Blast From The Past:
OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1886:
Alain Leroy Locke
Alain Leroy Locke was born 1886 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Of course he wouldn't have know it at the time that he was going to grow to be a very influenial man. When older Locke graduated from Central High School in Philadelphia, second in his class. He also attended Philadelphia School of Pedagogy (a person who studies the methods of teaching).
In 1907, Locke graduated from Harvard University with degrees in English and philosophy and was honored as a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society and recipient of the prestigious Bowdoin Prize. It's a shame that Locke was denied admissions to several colleges back then, but that didn't stop him from taking what belonged to him which was the power of learning. Education is God given and meant to be shared. It does not belong to one race exclusively. Locke understood that and persisted.
Locke promoted African-American artists, writers, and musicians, encouraging them to look to Africa as an inspiration for their works. He encouraged them to depict African and African-American subjects and to draw on their history for subject material.
Locke was a promoter of free African American thought. He knew we were more than capable of controlling our destiny and didn't need anyone dictating to us. All we needed was a level playing field.
He was a leader in starting the Harlem Renannanice which featured the New Negro, a collection of writings by African Americans, which would become one of his best-known works. A landmark in the black literature (later acclaimed as the "first national book" of African America), it was an instant success. Locke contributed five essays: the "Foreword," "The New Negro," "Negro Youth Speaks," "The Negro Spirituals," and "The Legacy of Ancestral Arts."
Locke has certainly left an indelible impression in people's hearts.
On March 19, 1968, the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. proclaimed: "We're going to let our children know that the only philosophers that lived were not Plato and Aristotle, but W. E. B. Du Bois and Alain Locke came through the universe.
Can you think of a better choice for the 1886 Hamite Award than Alain Leroy Locke? He's a hard act to follow. What a great human being and wonderful example who mirrors the meaning of this award. Thank you, Alain. Locke suffered from heart disease, and after a six-week illness died at Mount Sinai Hospital on June 9, 1954.
Alain Leroy Locke |
|How were blacks feeling in 1886?
The AFL labor union was started this year, hope this is a positive for blacks and women, but time will tell. We have learned not to expect too hard because we always get burned. We are also learning that we need strong black leaders to take control and lead us out of the depths of despair. It's obvious that our white brothers are never going to play fair with us, and hog everything for themselves, it's a serious matter but childish at the same time. Sicko's,
They act like God gave everything to them and excluded everyone else, yes sir they are feeling blessed about now going on killing sprees, intimidating different races of people, all in the name of religious superiority. We still feel so sorry for the Chinese who lost their lives in the riots. One brave Indian warrior Geronimo finally surrendered to the evil beast, but he didn't have a choice.
We have heard good things in Texas about Norris Wright Cuney who helped to organize over 100,000 blacks to vote, but he'd better be careful because one thing is for sure, the KKK and their counterparts the Democrats are not going to give up in disenfranchising blacks to vote. But he's doing a very commendable job under the circumstances. We just need much more like him. We need the right to vote. Otherwise, our needs will not be met in the political arena, where it is likely to get shot down anyway, but at least we would have a chance. Grover Cleveland is a no-show for blacks! Boooooooo!
I think I need some laughing, in fact I know I need some laughing, so I'm going to hit Billy Johnson and his minstrel show. It will give me a chance to dress up and feel important for a change instead of this negative racism do-do that these white people give us, and I'm going to treat myself to a new drink that's on the scene. They called it Coca-Coke and said it is guaranteed to leave you breathless, well we will see about that!
For the year 1886:
- Augustine Tolton, Quincy a was the first African-American Roman Catholic priest publicly known at the time to be African-American.
Octavius Valentine Catto
John W. "Bud" Fowler
Moses Fleetwood Walker
| Sports in 1886 |
- Blacks were not accepted into the league baseball games, so they started their teams, becoming professional by the the 1870s. The first known baseball game between two black teams was held on November 15, 1859, in New York City. The Henson Base Ball Club of Jamaica, Queens, defeated the Unknowns of Weeksville, Brooklyn, 54 to 43.
