blast from the past

blast from the past
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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1865:
Robert Smalls
    Wow! what a great man Robert Smalls was. A movie could be made about his amazing life and accomplishments! It has all the necessary components to make a great film which would be a motive, action and adventure with a good ending. In today's age, there are plenty of black folks in Hollywood in high places who could organize and produce a movie about this great man. But as usual, we will probably wait on whites to do it for us.

    Smalls was born enslaved in 1839 in Beaufort South Carolina. He was born in a cabin right behind his master's house. His mother's name was Lydia Polite who was also a slave. When Robert reached the age of 12, his master hired him out to Charleston to work.

    Robert was a young man who loved learning. He was hired on as a lamplighter on Charleston's streets. Later he became a dockworker learning how to rig, making sails, and within time worked his way up to wheelman (pilot). In time he became very knowledgeable about the mechanics of ships and was very familiar with the Charleston harbor.

    Smalls met his wife at a hotel she worked. She was five years older than him, and they eventually had two children with the youngest passing away at an early age. Robert wanted a better life for himself and his family, so he came up with a master plan to escape the bonds of slavery. In the fall of 1861, Smalls was assigned to steer the CSS Planter. He had to be a pleasant type fellow to gain the confidence of the Confederates officers because they left the ship in Smalls care to spend the night ashore leaving him alone with eight other fellow slaves. They evidently underestimated him.

    What did Robert do? Smalls dressed in the captain's uniform and had a straw hat similar to that worn by the leader. He sailed the CSS Planter out of what was then known as Southern Wharf, then stopped at a nearby wharf to pick up his family and the families of other crewmen, who were hiding there. The Confederates suspected nothing as he passed the checkpoints because he knew Confederate codes to give.

    After reaching Union lines, he became a hero. The ship contained much valuable information the Union was able to use, such as maps of mines and torpedoes laid around Charleston harbor, and also valuable artillery pieces aboard as cargo as well as their ammunition meant for Confederate forts. Even President Lincoln heard about what happened and met up with Smalls to get a first-hand account. This helped to convince the President to allow Negroes to fight in the war.

    Later in time on another mission, Smalls took control of a vessel, when the fearful commander was on the brink of surrendering, Smalls had other plans because he knew if captured, it wouldn't go well for the blacks and would likely die a painful death. Roberts took control of the vessel and commandeered the ship to safety. After this amazing show of courage, Smalls was made the first black captain of a ship in the service of the United States.

    Maybe the most touching story about this great man was that immediately following the war in 1865, Smalls returned to his native Beaufort, South Carolina where he purchased his former master's house. What a wonderful feeling that had to give Smalls and his family. He was feeling pretty good about America at this point. His mother Lydia lived with him for the remainder of her life. But listen to this amazing thing he did next.

    He allowed his former master's wife (Jane Bond McKee, who was elderly) to move back in the home before her death. What a heart of gold this man had. How many people could say the same? There was absolutely no bitterness at all in his heart toward this woman who had been his master's wife for all those years.

    Smalls entered the political arena next. He was elected to the South Carolina State legislature and the United States House of Representatives.

    We're sure we won't receive any objections at all in awarding this great human being the 1865 Hamite Award for his bravery, public service to his country and community and his heartwarming compassion for others. We salute you Robert Smalls for setting an excellent example for all to follow. But just one question for you Robert, it seems a little awkward, where did the master's wife sleep?

Robert Smalls in 1863
Robert Smalls
photo #116-yr-1863


The Gun-boat Planter
The Gun-boat "Planter",
run out of Charleston, SC,
by Robert Smalls, May 1862

photo #110-yr-1865



The Audacity of Robert Smalls | Michael B. Moore | TEDxStMarksSchool





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How were blacks feeling in 1865?
happy mood of blacks
Well, finally the civil war is over. The issue of slavery almost tore the country apart. America had chosen the high road on the slavery issue, and credit must be given her in attempting to do what's right.

Even though President Lincoln didn't see blacks as being equal with whites, or should have a part in government and believed in separate but equal, he still forcefully went ahead with the Emancipation Proclamation, which by law made slavery illegal in the United States.

Here is a partial quote from Abe Lincoln on his feelings about slavery. "I am naturally anti-slavery. If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong".

Even though hostilities would still exist between the races, at least blacks finally had the law on their sides. With the war ending this year, there were many former black soldiers who in reality constituted trained killers who could have wreak havoc on U.S. soil, but they reasoned that this was their home now and chose to use their peaceful and friendly nature of relying on the political system to fight stupidity and injustice. Little did they know the fight would continue for many years to come.



