blast from the past

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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1863:
The 54th Massachusetts Infantry
    January 1st, 1863 ushered in a new and exciting world for America. It was the first day of the Emancipation Proclamation which for black folks meant an imminent end to slavery. It had to be torture for blacks through the years being treated like animals and degraded in every form without recourse simply because their skin was black.

    Black people knew and understood they were people, even though they weren't treated as such. It's not like they were ignorant savages who didn't know any better. They cried, laughed and felt pain just like white people and also had the ability to hope for a brighter future and this day was one they had waited for a long time.

    Shortly after the Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln allowed blacks to join the armed services. Initially, he resisted in doing so but after much thought and urging from advisors he finally agreed. A contemporary of Lincoln was a great black man Frederick Douglass who argued that no one had more to fight for than African Americans. Lincoln always claimed that this war was not about the abolition of slavery but to prevent the disintegration of the United States.

    A call was sent out to black men who wanted to participate. People came from other states such as Indiana, New York, Ohio and as far away as Canada.Volunteers from the Caribbean also joined. Charles and Lewis Douglass also joined with their famous, and I'm sure proud father Frederick Douglass beaming with pride. They were named The 54th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry.

    If it weren't for brave and courageous white folks like abolitionist Governor John A. Andrew of Massachusetts, it would have been a harder task for blacks during slavery days. Andrew's chose a young white abolitionist officer of a wealthy and prominent family to lead the 54th Infantry in the battle against the Confederates named Robert Gould Shaw.

    The 54th trained for only two weeks and set sail to fight at Fort Wagner, South Carolina. Sadly, Shaw led his men on a doomed mission where the enemy was waiting and killed many of the 54th Infantry along with Shaw. William Harvey Carney received the Medal Of Honor for saving the American flag and planting it on the parapet despite being wounded several times.

    Recognizing the troops had to retreat under fire, Carney struggled back across the battlefield, being wounded twice more. He eventually made his way back to the Union lines, and turned over the colors to another survivor of the 54th, modestly saying "Boys, I only did my duty; the old flag never touched the ground!"

    The Confederates proceeded by piling the dead bodies along with Shaw's in an unmarked trench, hoping this would be an ultimate insult and that white officers would no longer be willing to fight with black soldiers. They sent the following message to Union leaders: “we have buried Shaw with his niggers.” But the reaction from Shaw's parents probably took them by surprise because they replied that there could be “no holier place” to be buried than “surrounded by…brave and devoted soldiers.”

    Although Union forces were not able to take and hold the fort, despite taking a portion of the walls in the initial assault, the 54th was widely acclaimed for its valor during the battle, and the event helped encourage the further enlistment and mobilization of African-American troops, a key development that President Abraham Lincoln once noted as helping to secure the final Union victory.

    The 54th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry were a group of great men along with great leaders who also hated slavery and wanted to root it out of the American way of life. They died for what they believed. That's the ultimate sacrifice, and that is why we must honor these great men with the 1863 Annual Hamite Award for their courageous fight for respect as human beings and freedom for all in the United States of America.

The 54th Massachusetts
Photograph of Robert Gould Shaw Memorial,
by Augustus Saint-Gaudens

photo#111


The 54th Massachusetts Infantry
William Harvey Carney
photo#112



Overview of African Americans
in the Civil War
54th infantry
The 54th Massachusetts at the Second Battle of Fort Wagner, July 18, 1863
photo#110



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How were blacks feeling in 1863?
happy mood of blacks
1863 was a year of new beginnings. It was the first stone laid in a path for human and civil rights in America. The evidence was becoming overwhelming that if given a fair shake, African Americans could perform just as well as anyone else. One man among many helped to secure that fact was Robert Smalls became the first African American to be commissioned a captain in the U.S. Navy during the Civil War, an amazing feat considering his surroundings. It's all recorded in the history books of countless other blacks who lived up to the true meaning of honor.