By the end of the 1860s, the black baseball mecca was Philadelphia, which had an African-American population of 22,000. Two former cricket players, James H. Francis and Francis Wood, formed the Pythian Base Ball Club. They played in Camden, New Jersey, at the landing of the Federal Street Ferry, because it is hard to get permits for black baseball games in the city. Octavius Catto, the promoter of the Pythians, decided to apply for membership in the National Association of Base Ball Players, generally a matter of sending delegates to the annual convention; beyond that, a formality.
At the end of the 1867 season "the National Association of Baseball Players voted to exclude any club with a black player." In some ways Blackball thrived under segregation, with the few black teams of the day playing not only each other but white teams as well. "Black teams earned the bulk of their income playing white independent 'semipro' clubs."
- The mistreatment and segregation of Blacks didn't only happen in the South, but also the Northern cities like Philadelphia.
- Octavius Valentine Catto was a black educator, intellectual, and civil rights activist in Philadelphia. As a man, he also became known as a top cricket and black baseball pioneer in 19th-century Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
- The first known professional black baseball player was Bud Fowler, who appeared in a handful of games with a Chelsea, Massachusetts club in April 1878 and then pitched for the Lynn, Massachusetts team in the International Association.
- Moses Fleetwood Walker and his brother, Welday Wilberforce Walker, were the first two black players in the major leagues. They both played for the 1884 Toledo Blue Stockings in the American Association.
Kentucky State University
| Educational Scene in 1886 |
- May 1886 - Kentucky State University was chartered as the State Normal School for Colored Persons, only the second state-supported institution of higher learning in Kentucky.
Norris Wright Cuney
| Political Scene in 1886 |
- Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States. He was the winner of the popular vote for president three times—in 1884, 1888, and 1892—and was one of the two Democrats (alongside Woodrow Wilson) elected to the presidency in the era of Republican political domination dating from 1861 to 1933.
Sidenote: Grover Cleveland was a president who didn't really care about Civil Rights for racial groups. He didn't make an effort to help disenfranchised blacks in the South choosing to ignore those American citizens and also with the Chinese immigrants who were murdered in the Washington territory, he sided with the terrorist and felt it was the Chinese fault for the riots. But to keep the peace with the Chinese government which had complained, he went ahead and provided reparations. When will we finally get a president who understands true American principles and the meaning, or were those words just fantasy?
- 1886 - Norris Wright Cuney becomes chairman of the Texas Republican Party. He is the first African-American to head a major political party at the state level in United States history.
Movies in America
Anna Madah Hyers dressed as 'Urlina' in the opera Urlina the African Princess (1879)
| Musicals / Movies in 1886 |
- The Hyers Sisters, Anna Madah and Emma Louise were singers and pioneers of black musical theater. With Joseph Bradford and Pauline Hopkins, the Hyers Sisters produced the "first full-fledged musical plays... in which African Americans themselves comment on the plight of the slaves and the relief of Emancipation without the disguises of minstrel comedy." Their first play was Out of Bondage (also known as Out of the Wilderness) which premiered in 1876.
The Hyers Sisters under the management of their proud father not only toured in America but internationally. As small children, the father had them classically trained by German professor Hugo Sank and later opera singer Josephine D'Ormy, and they performed for private parties before making their professional stage debut. They were very well received everywhere they played and blazed a path for other black entertainers to follow. They traveled until the mid-1880s with their shows and continued to appear on stage into the 1890s. Wow, now that's amazing!
Ma Rainey A star is born!
Alain Leroy Locke
| Famous Birthdays in 1886 |
- April 26, 1886 - "Ma" Rainey, one of the earliest and most popular black professional blues singer.
- June 12, 1886 - James Leonard Farmer, Sr. was an American author, theologian, and educator.
- September 13, 1886 - Alain Leroy Locke was an American writer, philosopher, educator, and patron of the arts. Distinguished as the first African American Rhodes Scholar in 1907, Locke was the philosophical architect —the acknowledged "Dean"— of the Harlem Renaissance.