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racist newspaper articles

Authentic newspaper article for the year 1865
Get a feel for what was really happening in 1865

 1865 usa  newspaper articles  newspaper articles

The Bedford gazette. (Bedford, Pa.), 28 July 1865. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82005159/




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african american first

 For the year 1865:
  • Orindatus Simon Bolivar Wall, known as OSB Wall was the first African American to be commissioned as captain in the Regular U.S. Army.

  • Henry Highland Garnet was the first African-American to speak in The United States House of Representatives.

  • John Stewart Rock was the first African-American attorney admitted to the bar of the U.S. Supreme Court.

  • Martin Delany was the first African-American field officer in the U.S. Army.



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black kids shooting marbles in the 1800s



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black jockey

Octavius Catto
Octavius Valentine Catto
photo #121-yr-1863

      Sports in 1865
    Trivia:
  • Blacks were not accepted into the league baseball games, so they started their own teams, becoming professional by the the 1870s. The first known baseball game between two black teams was held on November 15, 1859, in New York City. The Henson Base Ball Club of Jamaica, Queens, defeated the Unknowns of Weeksville, Brooklyn, 54 to 43.

    By the end of the 1860s, the black baseball mecca was Philadelphia, which had an African-American population of 22,000. Two former cricket players, James H. Francis and Francis Wood, formed the Pythian Base Ball Club. They played in Camden, New Jersey, at the landing of the Federal Street Ferry, because it was difficult to get permits for black baseball games in the city. Octavius Catto, the promoter of the Pythians, decided to apply for membership in the National Association of Base Ball Players, normally a matter of sending delegates to the annual convention; beyond that, a formality.

    At the end of the 1867 season "the National Association of Baseball Players voted to exclude any club with a black player." In some ways Blackball thrived under segregation, with the few black teams of the day playing not only each other but white teams as well. "Black teams earned the bulk of their income playing white independent 'semipro' clubs."


  • The mistreatment and segregation of Blacks didn't only happen in the South, but also the Northern cities.



  • Octavius Valentine Catto was a black educator, intellectual, and civil rights activist in Philadelphia. As a man, he also became known as a top cricket and black baseball pioneer in 19th-century Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.




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U.S. Flag

36 stars (1865–67)
photo #111



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african immigrants out-perform other ethnic groups



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Education of Slaves
photo #105-yr-1865

Mary Jane Patterson
Mary Jane Patterson
photo #102-yr-1894

      Education in 1865
  • March 2, 1865 - Freedman's Bureau founded for Black Education.

  • 1865 - 10% literacy rate in the African American community.

  • In 1865 Mary Jane Patterson became an assistant to Fanny Jackson Coppin at the Philadelphia's Institute for Colored Youth (now Cheyney University of Pennsylvania).




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Abraham Lincoln in 1865
The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. From left to right: Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln,
Abraham Lincoln, and John Wilkes Booth. Rathbone is depicted as spotting Booth before he shot Lincoln and
trying to stop him as Booth fired his weapon. Rathbone actually was unaware of Booth’s approach, and reacted
after the shot was fired. While Lincoln is depicted clutching the flag after being shot, it is also possible that he
just simply pushed the flag aside to watch the performance.

photo #109


Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
photo #106-yr-1869

     Political Scene in 1865
  • April 14, 1865 - United States President Abraham Lincoln assasinated.

  • December 18, 1865 - The 13th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution outlawed slavery in all states and territories.

  • 1865 - Andrew Johnson was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. Johnson became president as he was vice president at the time of President Abraham Lincoln's assassination. Trivia: Johnson is generally considered among the worst American presidents for his opposition to federally guaranteed rights for African Americans. He fought the Negro at every turn. Every bill that came to his desk that he felt was for the blacks were denied.





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presidents rating guide
filler presidents rating guide
What is The Declaration of Independence?
It is a statement that the colonist wrote that officially declared their independence from Great Britain. They would now be called, The United States of America. This very special occasion is celebrated every July 4th in America.

The Declaration in part states:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

After becoming official, many of the political leaders set their slaves free because they felt it was hypocritical denying a race of people life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. These men had a moral conscience, and strived to be true Americans.

But on the other hand, many leaders chose to hold on to their slaves because it would mean a significant loss monetarily. These men didn't have a moral conscience. They let money and greed reign supreme.


The world was watching and ridiculed the men who held on to their slaves. This is America's very first test in morality and would set the tone for many years to come and up unto this day. Most Americans would put money first, with the lesser group clinging to true American principles. There were 12 American Presidents who were slaveholders, 8 of them while in office.

filler greedy green monster
You ugly detestable greedy creep.
Is this what America will become?