Thanks to the vision of a precious few white people that understood what America stood for. These people raised their voices when it wasn't popular to stand up for what this country was founded on that all men are created equal. They refused to sit on the sidelines and ignore what was going on like the majority and got involved. They were truly on the side of good and right and real Americans.

People like Senator Charles Sumner who was a friend to the Negro and without his help, events could have taken an entirely different path. Robert Gould Shaw  an American military officer in the Union Army who fought side by side with the Negro and died and was buried with the Negro, giving the ultimate sacrifice. 1863 saw a year of riots in the New York area, pure bitter hatred of one race upon another with many blacks once again losing their lives because of racism.

Perhaps The Emancipation Proclamation helped blacks to feel better about themselves realizing if they didn't have anything at least they had the law, because this is the only thing that most aggressors seemed to respect to a limited degree, saving America from all out barbarism, well at least for the time being.




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racist newspaper articles

Authentic newspaper article for the year 1863
Get a feel for what was really happening in 1863

 newspaper articles  newspaper articles

The daily Evansville journal. (Evansville, Ind.), 10 Sept. 1863. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86059058/

(images) pixabay.com




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african american first

 For the year 1863:
  • Wilberforce University, in Ohio was the first college owned and operated by African Americans.

  • Bishop Daniel Payne of Wilberforce University was the first African-American president of a college.




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black kids shooting marbles in the 1800s


Do you think these fellas know their black/american
history in regards to shooting marbles?



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black jockey

Octavius Catto
Octavius Valentine Catto
photo #121-yr-1863

      Sports in 1863
  • Blacks were not accepted into the league baseball games, so they started their own teams, becoming professional by the the 1870s. The first known baseball game between two black teams was held on November 15, 1859, in New York City. The Henson Base Ball Club of Jamaica, Queens, defeated the Unknowns of Weeksville, Brooklyn, 54 to 43.

    By the end of the 1860s, the black baseball mecca was Philadelphia, which had an African-American population of 22,000. Two former cricket players, James H. Francis and Francis Wood, formed the Pythian Base Ball Club. They played in Camden, New Jersey, at the landing of the Federal Street Ferry, because it was difficult to get permits for black baseball games in the city. Octavius Catto, the promoter of the Pythians, decided to apply for membership in the National Association of Base Ball Players, normally a matter of sending delegates to the annual convention; beyond that, a formality.

    At the end of the 1867 season "the National Association of Baseball Players voted to exclude any club with a black player." In some ways Blackball thrived under segregation, with the few black teams of the day playing not only each other but white teams as well. "Black teams earned the bulk of their income playing white independent 'semipro' clubs."


  • The mistreatment and segregation of Blacks didn't only happen in the South, but also the Northern cities like Philadelphia.



  • Octavius Valentine Catto was a black educator, intellectual, and civil rights activist in Philadelphia. As a man, he also became known as a top cricket and black baseball pioneer in 19th-century Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.




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WHO DOES THIS DETESTABLE LOOKING MONSTER REPRESENT?
greed
America began with the noblest of intentions. But she is no match for my voracious appetite of greed! My power to influence is so great it will make folly of man's moral duty on earth and a mockery of what is truly just and righteous.



Hi, my name is Rapacity Prey Sr.

I have been alive since the beginning and will always exist as long as man governs man. There is no shame in my game and proud to admit I've always been a greedy, self-serving bastard with a voracious appetite that cannot be filled. I have many followers who adore me although most don't believe I exist.
Greedy man


I control every aspect of your life without you viewing my beautiful face and hearing words coming from my mouth. For the most part, you obey my every command from my extensive communication networks. These include the printed word, radio, music, television and my favorite form in today's world, the internet.


