OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1873:
Victims of the Colfax Massacre
The Colfax massacre happened on April 13, 1873, in Colfax, Louisiana. In those years the right to vote was precious to former slaves, so precious in fact that they would be willing to sacrifice their lives for it.
The massacre happened in the South where there was still much violence happening, even though the Civil War had ended roughly eight years earlier. The U.S. government had made it possible for blacks to hold office and vote, to the dismay of many racist white ex-confederates and white community members.
The almost all-black state militia who were guarding the courthouse where the massacre took place put up a fight but sadly couldn't match up to the White League, who were trained ex-confederates who even had an old cannon in its arsenal. Intimidation and black voter suppression by paramilitary groups such as the White League were instrumental to the Democratic Party regaining political control in the state legislature by the late 1870s.
It was estimated that over 150 blacks died in the conflict. In response to these incidents and others throughout the South, President Grant ordered federal troops to restore order. Some paramilitary members were arrested, but in the end, everybody walked Scott free.
After this miscarriage of justice, it empowered these paramilitaries to grow even stronger. It also kept many blacks in a constant state of fear, knowing these groups could do as they pleased with total impunity.
We applaud our people for persevering in such a climate of fear and hate. Can many of us today say we would have been as strong? Thank you victims of the Colfax massacre. Your sacrifice isn't forgotten by us or the One who created us all. We gladly award you with the 1873 Hamite Award for your lasting contribution.
The Colfax Massacre on April 13, 1873. photo #102
The Colfax Massacre and U.S. v Cruikshank
How were blacks feeling in 1873?
What a terrible way to live, always in fear. We are hearing about our peoples down in Colfax, Louisiana where close to 150 souls lost their lives by those crazy religious terrorist KKK or should I say their twin brother the White league. I don't think these people could have treated other races so wrong without getting backlash.
They call us violent, ignorant savages, but even with all the killings of blacks, we never even considered mounting a surprise attack, simply because our way of thinking is different than theirs. They love violence. That's much hate in their hearts, and we believe they must pay for that someday, someway.
They are very aggressive people in their false religious beliefs and believe that God is on the side of rape and murders. Maybe one day we will learn to be proactive instead of just accepting the slaughter, I mean we do have black ex-soldiers who fought in the Civil War, but it's just not our nature for violence like theirs. We are peaceful, loving Americans, true Americans, something they are not, and which they admitted to when they attempted to secede from the U.S.
Why the U.S. would want to continue association with these vermin is beyond our understanding and we don't need a crystal ball to see that they are going to spread their hate to the North also. We already know that the North don't view us as equal, but saw slavery as wrong.
This is the year of The Panic of 1873. As former slaves we experienced how crazy, the master would act when financial problems arose, it always made it even harder for us, and now being free I don't think it will be any different, in fact, I believe that we're going to be treated worse. There are businesses and railroads closing, and a sense of fear in the air because folks don't know what this is going to mean to their families. We hear this is the first truly international crisis. What this means for the Negro remains to be seen, but I can bet you it won't be good.
On a happier note, this was the year that Theophilus Augustus Thompson had his chess book publish, which we hear is doing extremely well. Wow, just imagine that, a former slave to a chess whiz! You go boy!
Authentic newspaper article for the year 1873 Get a feel for what was really happening in 1873
Can you feel the paranoia in this man's article? Southern whites were terrified of this "Negro problem" that existed after slavery. They caused the situation and now are doing everything they can to get out of it. They did not want to live with blacks and can you imagine the humiliation the North were punishing them when by actually being governed by former slaves. Many whites of that day felt the white race was superior because of belief called Pre-adamic theory.
The belief they claimed was found in the bible in the book of Genesis before Adam was created God created the wild beast. According to these superior whites, these wild beast were the Negro which was created solely to serve whites, and they also believed God created the Negro without a soul. This made it easier for whites to treat blacks so cruel because they reasoned we were not human beings but from the animal family.
Strange but true they believed this,(and it's our guess many still do.) Have you ever noticed in slave movies where blacks are called the beast? Well, it's because of this theory. It's a good thing for the former slaves that America associated itself with justice and liberty as it's cornerstone which forced her to face the truth, otherwise slavery would still exist today.