- December 25, 1886 - Edward "Kid" Ory was a jazz trombonist and bandleader. He was born in Woodland Plantation near La Place, Louisiana.
- 1886 - Stephanie St. Clair was a female gang leader who ran numerous criminal enterprises in Harlem, New York in the early part of the 20th century. St. Clair resisted the interests of the Mafia for several years after Prohibition ended; she continued to be an independent operator and never came under Mafia control.
Lucy E. Parsons
| Famous Deaths in 1886 |
- January 9, 1886 - Aaron Anderson a Union Navy sailor during the American Civil War and a recipient of America's highest military decoration, the Medal of Honor.
- 1886 - Lucy E. Parsons was an American labor organizer, radical socialist and anarchist communist.
George Henry White
Olivia America Davidson Washington
Halle Tanner Dillon Johnson
Maggie Lena Walker
| Famous Weddings in 1886 |
- 1886 - Olivia America Davidson Washington and Booker T. Washington were wed in holy matrimony.
- 1886 - Politician George Henry White and Cora Lena Cherry were wed in holy matrimony.
- 1886 - Physician Halle Tanner Dillon Johnson and Charles Dillon were wed in holy matrimony.
- 1886 - Virginia businesswoman Maggie Lena Walker and Armstead Walker Jr. were wed in holy matrimony.
- 1886 - Entertainer Sam Lucas and Carrie Melvin Lucas were wed in holy matrimony.
Bob Cole and John Rosamond Johnson,
African American composers
James Monroe Trotter
| Music in 1886 |
Musical Happenings in 1886:
- James Monroe Trotter a multi-talented man wrote a book entitled Music and Some Highly Musical People, published in 1878. It is the first comprehensive study of music ever written in the United States. It is still used by students of music history and those interested in tracing the origins of music in the United States, especially African-American music.
- By 1881, Billy Johnson was performing in minstrel shows. In 1886 he joined Lew Johnson's minstrels and the following year moved to Hicks and Sawyer's minstrels, where he stayed for six seasons. He began writing songs and eventually landed a job with Bob Cole as songwriter and stage producer for the more upscale Black Patti Troubadours. Cole and Johnson produced a musical sketch for Black Patti, then left that company to produce their own musical, A Trip to Coontown (1898), the first full length black-produced musical on an American stage. However, during the third season of this musical, the pair separated.
How did "acting" Cool begin for African Americans?|
It seems like it's been around forever and
expected of every black kid growing up
For most blacks, cool started on the southern plantations. Opportunists slavemasters devised a way for slaves to work harder and reap the benefits of their labor. During the year at a chosen plantation slave masters would hold a "Corn Shucking Festival." Slaves from nearby plantations would also join this event with their owner's permission, so it was almost like a community gathering of all the local slaves, with greedy slavemasters making all the money.
The slave who shucked the most corn won an award, sometimes cash or a suit of clothes. Anyone who found a red ear of corn also received a reward - perhaps a kiss from a young woman or a jug of whiskey. It was at these events that the term Shuckin' and jivin' came into existence by the slaves while working and telling tall stories, talking smack, and joking around with each other.
These gatherings, even though involving hard work had to be an event looked forward to by the slaves, because it was one of the few times during the year blacks had a chance to interact with one another. Shuckin' and jivin' would become a tool the slaves would use to convince their masters of an untruth, and even among themselves. It was an early form of being cool.
After slavery blacks were free (sort of) to do as they pleased. Most blacks wanted to assimilate into American culture very much but were shut out by the white racist. African and European culture met head on in what was supposed to be fair in America guaranteed by our Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, but blacks didn't stand a chance.
Why, what happened?
Because most whites banded together by breaking the law and made blacks second class citizens and would go on to murder, lynch, rape, humiliate them all the way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement. After Lincoln, every single United States President was aware of this and did nothing. Whites achieved like crazy and prospered while blacks lagged far behind and got along the best way they knew how.
Blacks disliked whites very much for this terrible treatment and instead of violent disobedience, they protested by living their lives opposite of white culture. I mean let's face it, why would blacks want to imitate or become a part of a race of people that hated them?