 Presidential Ratings

Looking through the eyes of a young person, imagine what you would see. Many may not understand how America came to be so polarized. Since the 60s, blacks have made enormous strides, but generally speaking today a youngster might see a white class of people who seem to have it all together, professionally, socially, educationally, economically, and the blacks are always demanding.

Can you imagine how overwhelming and intimidating this could be to some? But when a young black person understands their rich history, it will without a doubt give them courage and strength to believe in themselves, and when that happens, color of skin becomes less of an issue.

Young people deserve to be told the truth about how America became this way, and not in hate or a way that puts down another race. The truth, pure and simple that can be backed up with any library or Google search. America did not just happen yesterday, it took many years for this situation to become this way, and you might be surprised to learn that it was orchestrated by some not too friendly people who didn't sincerely believe in the meaning of the U.S. Constitution or the Declaration of Independence.

During slavery, the Negro depended on their masters for every single necessity of life. Even the smallest want of a slave had to be approved by his master. It also was a severe crime for anyone caught teaching the slaves to read or write. Books were hidden from the Negro, which meant that slaves were illiterate.

The Emancipation Proclamation freed over four million slaves, most of whom had lived and worked on plantations. America wanted to help these former slaves with Reconstruction aid such as education, medical, housing, etc., attempting to place these illiterate and uneducated Negroes on the road to complete American success.

What was the general attitude of the Negro with this Reconstruction help?

YEAH, THAT"S WHAT I"M TALKING ABOUT, THANKS SO MUCH AMERICA, WE WILL PROVE WE CAN BECOME SELF-RELIANT PRODUCTIVE CITIZENS! WE CAN"T WAIT TO FIND OUT WHAT"S IN THOSE BOOKS YOU HAVE BEEN HIDING FROM US. LET"S GET THIS THING STARTED!

Enthusiasm and motivation were very high to excel. The schools that had been built for the Negro were packed to capacity with students from 7-70 years of age. Educated blacks were getting elected to office as politicians. Fruitful black communities sprang up, and for the first time in American history, the Negro felt like he was a part of America, and was super happy looking toward a prosperous future.

But sadly, there were some who were not as happy, and these were the former Confederates who lived in the same cities. They didn't want any part of Negro success and to be governed by the people they just lost as slaves. So there was a great white resistance.

What was the result?

After only a few short years, the U.S. Government bowed down to these white supremacist and canceled Reconstruction aid to the former slaves. This was called the 1877 Compromise, (please click on 1877 for details) and blacks calling it the 1877 Grand Betrayal. This terrorist had attacked many black American citizens. Negroes were hanged, tortured, raped, murdered by the whites with total impunity. The U.S. government knew and did nothing, ignoring the enforcement duties set out in the Constitution.

The little gains the Negro was able to achieve were snatched away, and in the meantime, there were still millions of illiterate, defeated, restricted and uneducated black nomads wandering around in a racist society trying to make it the best way they could, and this situation would remain this way until the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, and yes this is how the black ghetto's got its start.

There's not enough room on this web page to describe the hate and exclusion by government and white Americans against blacks during this period. Jim Crow laws touched every part of life, all across America. Blacks and whites were kept apart as much as possible. Good jobs went to whites; blacks were given the worst with less pay. Many industries wouldn’t hire blacks. Many unions passed special rules to exclude them. All juries and judges were white; blacks were illegally denied voting rights. No blacks allowed in public pools. Many restaurants would not serve blacks, and those that did had a dirty colored section. Blacks and whites went to county fairs on different days. Blacks couldn't use public libraries. Simple common courtesy was rarely shown the blacks. Whites beat, tortured, raped and killed blacks with no fear of punishment. Blacks were denied credit for businesses, housing, cars by the banks. Blacks were kept out of white neighborhoods with housing covenants. Oklahoma had black and white phone booths. Texas had cities where blacks were totally restricted from living. Blacks could not leave their homes after 10:00 pm in Mobile Alabama. Blacks could not marry whites. Georgia had separate white and black parks. Prisons, hospitals, and orphanages were segregated as were schools and colleges. Blacks and whites had to use separate sets of books in school, in Florida, they couldn't be stored together. When a person was sworn in at a trial, the whites used one Bible, and the blacks had a separate Bible. For those who did complete college, a crucial question had to be answered. Who was going to be their clients? Whites didn't engage blacks in business, and the battered Negro couldn't afford their services. These laws became so entrenched in American life; even unwritten laws affected black citizenship; blacks understood to stay out of white stores and establishments. Segregation was so complete that whites did not see blacks except when being served by them. After the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, blacks have made enormous gains. This is how the United States of America became a polarized country. Each and every President knew what was going on and allowed this illegal activity for 87 years. Were they guilty of not upholding the United States Constitution in the Negroes behalf? Is this the reason why many other nations laugh at America with its constant claims of being on the side of good and high morality?