Do you think these fellas know their black/american history in regards to shooting marbles?
Octavius Valentine Catto
Catto at Bat - Philadelphia Freedom Festival
Sports in 1873
Blacks were not accepted into the league baseball games, so they started their teams, becoming professional by the the 1870s. The first known baseball game between two black teams was held on November 15, 1859, in New York City. The Henson Base Ball Club of Jamaica, Queens, defeated the Unknowns of Weeksville, Brooklyn, 54 to 43.
By the end of the 1860s, the black baseball mecca was Philadelphia, which had an African-American population of 22,000. Two former cricket players, James H. Francis and Francis Wood, formed the Pythian Base Ball Club. They played in Camden, New Jersey, at the landing of the Federal Street Ferry, because it is hard to get permits for black baseball games in the city. Octavius Catto, the promoter of the Pythians, decided to apply for membership in the National Association of Base Ball Players, generally a matter of sending delegates to the annual convention; beyond that, a formality.
At the end of the 1867 season "the National Association of Baseball Players voted to exclude any club with a black player." In some ways Blackball thrived under segregation, with the few black teams of the day playing not only each other but white teams as well. "Black teams earned the bulk of their income playing white independent 'semipro' clubs."
The mistreatment and segregation of Blacks didn't only happen in the South, but also the Northern cities like Philadelphia.
Octavius Valentine Catto was a black educator, intellectual, and civil rights activist in Philadelphia. As a man, he also became known as a top cricket and black baseball pioneer in 19th-century Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
University of Arkansas - Pine Bluff | Golden Girls - Headbussa's (2015)
Education in 1873
1873 - School attendance on the rise for African-Americans.
1873 - Bishop Patrick Healy serves as President of Georgetown University from 1873 to 1881, becoming the first African American to preside over a predominately white university.
Wiley College is a four-year, private, historically black, liberal arts college located on the west side of Marshall, Texas. Founded in 1873 by the Methodist Episcopal Church's Bishop Isaac Wiley.
The University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff (UAPB) is a historically black university located in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, United States. Founded in 1873, the second oldest public institution in the state of Arkansas.
P. B. S. Pinchback
Nast cartoon of Democratic donkey, from "Harper's Weekly", January 19th 1870 photo #112-yr-1870
Political Scene in 1873
1873 - Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th President of the United States (186977). As Commanding General, Grant worked closely with President Abraham Lincoln to lead the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy in the American Civil War. He implemented Congressional Reconstruction, often at odds with Lincoln's successor, Andrew Johnson. Analysis: Ulysses S. Grant was a President that understood and enforced the U.S. Constitution. He lobbied for the 15th Amendment, giving blacks the right to vote. He was also a strong believer in Reconstruction aid and Civil Rights to the Negro, completely opposite of his predecessor, Andrew Johnson.
January 13, 1873 - P. B. S. Pinchback relinquishes office as Louisiana governor.
January 14, 1873 - P. B. S. Pinchback is elected to the US Senate.
March 4, 1873 President of the United States Ulysses S. Grant begins his second term.
April 14, 1873 - United States Supreme Court rules that the due process clause of the 14th Amendment protects national, not state, citizenship. (Slaughterhouse Cases)
1873 - The 43rd Congress has a total of seven black members this year.
The cartoons of Thomas Nast 1870 in Harper's Weekly. Cartoonists followed Nast and used the donkey to represent the Democrats, and the elephant to represent the Republicans.
The Colfax massacre occurred on Easter Sunday, April 13, 1873, in Colfax, Louisiana, during confrontation between opposing political forces of the Republicans (black) and Democrats (white).
"It is worthy of emphasis, that the antiquity of the Negro race is beyond dispute. His brightest days were when history was an infant; and, since he early turned from God, he has found the cold face of hate and the hurtful hand of the Caucasian against him." George Washington Williams
Dislike of black people is a relatively new phenomenon that started after the 16th century. Before this time there wasn't a thing such as racial prejudices. If color issues did arise, it was an infrequent occurrence. It's hardly mentioned in history books. For the most part, skin color was not a factor.
