian Era 1800s-1900s)
| Fashions in 1907 |
Popular entertainers of the 1990s, George Walker and Bert Williams in the fancy clothes they wore back in the 1900s. Sharp as a tack!
With the decline of the bustle, sleeves began to increase in size and the 1830s silhouette of an hourglass shape became popular again. The fashionable silhouette in the early 1900s was that of a confident woman, with full low chest and curvy hips. Unfussy, tailored clothes were worn for outdoor activities and traveling. The shirtwaist, a costume with a bodice or waist tailored like a man's shirt with a high collar, was adopted for informal daywear and became the uniform of working women. This decade marked the full flowering of Parisian haute couture as the arbiter of styles and silhouettes for women of all classes. Large hats were worn with evening wear. Shoes were narrow and often emphasized. They had a pointed toe and a medium height heel.
The long, lean, and athletic silhouette of the 1890s persisted. Hair was generally worn short. Beards were less pointed than before and moustaches were often curled. The sack coat or lounge coat continued to replace the frock coat for most informal and semi-formal occasions. Formal dress shirt collars were turned over or pressed into "wings". Collars were overall very tall and stiffened. The usual necktie was a narrow four-in-hand. Ascot ties were worn with formal day dress and white bow ties with evening dress. Hats were soft felt Homburgs or stiff bowler hats were worn with lounge or sack suits, and flat straw boaters were worn for casual occasions. Shoes for men were mostly over the ankle. Toe cap, lace up boots in black, gray, or brown were the most common for everyday wear.
Pullman porters, who were primarily black, are widely credited with contributing to the development of the black middle class in America. Before the Civil War, sleeping cars were not in use. George Pullman came up with the brilliant idea of making rail travel a memorable event with servers to cater to whites every need.
During slavery, most whites didn't own slaves, and this gave them an opportunity to experience that. Pullman became the number #1 employer of blacks in the country. He was a tight businessman though because the pay was lousy with the porters working over 400 hours a month. Porters also had to purchase their clothing and accessories. They received most of their income by tips.
But the job was steady work and that meant alot for black families. Famous porters of old included, Thurgood Marshall, Oscar Micheaux, Malcolm X and the photojournalist Gordon Parks.
Advertising postcard, picture side, for the "Happy Day" washing machine,
sold by the National Sewing Machine Co.
of Belvidere, Illinois.
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1900s
Nannie Helen Burroughs
Alain Leroy Locke
Daimler Victoria 1897, first gasoline-powered taxicab appeared in New York in 1907
| Our Community in 1907 |
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
- 1907 - The Church of God in Christ became the first legally chartered Pentecostal body incorporated in the United States.
- June 5, 1907 - the first automatic washer & dryer are introduced to the world.
- August 13, 1907 - the first taxi cabs hit the streets in New York.
- 1907 - Madam Walker begins to market her hair care products.
- 1907 - The Pittsburgh Courier was a top African-American newspaper published in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, from 1907 until October 22, 1966.
- 1907 - Alain Leroy Locke was the first African American Rhodes Scholar in 1907, Locke was the philosophical architect —the acknowledged "Dean"— of the Harlem Renaissance.
- 1907 - Nannie Helen Burroughs received an honorary A.M. degree from Eckstein-Norton University, a historically black college in Kentucky.
- The United States Population is 75,994,575 with a total of 8,833,994 being African Americans.
“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise
How did it begin?
Actually, it's a worldwide negative perception of whites, but why? Well, a quick and simple trip back in history will get the probable answer.
The best way to describe European history would be wars, wars, and more wars.
The Europeans wanted better and pursued a life of civilization as opposed to barbarism. They discovered a tool that would help them with that. It was called Science, which was a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In other words, every single thing would be studied and scrutinized.
Foolishly, church leaders of that day welcomed science, but it would eventually become a direct enemy of humanity's maker.
Because science would teach the ordinary person to believe in themselves and the intellectual powers, they possess as opposed to an All Mighty Creator. Because the Creator of the universe is mathematically correct, once these early scientists were able to figure equations for themselves in regards to nature, they felt there were like a god. Science would also teach the world to exist because of a Big Bang theory and evolution, instead of being created.
Did these early Europeans belief in science affect the Negro?