This is when being cool became a symbol of white resistance and protest. Being cool would show you were down with the struggle. During slavery, we had already created our language which was AAVE and many blacks communicated this way. Any black that did not use it was looked down as trying to act white, joining the enemy sort of speak.
We developed our own way of walking with a proud gait, (George Jefferson strut) our own style of music, our own style of dance, our own style of food, our own style of worship, that didn't have anything in common with white folks and that suited blacks just fine. We were poor, but we were proud and cool and everyone who practiced these traits was cool and a part of the resistance.
In the process, we were creating a new culture that was admired over the world. Blacks have always had a remarkable ability to create something out of nothing. But sadly there was significant risk with this lifestyle in a great country such as America.
What were the downfalls?
Oscar Micheaux felt it was wrong for blacks to live this way in America. Oscar was an African American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 movies and he is regarded as the first major African-American feature filmmaker, the most successful African-American filmmaker of the first half of the twentieth century and the most prominent producer of race films. He produced both silent movies and "talkies" after the industry changed to incorporate speaking actors.
Oscar felt that blacks should become aggressive and use their brainpower in achieving instead of just settling for what the white man doled out. This man lived in some of the most racist times in American history, but he didn't let that stop him from fulfilling his dreams and doing it the legal way.
Evidently, Oscar had a brother who was the very cool type and was content on just putting up a show, or a front as living a successful life. We all know the type. A person that was living beyond his means. Blacks of his day called this way of living “the good life.”
Oscar didn't like it and was very upset with his brother. He later wrote in his book and discussed the culture of doers who want to accomplish, and those who see themselves as victims of injustice and hopelessness, and do not want to step out and try to succeed, but instead like to dress up, act cool and pretend to be successful while living the city lifestyle in poverty.
Oscar understood that education doesn't belong only to white people, it's a gift for all humanity to better ourselves, and honestly the best-proven way. Chinese, Japanese, Middle-Eastern and all other non-white nations understand this and have prospered by education. It's one of humanities treasure to learn.
But many blacks associated education with white and stayed far away from it, to continue with their cool lifestyle. A foolish mistake, and just what racist whites want you to believe.
Early Europeans completely dominated the Africans because they were better educated. They had guns we had spears, you do the math. In Africa our ancestors didn't value education, but traditions and silly ones at that. But that didn't save them. Education would have, though.
So without a doubt, it is entirely wrong to associate teaching and learning to white people. Many of us would look down upon another black who tried to better himself through education by saying they were trying to act white, and it wasn't cool. Racist whites laughed at us for believing this way because they knew we would always be behind.
After the 1960s, when our full Civil Rights were finally restored, many blacks chose to live the more standard American way by attending school to learn. But many also wanted to remain trapped in time with the old AAVE living in what they still perceived as defiance to the white American way of doing things. But were they only hurting themselves?
Later in time, being cool had become so prevalent in the black community it confused many kids, because they didn't quite understand if they were going to hang out with the cool kids or the so-called boring kids who liked to read and learn. At an early age, they are at a critical crossroad. Taking the cool route may seem easier, and a lot of fun, but would be a devastating mistake.
After the Civil Rights era we now have the opportunity to attend school and achieve as much as we can, but being cool has snatched many of the black kids and locked them into a culture hating education and in the process ruining their young lives.
Many entertainment figures reap much money from this cool culture by portraying cool as, well cool. They tell impressionable ones what's cool to hear, talk about, wear, eat, etc. and at the same time padding their cool humongous bank accounts.
These even get on television and flaunt their riches in a youngster's face never explicitly teaching on how they might be as successful, without being dishonest, stealing or selling drugs. Education is not cool for them to preach.
One thing is for sure, being cool can be a lot of fun and there's no denying that. Everybody wants to be liked, and it seems like cool people are respected and admired the most, from the clothes they wear to the type of songs they listen to the way they talk, the effortless way they seem to accomplish every task is amazing.
They possess incredible confidence. But truthfully everything they've accomplished wouldn't have been possible without the sacrifices of our wonderful ancestors. So don't you agree we owe a particular moral responsibility to them?