In fact, it's well documented how the early Greek philosophers who were all white, Socrates, Herodotus, Thales, Alexander the Great, Aristotle among others happily mingled with the blacks. Africa was known as the learning capital of the world, and many philosophers traveled to Africa to study about everything from philosophy to mathematics. Pythagoras is believed to have made it the furthest, having studied in Kemet for 23 years.
The Greek Poet Homer was one of those travelers and made the following statement:
"In ancient times the blacks were known to be so gentle to
strangers that many believed that the gods sprang from them.
Homer sings of the Ocean, father of the gods; and says that
when Jupiter wishes to take a holiday, he visits the sea,
and goes to the banquets of the blacks,--a people humble,
courteous, and devout."
Black people had a good reputation for being intelligent, kind and hospitable and enjoying an advanced civilization that the Greeks envied.
If alive today, Greek scholars would find it surprising how a person might believe in superiority simply because of skin color.
History makes the answer easy. After the 16th century, race became an issue for whites because of three dynamics. Greed, science, and white history (legacy).
The trans-Atlantic slave trade was about greed. Free black labor aided in making Europeans countries and America very rich on the backs of black slaves. This created animosity between the blacks and whites.
Erroneous science theories
The introduction of false science teaching aided European and Americans in abandoning their conscience, because science didn't require one. Early Western philosophy advocated peace and treating all men with respect, but subsequent white generations did the opposite. Whites started to feel like gods themselves with their advancements in science and began to exhibit hubris, which is a Greek word denoting overconfident pride combined with arrogance. In other words, their heads became too big.
Incomplete history recording
Eurocentric history is always portrayed as the centerpiece of world history. African history was habitually erased by invading troops to eliminate its contributions and accomplishments to the world while preserving their European legacy. White history regularly portrays Africa as a wasteland full of ignorant savages, but current excavations prove the opposite. Africa was a developed continent with advanced civilizations just as good as Europe if not better.
Not to pick on white people, but it's entirely accurate they made our co-existence on this earth a race issue. This developed scorn or dislike they have for blacks continues down to our day.
Listed below are a few of the so-called geniuses who got the ball rolling in pitting white against black.
Not one ounce of truth could be found in what these early scientists preached as fact. Modern science doesn't agree with them. But guess what? There's still a lot of people who believe in this ridiculous white superiority crap, either conscious or unconsciously, which doesn't say much for the intelligence of these people.
Believe it or not, this is one reason a lot of whites dislike blacks today. It's not rare to hear about media services about blacks being called derogatory names associated with past world history.
So to honestly answer the question above "Why do many in America dislike black people?" At this point, it's because they want to.
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a white officer in the Union army had the task of training colored soldiers in the Civil War. He kept a diary for our enjoyment today. (click here)
George W. Williams - History of the Negro Race in America From 1619 to 1880. (click here)
Bob Cole and John Rosamond Johnson, (right) African American composers photo #103-yr-1873
Our Faded History: Madame Sul-Te-Wan
W.C. Handy - Memphis Blues
Famous Birthdays in 1873
March 7, 1873 - Madame Sul-Te-Wan was an African American stage, film and television actress. The daughter of freed slaves, she began her career in entertainment touring the east coast with various theatrical companies and moved to California to become a member of the fledgling film community. She became known as a character actress, appeared in high profile films.
August 11, 1873 - John Rosamond Johnson most often referred to as J. Rosamond Johnson, was a Bahamian-American composer and singer during the Harlem Renaissance.
November 16, 1873 - William Christopher Handy was an American blues composer and musician. He was widely known as the "Father of the Blues".
1873 - George Walker was born in 1873 in Lawrence, Kansas. His first acting job took him to San Francisco where he met Bert Williams in 1893. As a team, their big break came in 1896 in Victor Herbert's musical Gold Bug.
1873 - John W. Cooper was an African-American ventriloquist of the early 20th century.
1873 - Emmett J. Scott Chief aide to Booker T. Washington. and highest ranking African American in President Woodrow Wilsons administration.
Famous Deaths in 1873
December 22, 1873 - Charles Lenox Remond was an American orator, activist and abolitionist based in Massachusetts.