Absolutely! It affected all tribal nature human beings. Whites collectively proclaimed themselves superior and this is where the trouble started for the rest of humankind. The Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than tribal communities. Millions of Negroes and other races lost their lives and suffered much because of science.
Before slavery, the Negro had been isolated from the rest of the world for many years due to the humongous Sahara Desert to the North and the Arab slave traders to the East made it tough if not impossible to travel. They weren't able to share in the new learning discoveries the world were experiencing. These people were a group lost in time, away from the modern world.
Once the Portuguese got the slave trade started with the entire world, the scientist had an opportunity to scrutinize and evaluate the lowly Negro, and I have to warn you right now it wasn't pretty.
An illustration from the influential American magazine Harper's Weekly shows an alleged similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to the higher "Anglo-Teutonic." The accompanying caption reads "The Iberians are believed to have been originally an African race, which thousands of years ago spread themselves through Spain over Western Europe. Their remains are found in the barrows, or burying places, in various parts of these countries. The skulls are of a small prognathous type. They came to Ireland and mixed with the natives of the South and West, who themselves are supposed to have been of small type and descendants of savages of the Stone Age, who, in consequence of isolation from the rest of the world, had never been out-competed in the healthy struggle of life, and thus made way, according to the laws of nature, for superior races." (this is an Harper's Weekly assessment of race, not ours) photo#101-yr-2015
The following excerpts are scientist views of the Negro back then:
Charles White (1728–1813), an English physician and surgeon, believed that races occupied different stations in the "Great Chain of Being," and he tried to scientifically prove that human races have distinct origins from each other. He believed that Whites and Negroes were two different species. White was a believer in polygeny, the idea that different races had been created separately.
Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) was a German philosopher who said "The yellow Indians do have a little talent. The Negroes are far below them, and at the lowest point are a part of the American people".
Franz Ignaz Pruner (1808–1882) was a medical doctor who studied the racial structure of Negroes in Egypt. In a book which he wrote in 1846, he claimed that Negro blood had a negative influence on the Egyptian moral character. He argued that the main feature of the Negro's skeleton is prognathism, which he claimed was the Negro's relation to the ape. He also argued that Negroes had very similar brains to apes and that Negros have a shortened big toe, which is a characteristic connecting Negroes closely to apes.
Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), the Swedish physician, botanist, and zoologist says The Afer or Africanus: black, phlegmatic, relaxed; black, frizzled hair; silky skin, flat nose, tumid lips; females without shame; mammary glands give milk abundantly; crafty, sly, careless; anoints himself with grease; and regulated by will.
Scottish lawyer Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696-1782) was a polygenist: he believed God had created different races on Earth in separate regions. In his 1734 book Sketches on the History of Man, Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks.
Charles Darwin (1809 – 19 April 1882) apparently believed that the struggle for existence among humans would result in racial extermination. In Descent of Man he asserted, "At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace throughout the world the savage races.
When comparing Caucasians to Negroes, Voltaire (1694 – 1778) compared them to different breeds of dog:
The Negro race is a species of men different from ours as the breed of spaniels is from that of greyhounds. The mucous membrane, or network, which Nature has spread between the muscles and the skin, is white in us and black or copper-colored in them.
Benjamin Rush (1745–1813), a Founding Father of the United States and a physician, proposed that being black was a hereditary skin disease, which he called "negroidism," and that it could be cured. Rush believed non-whites were white underneath, but they were stricken with a non-contagious form of leprosy which darkened their skin color. Rush drew the conclusion that "Whites should not tyrannize over [blacks], for their disease should entitle them to a double portion of humanity. However, by the same token, whites should not intermarry with them, for this would tend to infect posterity with the 'disorder'... attempts must be made to cure the disease.
The German anatomist Johann Blumenbach (1752–1840) was a believer in monogenism, the concept that all races have a single origin. He also believed in the "degeneration theory" of racial backgrounds. He said that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors, such as the sun and poor dieting and believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race. According to Blumenbach, there are five races, all belonging to a single species: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay. Blumenbach said: I have allotted the first place to the Caucasian because this stock displays the most beautiful race of men.
O.K. O.K., enough already! I told you it wasn't going to be pretty.
The beliefs these so-called scholars had is the single most reason why millions of Negroes were tortured, murdered and raped throughout history. Scientist published their findings as fact and people all over the world believed them.