Kids should remember cool is not the real deal, It's a game we can't get caught up in. Our ancestors endured so much so we could achieve. We should never forget that. That's what this site was created. Browse through its pages, and you're going to read stories of amazing blacks.
They made it possible for us, and we're sure they would advise us to achieve through education first and foremost and save the cool for the weekends, and I ain't Shuckin and Jivin!
By White House (Pete Souza) / Maison Blanche (Pete Souza) (The Official White House Photostream) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Senate Office of Richard Lugar [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Fashions for young African American women
Fashions for African American Men
Bob Cole and John Rosamond Johnson,
Making a fashion statement
| Fashions in 1886 |
Fashion in the 1880s is characterized by the return of the bustle. The long, lean line of the 1870s was replaced by a full, curvy silhouette with gradually widening shoulders. Fashionable waists were low and tiny below a full, low bust supported by a corset.
Skirts were looped, draped, or tied up in various ways, and worn over matching or contrasting underskirts Choker necklaces and jewelled collars were also fashionable in the 1880s. Long, jacket-like fitted bodices called basques were also popular for daywear An usual type of undergarment was called combinations, a camisole with attached knee or calf-length drawers, worn under the corset, bustle, and petticoat.
Three piece suits, "ditto suits", consisting of a sack coat with matching waistcoat vest continued as an informal alternative to the contrasting frock coat, waistcoat and trousers. Formal wear remained a dark tail coat and trousers with a dark waistcoat. Evening wear was worn with a white bow tie and a shirt with a winged collar. By the 1880s the majority of the working class, even shepherds adopted jackets and waistcoats in fustian and corduroy with corduroy trousers, giving up their smock frocks.
Young girls wore dresses with round collars and sashes. Fashionable dresses had dropped waists. Pinafores were worn for work and play. A hat or bonnet was worn as well, along with long, knee-length button-up boots or shorter boots with gaitors to give the appearance of wearing long boots. Older boys wore knee-length breeches and jackets with round-collared shirts.
Yeow!, Slavery is Finally Over!|
It's smooth sailing ahead
We can't wait to get out in the workforce to make our own money
What type of employment awaits us in the 1800s?
90% of Negroes still lived in the South up until the late 1910s. Blacks looking for work in the South mainly worked on the land they lived. Most were tenant farmers that did contract work on a farm by farm basis. Some blacks were hired just for a particular job and once the job was over had to find employment elsewhere. They would work and harvest the field for the season and pay the owner out of their profits for room and board and use of farming tools.
Some but not many blacks also worked in manufacturing, and for the most part were paid comparable wages as their white counterparts. However, blacks were much less likely to hold better-paying skilled jobs, and they were more liable to work for lower-paying companies.
If blacks were not working on farms, they were engaged in unskilled labor and service jobs. They were unable to afford their homes. Because of the crazy events unfolding with voter intimidations and outright murders by the KKK, with total impunity and the total disregard for assistance from American presidents, and the end of Reconstruction help. Most black children had not attended school in the year before the Census was taken, and white children were much more likely to have attended.
Immediately after the emancipation blacks were very eager to learn, school attendance was sky high, but unfolding events that were perpetrated or voted on in approval by white citizens demoralized many blacks at this point in history before the turn of the century, and don't forget the effects of damaging Jim Crows laws which were about to formally get underway.
So a typical look at the African American family at the end of the 1800s Census lived and worked on a farm in the South and did not own their home, and children in these families were unlikely to be in school even at very young ages.
Blacks also found employment in the mining industry, which was very dangerous work. In 1883, thousands of European immigrants and a large number of African Americans migrated to southern West Virginia to work in coal mines. These coal miners worked in company mines with company tools and equipment, which they were required to lease. Along with these expenses, the miners have deducted pay for housing rent and items they purchased from company stores. Furthermore, the coal companies went as far as creating their monetary system so the miners could only shop at company-owned stores. In addition to the poor economic condition, safety in the mines was a great concern with many men either killed or permanently injured.