1873 - Dr. W.H.C. Stephenson was the first African-American doctor in Nevada. He practiced medicine in Virginia City, Nevada.
1873 - Stephen Smith from Pennsylvania was born into slavery and purchased his own freedom going on to become a noted abolitionist.
Lewis Howard Latimer
Elijah J. McCoy
Did You Know? 03 - "Lewis Latimer"
Famous Weddings in 1873
November 15, 1873 - Lewis Latimer and Mary Wilson Lewis were married.
1873 - Elijah J. McCoy and Mary Eleanor Delaney were married.
Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield
Plantation scenarios were common in black minstrelsy, as shown here in this poster for Callender's Colored Minstrels.
During the Civil War, Thomas Wentworth Higginson served as colonel of the 1st South Carolina Volunteers, the first federally authorized black regiment, from 18621864. Following the war, Higginson devoted much of the rest of his life to fighting for the rights of freed slaves, women and other disfranchised peoples.
John Brown Song
Danny 'Slapjazz' Barber and Sekani Thomas: An Apprenticeship in Hambone (aka Patting Juba)
Army Life in a Black Regiment, by Thomas Wentworth Higginson
Music in 1873
Musical Happenings in 1873:
The 1870s was a decade where the only way to obtain music was on sheet music sold in stores. People would sit at the piano and sing.
Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield dubbed "The Black Swan", was an African-American singer considered the best-known black concert artist of her time. She was noted by James M. Trotter for her "remarkably sweet tones and wide vocal compass". She toured and conducted a Philadelphia music studio. Among her voice pupils was Thomas Bowers, who became known as "The Colored Mario" and "The American Mario" for the similarity of his voice to Italian opera tenor Giovanni Mario.
One or two African-American troupes dominated the scene for much of the late 1860s and 1870s. The first of these was Brooker and Clayton's Georgia Minstrels, who played the Northeast around 1865. Sam Hague's Slave Troupe of Georgia Minstrels formed shortly thereafter and toured England to great success beginning in 1866. In the 1870s, white entrepreneurs bought most of the successful black companies. Charles Callender obtained Sam Hague's troupe in 1872 and renamed it Callender's Georgia Minstrels. They became the most popular black troupe in America, and the words Callender and Georgia came to be synonymous with the institution of black minstrelsy.
Thomas Wentworth Higginson:
Thomas Wentworth Higginson leads the First South Carolina Colored Volunteers, the first group of authorized African American soldiers. Higginson is a notable author who helps popularize many aspects of African American music. He contributed to the preservation of Negro spirituals by copying dialect verses and music he heard sung around the regiment's campfires.
John Brown's Song:
is a United States marching song about the abolitionist John Brown. The song was popular in the Union during the American Civil War.
"Juba Juba", a popular song about the Juba:
Juba dis and Juba dat,
and Juba killed da yellow cat,
You sift the meal and ya gimme the husk,
you bake the bread and ya gimme the crust,
you eat the meat and ya gimme the skin,
and that's the way,
my mama's troubles begin
A song about the hambone from Step it Down (v.s.):
Hambone Hambone pat him on the shoulder
If you get a pretty girl, I'll show you how to hold her.
Hambone, Hambone, where have you been?
All 'round the world and back again.
Hambone, Hambone, what did you do?
I got a train and I fairly flew.
Hambone, Hambone where did you go?
I hopped up to Miss Lucy's door.
I asked Miss Lucy would she marry me.
(falsetto)"Well I don't care if Papa don't care!"
First come in was Mister Snake,
He crawled all over that wedding cake.
Next walked in was Mister Tick,
He ate so much it made him sick.
Next walked in was Mister Coon,
We asked him to sing us a wedding tune,
Popular Soul Dances:
The Juba or Hambone dance was originally from West Africa. It became an African-American plantation dance that was performed by slaves during their gatherings when no rhythm instruments were allowed due to fear of secret codes hidden in the drumming.
Buck & Wing
Pullman porters who were largely black are widely credited with contributing to the development of the black middle class in America. Before the Civil War, sleeping cars were not in use. George Pullman came up with the brilliant idea of making rail travel a memorable event with servers to cater to whites every need.