My only objective in life is to gain wealth and to do this I must have power, which I abundantly possess. I make a huge financial profit from misery, death, and destruction and utilize my communication networks for others to take the blame. I'm a master at setting up smokescreens to do my dirty work. In fact, as mentioned earlier most don't believe I exist. (LOL)


Most people make my work easy because they refuse to peel back the layers of history to expose me. I have created religion against religion, race against race, husband against wife, parents against their children all to my advantage. I don't care one little bit because I'm getting paid in one form or another.


 civil war


Let me tell you about some of my amazing accomplishments you may be familiar. I can't name them all because there are too many. Remember the Civil War that almost tore the country apart? I was behind that. That war was all about me getting paid, even though the majority of people thought it was about preserving the Union and ending slavery. I used man's hate against themselves to grow rich beyond all expectation during the War and Reconstruction period. It was me who got paid; my belly got super fat from that scheme.


During the Gilded Age, I made more wealth than I could count and have to admit was getting sloppy in my dirty work which resulted in the new Progressive Era which sought to clean greed and corruption from government. Well, who do you think it was that put these so-called righteous do-gooders in positions of authority? Come on now, don't be so gullible, at least put up a little fight to make this game more enjoyable.


I put people in charge to make it appear they were cleaning up the corruption and greediness which made them more cunning and cautious in providing me more wealth. I had my newspapers print how great and honorable Americans were and wouldn't put up for greed, and this made people feel great about their country because it made them feel proud and righteous above all others. What a folly! If walls could only speak!


WHO IS THIS MAN?


We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population.
George Frost Kennan


This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia. In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming, and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.

In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism. We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.

Written by Cold War strategist, George Kennan
Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974




WHO IS THIS MAN?


I spent 33 years and four months in active military service and during that period I spent most of my time as a high class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and the bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism.
Smedley Butler


I helped make Mexico and especially Tampico safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street.

I helped purify Nicaragua for the International Banking House of Brown Brothers in 1902–1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for the American sugar interests in 1916.

I helped make Honduras right for the American fruit companies in 1903. In China in 1927 I helped see to it that Standard Oil went on its way unmolested. Looking back on it, I might have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate his racket in three districts. I operated on three continents.

Quoted by former U.S. Marine Corps major general, Smedley Butler
Smedley Butler became widely known for his outspoken lectures against war profiteering





I have to admit there were some great men who put up a fight. President Roosevelt and his New Deal was a hard nut to crack. He belived he could defeat me and make America the respectable place it boasted. He even did something I hated very much in proposing a United Nations organization to prevent future wars. Now come on, you know I disliked that.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt


I had made much money from World WarII. Over 60 million people died in that war, and I didn't lose one-night sleep. I had most Americans believing the war was a fight against the threat of losing democracy and had intelligent people digging out their backyards to create bunkers, that was hilarious to me.


I even had my propaganda machine fool self-righteous Americans into believing they won the war, but in actuality it was the Soviet Union who provided victory, defeating the Germans and Japan. My communications network was at the height of its glory. That war was about one thing, me getting paid.


It's sorrowful that around the world and especially Americans are so gullible and believe the lie that they are righteous above others and especially the white ones who I influenced to think they were somewhat better or superior to other races of people. I persuaded my servant Hitler to also believe he was better and superior to others and looked what happened to him. A straightforward and honest search of history would expose so much more about me, but most people are followers who jump on my propaganda bandwagon to believe what may appear to be true. But that's okay; I get paid.


The Vietnam War was one of my greatest achievements. Once again I used my communications in tricking people into believing the Communist were coming and would invade our good and precious land of America. I demanded war but that fool John Kennedy stood in my way and began to back track. Just about every one of my military leaders was livid with him because they knew war is how I get paid. We all know the outcome of John Kennedy. War = money.


I created the entire American culture for my purposes in persuading them to believe they are winners and hate losing at war. The Revoulunary war that I aided in victory went to their heads. That's why I loved LBJ when he succeeded Kennedy. He was a man after my heart. He bombed those poor people to smithereens, even secretly. He was intent on showing the world America was a winner. He made my greedy soul very glad, as did President Nixon after him, two of my greatest workers and excellent examples for all people.