We are rating each and every President up unto the Civil Rights movement of the 60s in regards to the Constitutional laws he took the oath to uphold for all American citizens. The ratings can be located at the end of each President's term in office. Please keep in mind there are millions of poor and uneducated blacks in America seeking assistance into assimilating into American culture after 200 years of brutal slavery. Our focus is to find a courageous President, like Abe Lincoln that will solve this problem, and not pass it on to the next administration.

abe lincoln Abraham Lincoln was assassinated before the Amendments to the Constitution became official, but without a doubt he understood and enforced the high standards and morality the Constitution stood for. happy former slave



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Freedmen's school
The Misses Cooke's school room, Freedman's Bureau, Richmond, VA.
photo #109-yr-1866

Freedmen's school
Freedmen's school?, South Carolina. African-American children, mainly girls, with adult women, possibly teachers.
photo #100-yr-1865

Reconstruction in 1865

    Freedmen's Bureau:
    The Freedmen's Bureau began in 1865. Its purpose was to assist former black slaves from a life of slavery to the free labor system. The Bureau provided assistance in medical needs, housing, food, school and also legal aid. The Bureau helped people find lost family and taught them to read and write so they could better themselves. Oliver Otis Howard who was a Union general, was appointed the commissioner of the bureau in May 1865.

    You have to remember during slavery days it was illegal in many states to teach blacks to read and write, so the Freedmen's Bureau had their hands full in assisting these illiterate former slaves into the American mainstream. They're many corrupt and insincere Bureau agents who along with white Southerners fought against Bureau successes every step of the way, but they are also honest Bureau officials who wanted to help and assist blacks in bettering themselves.

    Congress realized the Bureau was needed for a longer period of time and sought to extend it with opposition from white Southerners and a powerful new ally, President, Andrew Johnson who vetoed the bill because he felt the Bureau showed preference to one race over another and wouldn't help in making blacks independent.

    Andrew Johnson didn't care for blacks. He gave former Confederates back their land lost in the war and fired Bureau agents he felt were too partial to the black cause. It was like Johnson was saying to the South, "OK we fought a war and it's over, but we are not going to let a Negro tear us apart, it's time to heal. Screw the Negro! We whites have to stick together! He also was against every bill that came to his desk that would help blacks. His veto was later overridden by Congress, and the Bureau was extended a while longer, but not for long because it was dismantled by Congress in 1872.

    After the Bureau shut down, and with some political setbacks for Republicans who were sympathetic to the black cause, Negroes were left to fend for themselves. But in an extraordinary display of unity and devotion to a common thread, the North and South put aside their differences to protect their shared interest, which was the union of the United States which meant for them wealth and prosperity in their pursuit of happiness, clothed in white skin under the banner of distorted American principles with the exclusion of the Negro from both North and South. WHEW! That's a Negro mouthful, but true. This display of unity and exclusion would hopefully serve future blacks well to learn from.

    Why had American principles become distorted?

    Even before slavery formally began, American principle stated "all men are created equal" and had a right to the pursuit of personal happiness. Slavery goes against American principles and the two can't co-exist. Abraham Lincoln himself was quoted as saying, "If slavery isn't wrong, then nothing is wrong" and to his credit and vision for a United and Strong America, the Reconstruction Amendments were introduced.

    But laws have microscopic power over the motivations of a person's heart. White unprincipled Southerners didn't even attempt to join the new American spirit of things, aligning themselves as proud anti-American just as they had done by trying to secede in the Civil War. They fought tooth and nail against equality for the Negro.

    During slavery, the dependence on free black labor had transformed these money-hungry, greedy white Southerners into a hateful white SLAVE POWER who had to be stopped at all cost. This Slave Power wanted to expand slavery to new territories, but the North took a stand, and this is what started the Civil War, not because Lincoln had a burning desire to free the slaves.

    President Lincoln understood the motives of the Slave Power were against American principles and fought the war because of it.

    OH MIGHTY, MIGHTY SLAVE POWER you have indeed caused alot of pain and misery! Crazy terrorist maniac, didn't your mama teach you better?

greedy white southerners
Has A True and Principled America Simply Become An Idea
That's Too Lofty For Human Beings To Follow?