African-Americans also worked in the shipping business as stevedores or more commonly called, longshoreman which consisted of waterfront manual laborer involved in loading and unloading ships. In the 1800s, the word stevedore was usually applied to black laborers who loaded and unloaded bales of cotton and other freight on and off riverboats.
Work for Negroes in the Northern cties weren't much better. Many blacks probably thought that after the Civil War their streets were going to be paved golden with opportunity, but boy were they in for a surprise!
Blacks were denied at every level on the economic ladder. It has been observed that this was a period the black crime rate rose, with the white crime rate going down. Whites controlled every single aspect of gainful American employment.
Factories were going full steam ahead, but when blacks tried to enter, they were shut out, why? Mainly because the whites didn't want to work side by side with blacks, so as a result they were not hired.
The textiles and garment industries were also booming during this period, but there aren't records of blacks ever being hired.
It was possible for blacks to find work with the railroads as Pullman porters, track workers, or common laborers, but at the same time when their families and friends wanted to travel on the train, they were segregated. How demoralizing that had to be. White railroad unions blocked them out from making better pay which was in the maintenance and train building departments.
In the early 1800s, there were many black craftsmen such as carpenters, machinist, contractors, etc. who enjoyed a good reputation with their skilled art trade, but in the late 1800s that image changed due to the increase of separate but equal doctrine. It's not a dispute blacks couldn't do the work, the issue was the color of skin that kept them out of the workforce.
When a black would apply for employment at a retail store, they wouldn't hire them, saying whites did not want to be served by them. One black was fortunate enough to land a job as the cities only black clerk at a commercial bank. What was the catch? He never received a raise or promotion and dared not complained.
Businesses would hire newly arriving immigrants before hiring their American black brothers. Blacks were better educated, but just the wrong color in their eyes.
If a black person extended himself through higher learning going on to become a doctor or lawyer, one important question has to be answered. Who were going to be his paying clients? This problem persist in today's world and as long as America is around, it always will. It's a deeply entrenched belief in white people whether conscious or unconscious to avoid doing business with blacks. (generally speaking)
Whites rarely would patronize black professionals, even famous black sociologist of those days WEB Dubois made a comment "Education will get you nothing but disappointment and humiliation.'' which Dubois had to be frustrated when making that statement because he was at the forefront in African American achievement through education.
It has been noted that there were only two avenues open for blacks during this period in history which was strike-breaking and vice.
Different businesses such as the coal mines would hire blacks a strike-breakers when the whites would protest for more money. Of course, many blacks lost their lives with the violent outburst by the white workers fearing they were losing their jobs. Blacks had to take the chance along with the danger, what else could they do?
They had to feed their families too. With the women, it was the same thing. When white dressmakers went on strike, the company hired black women to take their place. So basically, blacks were used as pawns in the game.
The other avenue open to blacks was the vice, and this clearly explains how and why this phenomenon has extended down to our day for a segment of our black community. It would seem these blacks are still demoralized and traumatized from these events in history. But we have every hope they will rise and soar like the eagles. There was a lot of gambling, prostitution, lottery, and bootlegging, going on in the cities, and maybe the police kept a blind eye to it because they ignored it for a while. - At this point in history, Philadelphia was estimated to have 10,000 prostitutes and 1,000 brothels in the 1890s. Most of the vise would find it's way into the black neighborhoods with black leaders unable to stop it.
We think it's important to note that old saying that "the more things change the more they stay the same" applies here. America has made some progress in racial relations but the attitude still exist for blacks entering the workplace which is mostly white. Many will keep quiet but may not want you there, but you have your family to feed just like they do and as long as everyone does his work and obey the rules is all that matters. We're not out to win a popularity contest. But if they sincerely want to work with you, that would be wonderful!
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1880s
James Monroe Trotter
Knights of labor seal
| Our Community in 1886 |
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
March 29, 1886 - Chemist John Pemberton begins to advertise for Coca-Coke.
May 1, 1886 - United States labor unions general strike for 8-hour working day begins.