Through my communications networks I had people believe the reason Martin Luther King died was because of racism. Poppycock! If King would have kept his mouth closed and kept his attention to the race issues I created, instead of speaking out against the war he would have probably lived a long and prosperous life.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.


There were too many blacks joining the white anti-war movement in protest and it created a dilemma I had to deal with. He was messing with my money, and I didn't take kindly to that. It's that simple.


In time, Robert Kennedy was attempting to become the next President and since he was in the same mold as his war hating brother I couldn't allow that and quickly made a choice.


Well as you can tell I love war and also make much profit from covert activities by installing regimes in other countries that are beneficial for me. I've been doing this for years, as a simple search in history would show. But that's not the extent of my capabilities; I also have a huge domestic interest in my beloved country.


greedy doctors
I also operate a very lucrative and legal drug business created with the assistance of science. The doctors who work for me send me their clients and I make them pay dearly. I could care less if a person suffers or die from an illness my drugs could have prevented. The truth of the matter is the top priority of scientific research was not intended to help people; its primary purpose is to fill my fat belly. Silly people!


Just put it this way. In just about every place where money can be made, I reside. I vacation on Wall Street regularly. I love the atmosphere there. I'm a master at the art of persuasion and thrive on disaster and turmoil which frightened and agitates American people but will make me more money in one form or another. Do I feel guilty? No, I don't, I don't feed a silly conscience. I only feed my fat belly. Long live America!, Or is it really America? (LOL)


John Adams




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Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
photo #108

Waiting for the hour
Watch meeting, Dec. 31, 1862 - Waiting for the hour. African-American men, women, and children gathered around a man with a watch, waiting for the Emancipation Proclamation.
photo #100

Negroes in Louisiana
The war in the southwest - Adjutant-General Thomas addressing the Negroes in Louisiana on the duties of freedom.
photo #101

     Political Scene in 1863
    Emancipation Proclamation:

    Plain and simple, President Abraham Lincoln did not view blacks as ever being equal with whites. He thought his race were better and should be kept pure. He made that clear in one of his 1858 series of debates in the Illinois race for U.S. Senate.

    “I will say then that I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races,”

    What made this man so great was his ability to put his personal beliefs secondary to what true America stood for in that all men are created equal. He died for this ideal.

    President Lincoln was a strong supporter of colonization, by sending blacks to Africa. He received a strong backlash from black leaders and abolitionists for this view and also felt that blacks shouldn't have the right to vote, serve on juries, hold office or interracial marriages. But he also believed that slavery should be outlawed, and a man should have the right to live a happy and free life, enjoying the fruits of his labors, which would have been impossible for blacks if not considered equal. To Lincoln's credit some of his views did evolve or soften over the course of his presidency.

    In the very exciting year of 1863, President Abraham Lincoln had issued the Emancipation Proclamation not because he had this burning desire to do the right thing by emancipating the slaves, but it was more of a military decision because of Union army setbacks. Lincoln needed the manpower of blacks to fight in the war. But it was a start, and I'm sure many blacks felt that they would take freedom any way they could get it.

    The Emancipation Proclamation declared “all persons held as slaves within any State, or designated part of a State, the people of which shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free..” Nonetheless, the Emancipation Proclamation did not end slavery in the nation. Lincoln recognized that the Emancipation Proclamation would have to be followed by a constitutional amendment to guarantee the abolishment of slavery.

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    O.K. Given For Blacks To Join Armed Services:

    In the previous year of 1862 many blacks wanted to fight in the civil war but were turned away because of a Federal law dating from 1792 barred Negroes from bearing arms for the U.S. army, although they had served in the American Revolution and the War of 1812.

    Lincoln didn't want to anger border states into seceding by allowing blacks in the armed services, so he was hesitant in doing so. However, the escalating number of former slaves, the declining number of white volunteers and the increasingly pressing personnel needs of the Union Army pushed the Government into reconsidering the ban.