The Repulsive Slave Power That Was Intertwined With Slavery,
Along With it's Peoples and Racist Beliefs Were Wounded in The Civil War,
But Not Completely Destroyed, And Were Allowed To Thrive.
Would This Come Back To Haunt America With Bad Race Relations,
Between It's Black and White American Citizens?


only time will tell my friends


Oliver Otis Howard
Oliver Otis Howard, commissioner of The Freedmen's Bureau
photo#111-yr-1866
Trivia: Howard University was named for General Oliver Otis Howard, who was both the founder of the University and, at the time, Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau. Howard later served as President of the university from 1869–74.

Harriet Tubman
Abolitionists Harriet Tubman
photo #112- yr-1866

annual hamite award
Susie Taylor
photo #104- yr-1864

Carpetbagger
Carpetbagger
photo #100-yr-1865

annual hamite award
Hiram Rhodes Revels
photo#110-yr-1870

    Now with the re-building of America at hand and much money to be made, who would profit? Previously the North had noble motives in helping these millions of former slaves transition into the mainstream but after political losses and resistance from white Southerners they eventually aligned themselves with these unprincipled anti-Americans because of skin color and shared money interest and ignored the continued assistance needed in helping their black skin brothers.

    With the dismantlement of the Freedmen's Bureau, America officially had over four million black nomads attempting to find their way in a hostile and prejudice land. Well at least the North could say they tried if this would soothe the conscience. This time in history was the foundation for future race relations, and a good solid foundation was not laid. The North gave up the fight too quickly and passed a terrible situation to future generations.

    By now we're sure the Negro has to wonder to himself if America is being undermined and distorted at this point in history? Is something shady going on? Abraham Lincoln understood how this could happen and lost his life attempting to protect real justice, liberty and the pursuit of happiness for all Americans.


    How Were Former Slaves Feeling At This Time In History?

    Please consider a quote from a person who was there. Susie Taylor, our 1864 Hamite Award winner.

    "For two hundred years we had toiled for them; the war of 1861 came and was ended, and we thought our race was forever freed from bondage, and that the two races could live in unity with each other, but when we read almost every day of what is being done to my race by some whites in the South, I sometimes ask, "Was the war in vain? Has it brought freedom, in the full sense of the word, or has it not made our condition more hopeless?"


    Carpetbaggers:
    Carpetbaggers were mostly well-educated, middle-class white Northerners who were called Carpetbaggers because of the fancy luggage most carried. Carpetbaggers would travel to areas of the south to assist in the rebuilding during and after the civil war. (1865-1877)

    They assisted the abolitionists in teaching former black slaves to read and write among other things. White Southerners didn't like carpetbaggers because they felt they were money hungry and greedy opportunist, which in many cases were true.

    Many carpet baggers would buy former plantations at low prices and hire black workers to turn a profit, and was also involved in the politics of rebuilding the south.


    Hiram Rhodes Revels was elected as the first African American to serve in the United States Senate. Revels denounced the carpetbaggers for manipulating the black vote for personal benefit, and for keeping alive wartime hatreds...

    "Since reconstruction, the masses of my people have been, as it were, enslaved in mind by unprincipled adventurers, who, caring nothing for the country, were willing to stoop to anything no matter how infamous, to secure power to themselves, and perpetuate it."


    Abolitionists:
    Abolitionists were no nonsense type of people who recognized injustice and wanted swift action taken to remedy the wrong. They had been around during the American Revolution but became stronger in voice and influence during 1830 - 1870, becoming involved with the Northern churches and politics.

    Abolitionists were whites and blacks who hated slavery and wanted it immediately outlawed. Other anti-slavery movements sought a gradual change from slavery to freedom, or to restrict slavery in parts of the United States and prevent it from spreading further.

    Free African-Americans (before the Emancipation Proclamation) also played a role in the movement, but enslaved blacks such as Harriet Tubman had a more dangerous mission for fear of getting caught and punished and very possibly killed.





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dressed in old Union uniforms
The Army of the James, June 1864-April 1865. Shows group of seven "contrabands" dressed in old Union uniforms standing in front of a wagon and shack. (Library of Congress)

     War in 1865
  • In 1865, twenty thousand African-American troops are among the 32,000 U.S. soldiers sent to the Rio Grande as a show of force against Emperor Maximilian's French troops occupying Mexico. Some discharged black soldiers join the forces of Mexican resistance leader Benito Juarez.

  • Martin R. Delany's appointment as Major by President Abraham Lincoln makes him the highest ranking African American officer during the Civil War.


  • Commentary:
  • With the war finally over, it's interesting to note blacks made up about 179,000 of the Union army. These men and women were actually trained killers who could have very easily assembled and organized themselves and attempt to take what they wanted instead of using the political system for equal rights as they eventually chose to do, especially after they would eventually start to recognize whites were holding them back under a different form of slavery called black codes.