September 4, 1886 - Apache Chief Geronimo surrenders ending last major US-Indian war.
October 28, 1886 - Statue of Liberty is dedicated by US President Grover Cleveland.
The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was the first federation of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in Columbus, Ohio, in May 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association.
During its first years, the AFL admitted nearly anyone. Women, African Americans, and immigrants joined in small numbers. But by the 1890s, the Federation had begun to organize only skilled workers in craft unions and became an organization of white men. Although the Federation preached a policy of egalitarianism regarding African American workers, it actively discriminated against black workers. The AFL sanctioned the maintenance of segregated locals within its affiliates—particularly in the construction and railroad industries—a practice which often excluded black workers altogether from union membership and thus from employment in organized sectors. Sidenote: Young blacks need to know about this dark period in American history. Many times they may wonder why there aren't as many blacks at skilled positions in America as whites and other races. This is where it began. History books are full of able-bodied black men and women who were carpenters, stevedores (dockworkers), machinists, engineers, contractors, painters, etc. and every other skilled position you can think. So it wasn't as if blacks didn't have the capabilities, they were very well qualified, and the ones that weren't skilled were no different than a young white boy just learning the trade. Simply put, blacks were excluded from the American experience to an absoulutely shameful degree. They couldn't get work and provide for themselves or loved ones. This system of exclusion and racism would last for many years.
Now let me ask you a question. How did this affect the black family if fathers couldn't find work with good pay? Well we think the answer is obvious, and it's becoming increasingly clear that blacks have to unite to look after their own, and put the American brotherhood thing on the back burner.
- The Knights of Labor, was the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 1880s. The union had around 75,000 African American members. The Knights' primary demand was for an eight-hour day. The Knights of Labor accepted membership dues from blacks but tolerated segregation in the South. Asians were not allowed to join the membership. The Knights were also responsible for race riots that resulted in the deaths of about 28 Chinese in the Rock Springs massacre in Wyoming. The Knights also strongly supported the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. It had 800,000 members in 1886.
- 1886 - James Monroe Trotter was appointed by the Republican administration as the Recorder of Deeds in Washington, DC, the highest federal position available at the time for African Americans.
- The United States Population is 50,155,783 with a total of 6,580,793 being African Americans.
#100 - Public Domain image - Chicken by Will Accooe (New York : Howley, Haviland and Co., c1899.). African-American Sheet Music, 1850-1920, American Memory, Library of Congress
#101 - Public Domain image - Bob Cole detail from "Pliney come out in the moonlight" (New York : J.H. Remick and Co., c1910. ). African-American Sheet Music, 1850-1920, American Memory, Library of Congresss
#102 - Public Domain image - Two soldiers and two women on porch, with Afro-American woman and man to right, Fort Verde, Arizona, 1 photographic print on cabinet card. Contributor: Mearns, Edgar Alexander
Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1886
#103 - Public Domain image - Stereographs of African Americans 6 photographic prints on stereo cards : stereograph, albumen ; 9 x 18 cm. | 2 photographic prints on stereo cards : stereograph, albumen ; 11 x 18 cm. | Photographs show African Americans, primarily scenes of every day life. Includes children and mothers, domestic life, men playing stringed instruments, and men at a wharf. Four photos show Florida scenes, other locations are unidentified. Contributor: Barker, George Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1886
#104 - Public Domain image - See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#105 - Public Domain image - See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#106 - Public Domain image - By Betsy Graves Reyneau, 1888-1964, Artist (NARA record: 4772241) (U.S. National Archives and Records Administration) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#107 - Public Domain image - By Art Photogravure Co., 1898Smith, J. Soule, 1848-1904 [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#108 - Public Domain image - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Norris_Wright_Cuney.jpg
#109 - Public Domain image - This image is in the public domain in the United States. In most cases, this means that it was first published prior to January 1, 1923 (see the template documentation for more cases). Other jurisdictions may have other rules, and this image might not be in the public domain outside the United States. See Wikipedia:Public domain and Wikipedia:Copyrights for more details.
#110 - Public Domain image -
By US Navy [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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