    After the Emancipation Proclamation had been announced, black recruitment was pursued in earnest. Volunteers from South Carolina, Tennessee, and Massachusetts and even the Caribbean filled the first authorized black regiments. Black leaders such as Frederick Douglass encouraged black men to become soldiers to ensure eventual full citizenship. Volunteers began to respond, and in May 1863 the Government established the Bureau of Colored Troops to manage the burgeoning numbers of black soldiers.


    Senator Charles Sumnter
    In 1863 the Confederate Congress threatened to punish severely officers of black troops and to enslave black soldiers. As a result, President Lincoln issued General Order 233, which was an eye for an eye law. Lincoln warned, If you mistreat or kill a colored P.O.W., we will do likewise with rebel captives. The following is an actual recruiting poster directed at black men during the Civil War.

    Please pay close attention to the words of Senator Charles Sumnter who was a leader of the Radical Republicans in the United States Senate during the American Civil War. Senator Sumner was a great man and friend of the colored race. It helps us to appreciate the mood of some Americans back then in regards to slavery. It also proves that there were many who had a conscience and the slavery issue bothered them. This recruiting poster had to arouse a fire in blacks. Finally, we have a chance to gain our complete freedom in this country and be accepted and wanted as an American! Hell yeah, I want to FIGHT!!! was the black man's reply.

    It is enough that our country, aroused at last to a sense of justice, seeks to enroll colored men among it's defenders.- Charles Sumnter
    charles sumnter
    Senator Charles Sumner
    photo#114
    Recruiting Poster for Black Soldiers


    Many brave black souls enlisted and fought in the Civil War. The record is very clear about the gallantry of those proud African Americans during even in the face of racial prejudice.

    By the end of the Civil War, roughly 179,000 black men (10% of the Union Army) served as soldiers in the U.S. Army and another 19,000 served in the Navy. Nearly 40,000 black soldiers died over the course of the war—30,000 of infection or disease.

    Black soldiers served in artillery and infantry and performed all noncombat support functions that sustain an army, as well. Black carpenters, chaplains, cooks, guards, laborers, nurses, scouts, spies, steamboat pilots, surgeons, and teamsters also contributed to the war cause.

    There were nearly 80 black commissioned officers. Black women, who could not formally join the Army, nonetheless served as nurses, spies, and scouts, the most famous being Harriet Tubman, who scouted for the 2d South Carolina Volunteers.


    Article Citation:
    Freeman, Elsie, Wynell Burroughs Schamel, and Jean West. "The Fight for Equal Rights: A Recruiting Poster for Black Soldiers in the Civil War." Social Education 56, 2 (February 1992): 118-120. [Revised and updated in 1999 by Budge Weidman.]




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Numbers of United States Colored Troops by state
North & South


North Number South Number
Connecticut 1,764 Alabama 4,969
Colorado Territory 95 Arkansas 5,526
Delaware 954 Florida 1,044
District of Columbia 3,269 Georgia 3,486
Illinois 1,811 Louisiana 24,502
Indiana 1,597 Mississippi 17,869
Iowa 440 North Carolina 5,035
Kansas 2,080 South Carolina 5,462
Kentucky 23,703 Tennessee 20,133
Maine 104 Texas 47
Maryland 8,718 Virginia 5,723
Massachusetts 3,966
Michigan 1,387 Total from South 93,796
Minnesota 104
Missouri 8,344 At large 733
New Hampshire 125 Not accounted for 5,083
New Jersey 1,185
New York 4,125
Ohio 5,092
Pennsylvania 8,612
Rhode Island 1,837
Vermont 120
West Virginia 196
Wisconsin 155
Total from North 79,283
Total 178,895
 



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Robert Blake

Robert Blake was a Union Navy sailor during the American Civil War and a recipient of America's highest military decoration, the Medal of Honor. Blake was the second African American to perform a Medal of Honor action; William Harvey Carney was the first. Blake was the first African American to actually receive a Medal of Honor - his was presented to him in 1864, while Carney did not receive his until 1900. But, because Carney's Medal of Honor action occurred first, Carney, not Blake, is usually credited with being the first African American Medal of Honor recipient.