    Even up to our present day after much injustice, African Americans still have the same peace-loving character, even though often portrayed as powerful wild beast or savages. It shows our love and patience we have for our country and strong belief that it must do what is right.





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famous african american quotes
Famous African American Quotes

    Susie Taylor -  Hamite Award winner for 1864

    "For two hundred years we had toiled for them; the war of 1861 came and was ended, and we thought our race was forever freed from bondage, and that the two races could live in unity with each other, but when we read almost every day of what is being done to my race by some whites in the South, I sometimes ask, "Was the war in vain? Has it brought freedom, in the full sense of the word, or has it not made our condition more hopeless?"



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Numbers of United States Colored Troops by state,
North & South


North Number South Number
Connecticut 1,764 Alabama 4,969
Colorado Territory 95 Arkansas 5,526
Delaware 954 Florida 1,044
District of Columbia 3,269 Georgia 3,486
Illinois 1,811 Louisiana 24,502
Indiana 1,597 Mississippi 17,869
Iowa 440 North Carolina 5,035
Kansas 2,080 South Carolina 5,462
Kentucky 23,703 Tennessee 20,133
Maine 104 Texas 47
Maryland 8,718 Virginia 5,723
Massachusetts 3,966
Michigan 1,387 Total from South 93,796
Minnesota 104
Missouri 8,344 At large 733
New Hampshire 125 Not accounted for 5,083
New Jersey 1,185
New York 4,125
Ohio 5,092
Pennsylvania 8,612
Rhode Island 1,837
Vermont 120
West Virginia 196
Wisconsin 155
Total from North 79,283
Total 178,895
 



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african americans and religion


How did religion begin for the American Negro?

Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.

What is fetishism you may ask?


 Traditional  Benin Voodoo Dance
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance

Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.

But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.

In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.


Religion definition:
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.



Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.

But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.

Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.

This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.

Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.

During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.

But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.


The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:


Pentacostal -
 Pentacostal Movement
    William Seymour
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015

Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.

Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.

So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.




The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
 The Church Of God in Christ baptism
Church Of God in Christ Baptism
photo#112-yr-2015

The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.



A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.



Baptists -
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.



Islam -
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.

But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.

Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.

So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.




Science -
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.


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The Race Factor


racism

race issues in america
The two platforms" From a series of racist posters attacking Radical Republican exponents of black suffrage, issued during the 1866 Pennsylvania gubernatorial race.
photo #109 - in year 1863

     Race in 1865
  • May 1865 - The Ku Klux Klan is formed in Tennessee by ex-Confederates.

  • The Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War. These laws actually put blacks into a new form of slavery, perhaps worst than the previous one.




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famous african american birthdays

Ernest Hogan
Ernest Hogan
photo #112-yr-1865

Ernest Hogan
Sheet music cover to "All Coons Look Alike to Me", written by Ernest Hogan
photo #113-yr-1865

     Famous Birthdays in 1865
  • August 1865 - Janie Porter Barrett, an African American social reformer, educator and welfare worker.

  • 1865 - Ernest Hogan was the first African-American entertainer to produce and star in a Broadway show (The Oyster Man in 1907) and helped create the musical genre of ragtime. Trivia: Hogan would take a lot of flack from the African American community for his use of extremely racist and stereotypical images of blacks. One of his famous hits was entitled "All Coons Look Similar to Me" Later in life he regretted this and made the following comment before his death.   "(That) song caused a lot of trouble in and out of show business, but it was also good for show business because at the time money was short in all walks of life. With the publication of that song, a new musical rhythm was given to the people. Its popularity grew, and it sold like wildfire... That one song opened the way for a lot of colored and white songwriters. Finding the rhythm so great, they stuck to it ... and now you get hit songs without the word 'coon.' Ragtime was the rhythm played in backrooms and cafes and such places. The ragtime players were the boys who played just by ear their own creations of music which would have been lost to the world if I had not put it on paper."




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famous african american deaths

     Famous Deaths in 1865
  • November 17, 1865 - James McCune Smith, an African-American physician, apothecary, abolitionist, and author. He is the first African-American to hold a medical degree and graduated at the top in his class at the University of Glasgow, Scotland.




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famous african american weddings

     Famous Weddings in 1865
  • May 24, 1865 - Rebecca Lee Crumpler who was the first black American doctor wed Arthur Crumpler in holy matrimony.