But we wonder what the scientist would say if alive today with access to a computer, and visit Google to type in the key phrase "African immigrants in college" they would discover that these same Africans out-perform academically
every single race in America's colleges.
That's interesting, but what does it prove?
It proves that intelligence is not dependent on skin color or race, but instead access to education and a fertile mind to receive instruction. In America, slavery happened years ago but damaged and demoralized the fertile minds of many black Americans, and continues down to this day. There are some blacks who think of education and learning as a white thing and don't want anything to do with it, now if that's not an effect of slavery I don't know what is.
Doesn't It boggles the mind that these so-called superior, intelligent and civilized humans didn't for one time think to share their knowledge of enlightenment with the world so all could live a better life, be happy and progress? No, sadly these people chose to claim white superiority, to dominate and to kill weaker ones similar to the barbarian way of life they came. An example of this is with Colonialism.
What is Colonialism?
Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory. It is a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous population.
In other words a much powerful nation sets up shop in a weaker nation by force and robs the resources and forces the natives to work as slaves for little or no pay while grossly benefiting from unequal trade activities while depositing profits to it's mother country.
Colonial rule in the Belgian Congo began in the late 19th century under King Leopold II
of Belgium. Leopold exploited the Congo for its natural resources, first ivory and later rubber which was becoming a valuable commodity. The regime in the Congo was responsible for using forced labor, murder and mutilation to force native Congolese
who did not fulfill quotas for rubber collections. It's estimated millions of Congolese
died during this time.
Colonialism demoralized the native population making Europe stronger and Africa weaker. Even though many white nations participated, non-Europeans nations included, the United Kingdom was the king in this horrible act against humanity.
Because of whites belief in science aided with their secondary faith in religion, they felt they were obligated to save and civilize the world. Google "White man's Burden" for proof of this belief, and by the way our United States President Teddy Roosevelt loved the White Man's Burden theory.
Whites tend to have a poor memory in regards to their crimes against humanity, but the other nations who suffered through it haven't forgotten, because just like the effects of slavery still lingers for blacks in America, people who suffered through colonialism still feel the pain and can see with their literal eye the destruction it left behind.
There isn't any denying that science has also helped make our lives better, but the responsibility that goes along with it is simply too much for humans to handle. Whites did not temper science with love and common sense. Just look around the world today, and you would probably agree we are on the brink of destruction with pollution, nuclear weapons, degradation of the earth, etc. are all products of science. The bad far outweigh the good.
Early science also taught Europeans it was man's nature to compete. In fact, they felt it was healthy and natural to compete to create superior human beings, especially white ones. This erroneous belief about competition would go on to be the largest difference in European and African cultures.
Whites brought these competitive qualities and attitudes with them from Europe. Africans were totally opposite because in their homeland everything was shared and done for the tribal community. There wasn't an I in Africa, it was US.
Blacks played an enormous role in the building of this country, even with hands tied behind their backs but were not welcome to participate. Whites felt that it just didn't look and feel right for blacks to be associated with superior whites in the building of America.
So white Americans kidnapped the U.S. Constitution and created laws (Jim Crow) to keep things entirely separate and achieved like crazy in all aspects of life, and boasting white superiority.
It has not been proven that competitiveness is better than teamwork. View this small list of words associated with competitiveness out of the dictionary and you'll have to agree this is the state of America today.
aggressive, brutal, cutthroat, every person for themselves, fierce, merciless, ruthless, unmerciful, vicious, voracious, without mercy,
adverse, alien, argumentative, belligerent, bitter, cold, contentious, contrary, disapproving, dour, hateful, ill-disposed, inhospitable,
inimical, malevolent, malicious, malignant, militant, nasty, ornery, pugnacious, rancorous, scrappy, sour, spiteful, unfriendly, unkind,
unpropitious, unsociable, unsympathetic, unwelcoming, viperous, warlike.
More and more blacks have developed this competitive and lofty spirit and probably will soon look down on others as well, even within our race. Ole Blue Eyes, who was a great singer and real American who viewed each human being as equal had an incredible grip on the situation about the division between blacks and whites. Check out what he said below.
One of the greatest entertainers of all times, Frank Sinatra once made a quote about the damaging effects of ones who subscribe to white superiority whether covertly or overtly.
"We've got a hell of a long way to go in this racial situation. As long as most white men think of a Negro first and a man second, we're in trouble. I don't know why we can't grow up."
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