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The Race Factor



racism


Draft race riots
Depiction of the Draft Riots in 1863
photo #113

      Race in 1863
    Draft Riots which were more like Race Riots
  • In 1863 there were many immigrants arriving in New York, especially Germans and Irish. Before 1863 these immigrants had tolerated living and working with the free blacks of the city. The Civil War changed all of that. For three horrible days, many peace-loving blacks were once again beaten, lynched, and slaughtered like helpless animals.

    This is the year that Congress passed the draft law. The Union needed more manpower in the fight against the Confederates. The immigrant Irish were the main participants in the Draft riots, or should we say Race riots? Even though their skin was white, the Irishmen were not held in high regard among other whites. They had left their home in Ireland for a better life in America and once arriving here were considered drunks and low-life.

    The Irish immigrants competed with the local blacks for low paying jobs. They felt that the newly emancipated blacks would move to New York and take their jobs. When news of the draft came they felt it was unfair to fight for their new country for the sake of blacks and developed a bitter resentment towards them.

    For three days in July, they rounded up and killed every black they encountered, burned down buildings, ransacked stores, torched abolitionist homes, and even destroyed a helpless black orphanage with fire. Total property damage was about $1–5 million ($19.2 million – $95.8 million, adjusted for inflation). At least 120 civilians were killed. It took three long days for the order to be restored. Many blacks who were once again the victims of ruthless aggressors left the city in droves in 1863.




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why do others dislike black people

good black americans
"It is worthy of emphasis, that the antiquity of the Negro race is beyond dispute. His brightest days were when history was an infant; and, since he early turned from God, he has found the cold face of hate and the hurtful hand of the Caucasian against him."   George Washington Williams


Dislike of black people is a relatively new phenomenon that started after the 16th century. Before this time there wasn't a thing such as racial prejudices. If color issues did arise, it was an infrequent occurrence. It's hardly mentioned in history books. For the most part, skin color was not a factor.




In fact, it's well documented how the early Greek philosophers who were all white, Socrates, Herodotus, Thales, Alexander the Great, Aristotle among others happily mingled with the blacks. Africa was known as the learning capital of the world, and many philosophers traveled to Africa to study about everything from philosophy to mathematics. Pythagoras is believed to have made it the furthest, having studied in Kemet for 23 years.


The Greek Poet Homer was one of those travelers and made the following statement:
"In ancient times the blacks were known to be so gentle to
strangers that many believed that the gods sprang from them.
Homer sings of the Ocean, father of the gods; and says that
when Jupiter wishes to take a holiday, he visits the sea,
and goes to the banquets of the blacks,--a people humble,
courteous, and devout."

Mr. Reade http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15735/15735.txt


Black people had a good reputation for being intelligent, kind and hospitable and enjoying an advanced civilization that the Greeks envied. If alive today, Greek scholars would find it surprising how a person might believe in superiority simply because of skin color.


science failed humanity


What happened?


    History makes the answer easy. After the 16th century, race became an issue for whites because of three dynamics. Greed, science, and white history (legacy).

  • Greed
  • The trans-Atlantic slave trade was about greed. Free black labor aided in making Europeans countries and America very rich on the backs of black slaves. This created animosity between the blacks and whites.

  • Erroneous science theories
  • The introduction of false science teaching aided European and Americans in abandoning their conscience, because science didn't require one. Early Western philosophy advocated peace and treating all men with respect, but subsequent white generations did the opposite. Whites started to feel like gods themselves with their advancements in science and began to exhibit hubris, which is a Greek word denoting overconfident pride combined with arrogance. In other words, their heads became too big.