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soul music orgin



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Thomas Wentworth Higginson
During the Civil War, Thomas Wentworth Higginson served as colonel of the 1st South Carolina Volunteers, the first federally authorized black regiment, from 1862–1864. Following the war, Higginson devoted much of the rest of his life to fighting for the rights of freed slaves, women and other disfranchised peoples.
photo #118-yr-1863

Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield
Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield
photo #102-yr-1876

John Brown Song
John Brown Song
photo #119-yr-1863

     Music in 1865

  Musical Happenings:
  • En route to his second inauguration, Abraham Lincoln is perceived as cowardly sneaking through the city of Baltimore to avoid a potential assassination plot. The incident inspires a number of popular Confederate songs ridiculing Lincoln, whose behavior and appearance are criticized in much of Confederate popular music




  Popular Songs:
  • Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield dubbed "The Black Swan", was an African-American singer considered the best-known black concert artist of her time. She was noted by James M. Trotter for her "remarkably sweet tones and wide vocal compass". She toured and conducted a Philadelphia music studio. Among her voice pupils was Thomas Bowers, who became known as "The Colored Mario" and "The American Mario" for the similarity of his voice to Italian opera tenor Giovanni Mario.



  • Thomas Wentworth Higginson:
  • Thomas Wentworth Higginson leads the First South Carolina Colored Volunteers, the first group of authorized African American soldiers. Higginson is a notable author who helps popularize many aspects of African American music. He contributed to the preservation of Negro spirituals by copying dialect verses and music he heard sung around the regiment's campfires.


  • John Brown's Song:
  • is a United States marching song about the abolitionist John Brown. The song was popular in the Union during the American Civil War.


  • "Juba Juba", a popular song about the Juba:

    Juba dis and Juba dat,
    and Juba killed da yellow cat,
    You sift the meal and ya gimme the husk,
    you bake the bread and ya gimme the crust,
    you eat the meat and ya gimme the skin,
    and that's the way,
    my mama's troubles begin


    A song about the hambone from Step it Down (v.s.):

    Hambone Hambone pat him on the shoulder
    If you get a pretty girl, I'll show you how to hold her.
    Hambone, Hambone, where have you been?
    All 'round the world and back again.
    Hambone, Hambone, what did you do?
    I got a train and I fairly flew.
    Hambone, Hambone where did you go?
    I hopped up to Miss Lucy's door.
    I asked Miss Lucy would she marry me.
    (falsetto)"Well I don't care if Papa don't care!"
    First come in was Mister Snake,
    He crawled all over that wedding cake.
    Next walked in was Mister Tick,
    He ate so much it made him sick.
    Next walked in was Mister Coon,
    We asked him to sing us a wedding tune,
    Now Ham-....
    Now Ham....




  Popular Soul Dances:
  • The Juba or Hambone dance was originally from West Africa. It became an African-American plantation dance that was performed by slaves during their gatherings when no rhythm instruments were allowed due to fear of secret codes hidden in the drumming.





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 African American mens fashion in 1864
Men's Fashion in 1864
photo #109-yr-1864

 African American womens fashion in 1864
Women's Fashion in 1864
photo #110-yr-1864

 African American men and  womens fashion in 1800s
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention
Illustration from Harper's Weekly The person who drew this Illustration was kind to black people. Usually during that time period they would portray the Negro with wild hair and humongous noses with exaggerated lips. They made us look normal. Thank you Harper's.

photo #101-yr-1869

 African American men and  womens fashion in 1800s
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention
Illustration from Harper's Weekly

photo #101-yr-1869

 African American men and  womens fashion in 1800s
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention
Illustration from Harper's Weekly

photo #101-yr-1869

     Fashions in 1865

  Popular Fashions:

    1860s fashion was European-influenced clothing is characterized by extremely full-skirted women's fashions relying on crinolines and hoops and the emergence of "alternative fashions" under the influence of the Artistic Dress movement. In men's fashion, the three-piece ditto suit of sack coat, waistcoat, and trousers in the same fabric emerged as a novelty.





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John Brown
John Brown exhibiting his hangman
photo #101

Anderson Ruffin Abbott
Anderson Ruffin Abbott
photo #114-yr-1913

African American junk dealer
The former Freedman's Savings Bank on Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C.
photo #105-yr-1874

Our Community in 1865
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:


  • (Left of page)   Northern rejoicing at the end of the Civil War often took the form of vengeful if imaginary portrayals of the execution of Confederate president Jefferson Davis. Here abolitionist martyr John Brown rises from the grave to confront Davis, although in actuality the latter had nothing to do with Brown's 1859 execution. Brown points an accusing finger at Davis, who sits imprisoned in a birdcage hanging from a gallows, and plenty of happy black people dancing at the bottom, with one even spinning on his head. We must remember that Jump Jim Crow was very popular during this era.