During slavery, most whites didn't own slaves and this gave them an opportunity to experience that. Pullman became the number #1 employer of blacks in the country. He was a tight businessman though because the pay was lousy with the porters working over 400 hours a month. Porters also had to purchase their own clothing and accessories. They received most of their income by tips.
But the job was steady work and that meant alot for black families. Famous porters of old included, Thurgood Marshall, Oscar Micheaux, Malcolm X and the photojournalist Gordon Parks.
Pullman Porters - Ordinary Men, Extraordinary History
Fashions for young African American women photo #103-yr-1870
Fashions for young African American women photo #103a-yr-1870
Stylish clothes for African American men photo #107-yr-1870
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention Illustration from Harper's Weekly The person who drew this Illustration was kind to black people. Usually during that time period they would portray the Negro with wild hair and humongous noses with exaggerated lips. They made us look normal. Thank you Harper's. photo #101-yr-1869
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention Illustration from Harper's Weekly photo #101-yr-1869
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention Illustration from Harper's Weekly photo #101-yr-1869
Fashions in 1873
For women by 1870 fullness in the skirt had moved to the rear, where elaborately draped overskirts were held in place by tapes and supported by a bustle. This fashion required an underskirt, which was heavily trimmed with pleats, flounces, rouching, and frills.
Innovations in men's fashion of the 1870s included the acceptance of patterned or figured fabrics for shirts and the general replacement of neckties tied in bow knots with the four-in-hand and later the Ascot tie.
Infants continued to be dressed in flowing gowns, a style that continued into the early twentieth century. Gender dress changes often did not occur until a child was five or six. As the girls got older, they wore longer skirts. A four-year-old would wear her skirt at knee length; ten to twelve at mid-calf; and by sixteen, the girls dress would be ankle length. Boys often dressed similar to adult males, as they too wore blazers and Norfolk jackets.
How did religion begin for the American Negro?
Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.
What is fetishism you may ask?
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance
Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.
But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.
In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views
that relate humanity to an order of existence.
Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.
But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.
Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.
This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.
Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.
During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.
But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.
The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015
Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.
Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.
So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.
The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
Church Of God in Christ Baptism photo#112-yr-2015
The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (18651949) and Charles Harrison Mason (18661961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.
A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.
But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.
Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.
So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.
Published in Harper's Weekly May 10, 1873, after the Colfax massacre in Colfax on April 13, 1873. photo #100
Chess whiz Theophilus Thompson photo #104
The former Freedman's Savings Bank on Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C. photo #105-yr-1874
Financial Panic of 1873
Our Community in 1873
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
March 22, 1873 - Emancipation Day for Puerto Rico: Slaves are freed (with a few exceptions).
May 20, 1873 - Levi Strauss & Co. began manufacturing the famous Levi's brand of jeans, using fabric from the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester, New Hampshire.
September 18, 1873 The New York stock market crash triggers the Panic of 1873 part of the Long Depression.
The Colfax massacre occurred on Easter Sunday, April 13, 1873, in Colfax, Louisiana, during confrontation between opposing political forces of the Republicans and Democrats.
Theophilus Augustus Thompson was born into slavery in Frederick, Maryland and after emancipation he got involved with chess and became the earliest documented African-American chess expert recognized in the United States.
Trivia:Theophilus had some success with a book he authored entitled "Chess Problems: Either to Play and Mate (1873)." It was published by Orestes Brownson Jr., the editor of the Dubuque Chess Journal for whom Thompson also worked as a servant. More info about the book can be located here (click here)
The Freedman's Savings Bank, was a private corporation chartered by the U.S. government to encourage and guide the economic development of the newly emancipated African-American communities in the post-Civil War period. The bank's central office was located in Washington D.C., but had many branches throughout America, especially in the South. Although functioning only between 1865 and 1874, the company achieved notable successes as a leading financial institution of African-Americans. Its failure in 1874 was devastating to the newly emancipated black community. Trivia: With over 480,000 names on file, it make for the largest single repository of lineage-linked African-American records. The searchable database is available to amateur as well as professional genealogists.
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