  • January 16, 1865 - Sherman's Special Field Orders, No. 15 were military orders issued during the American Civil War by General William Sherman which gave blacks 40 acres of land along the beautiful Atlantic coast. But this generous act was revoked in the fall of that same year by a politician who didn't care much for blacks, President Andrew Johnson.


  • March 3, 1865 – The U.S. Congress authorizes formation of the Freedmen's Bureau.

  • March 13, 1865 – American Civil War: The Confederate States of America agrees to the use of African American troops. Trivia: The Confederate army was desperate for manpower and were actually training Negroes for combat but were defeated by Union forces the following week. If their plan would have worked do you think any of these armed slaves would have turned the gun?

  • April 15, 1865 - Abraham Lincoln was assassinated.

  • June 1865 - Juneteenth, also known as Juneteenth Independence Day, Freedom Day, or Emancipation Day, is a holiday in the United States that commemorates the announcement of the abolition of slavery in the U.S. state of Texas in June 1865.

  • July 5, 1865 – The U.S. Secret Service is founded. Trivia: With the assasination of President Lincoln, officials in America recognized a need to better protect the president and thus began the Secret Service.

  • December 24, 1865 – This is the first year the The Ku Klux Klan rears it's ugly head and is formed by six Confederate Army veterans in Pulaski, Tennessee, to resist Reconstruction and intimidate "carpetbaggers" and "scalawags", as well as to repress the freed slaves.

  • The Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War. These laws actually put blacks into a new form of slavery, perhaps worst than the previous one.

  • The Freedman's Savings Bank, was a private corporation chartered by the U.S. government to encourage and guide the economic development of the newly emancipated African-American communities in the post-Civil War period. The bank's central office was located in Washington D.C., but had many branches throughout America, especially in the South. Although functioning only between 1865 and 1874, the company achieved notable successes as a leading financial institution of African-Americans. Its failure in 1874 was devastating to the newly emancipated black community. Trivia: With over 480,000 names on file, it make for the largest single repository of lineage-linked African-American records. The searchable database is available to amateur as well as professional genealogists.

  • 1865 - Anderson Ruffin Abbott   applied for a commission as an assistant surgeon, in the Union Army, in February 1863. His offer was not accepted, so in April he applied to be a “medical cadet” in the United States Colored Troops, before finally entering service as a civilian surgeon under contract. He served in Washington, D.C., from June 1863 to August 1865, starting at the recently opened Freedmen's Hospital (or Contraband Hospital) before moving to a hospital in Arlington, Virginia. One of only thirteen black surgeons to serve in the American Civil War, Abbott received numerous commendations and becoming popular in Washington society. This fostered a friendly relationship between Abbott and President Lincoln. On the night of Lincoln's assassination, Abbott accompanied Elizabeth Keckley to attend the stricken president at Petersen House. After Lincoln's death, Mary Todd Lincoln presented Abbott with the plaid shawl that Lincoln had worn to his 1861 inauguration.




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RESOURCES:


Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License


#100 -   Public Domain image - Freedmen's school?, South Carolina, 1 photographic print on carte de visite mount : albumen ; 6 x 10 cm. | Photograph shows African-American children, mainly girls, with adult women, possibly teachers. Contributor: Cooley, Sam A. (Samuel A.) - Cooley, Sam A. Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1865

#101 -   Public Domain image - John Brown exhibiting his hangman | Northern rejoicing at the end of the Civil War often took the form of vengeful if imaginary portrayals of the execution of Confederate president Jefferson Davis. Here abolitionist martyr John Brown rises from the grave to confront Davis, although in actuality the latter had nothing to do with Brown's 1859 ... Contributor: Querner, G. Date: 1865

#102 -   Public Domain image - Portrait of two unidentified African American children, 1 photographic print on carte de visite mount : albumen ; 10 x 6 cm. | Photograph shows a full-length portrait of an African American boy standing next to an African American girl seated, with an open book. Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1865

#103 -   By Leigh T Harrell (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#104 -   Public Domain image - By Roche, Emma Langdon (b. 1878) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#105 -   Public Domain image - http://www.learnnc.org/lp/multimedia/12778

#106 -   By Steve Evans from Citizen of the World (Malawi) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#107 -   Public Domain image - By unknown - not relevant because of the year [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#108 -   Public Domain image - By Esther Bubley (Library of Congress[3]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#109 -   Public Domain image - By Currier & Ives, 1865. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#110 -   Public Domain image - See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#111 -   Public Domain image - US Flag with 36 stars. In use 4 July 1867–3 July 1877. Created by jacobolus using Adobe Illustrator, and released into the public domain. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:US_flag_36_stars.svg

#112 -   Public Domain image - See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#113 -   Public Domain image - By Ernest Hogan, M. Witmark & Sons [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


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