  • Incomplete history recording
  • Eurocentric history is always portrayed as the centerpiece of world history. African history was habitually erased by invading troops to eliminate its contributions and accomplishments to the world while preserving their European legacy. White history regularly portrays Africa as a wasteland full of ignorant savages, but current excavations prove the opposite. Africa was a developed continent with advanced civilizations just as good as Europe if not better.

Not to pick on white people, but it's entirely accurate they made our co-existence on this earth a race issue. This developed scorn or dislike they have for blacks continues down to our day.


Listed below are a few of the so-called geniuses who got the ball rolling in pitting white against black.

science failed humanity



Not one ounce of truth could be found in what these early scientists preached as fact. Modern science doesn't agree with them. But guess what? There's still a lot of people who believe in this ridiculous white superiority crap, either conscious or unconsciously, which doesn't say much for the intelligence of these people.


Believe it or not, this is one reason a lot of whites dislike blacks today. It's not rare to hear about media services about blacks being called derogatory names associated with past world history.


science failed humanity


So to honestly answer the question above "Why do many in America dislike black people?" At this point, it's because they want to.



Resources:

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a white officer in the Union army had the task of training colored soldiers in the Civil War. He kept a diary for our enjoyment today. (click here)

George W. Williams - History of the Negro Race in America From 1619 to 1880. (click here)

Europeans Come to Western Africa - (click here)

The Characteristics of the Negro People - (click here)



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The Christmas week
Card showing African Americans at Christmas party. 1863.



Happy Times in 1863

    With the Civil War raging on, 1863 wasn't a happy time for America. The war was on everyone's mind. It had to seem like the country was being torn apart and folks didn't know what this was going to mean for their future.

    But for African Americans, it was happy times because of The Emancipation Proclamation which had been talked about for months and was finally law on January 1st, 1863. It was called an important day for the Negro and the dawn of freedom. How did they celebrate? The New York Times newspaper which has been around since 1851 recorded the events in the year 1863.

    What's a party without BBQ?
    Many oxen were slaughtered and barbecued with sweet water to wash it down. Blacks celebrated by playing baseball among themselves, potato sack races, wheelbarrow races, climbing a greased pole gave everyone much needed laughter that soothed their tired souls. When night came, they brought out the entertainment by the Provost Guard Minstrels and the Third Rhode Island Minstrels who each gave a no-doubt soulful concert. Many blacks didn't attend the festivities though because of skepticism and thought it was a trick by the white man to proclaim they were free people.

    http://www.nytimes.com/



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famous african american birthdays


Mary Church Terrell
Mary Church Terrell was born in 1863
photo #107



      Famous Birthdays in 1863
  • January 28, 1863 - Harry C. Smith was an African American newspaper editor and politician. Smith was one of the strongest advocates for civil rights in the pre World War II era and was responsible for some of the strictest anti-lynching legislation in the country at the time.

  • September 23, 1863 - Mary Church Terrell, daughter of former slaves, was one of the first African-American women to earn a college degree.




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famous african american deaths


Robert Gould Shaw
Robert Gould Shaw
photo #115



      Famous Deaths in 1863
  • July 18, 1863 - Robert Gould Shaw  was an American military officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War. As Colonel, he commanded the all-black 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, which entered the war in 1863. He was killed in the Second Battle of Fort Wagner, near Charleston, South Carolina.




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african americans and religion


How did religion begin for the American Negro?

Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.

What is fetishism you may ask?


 Traditional  Benin Voodoo Dance
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance

Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.

But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.

In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.


Religion definition:
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.



Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.

But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.

Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.

This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.

Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.

During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.

But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.


The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:


Pentacostal -
 Pentacostal Movement
    William Seymour
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015

Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.

Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.

So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.




The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
 The Church Of God in Christ baptism
Church Of God in Christ Baptism
photo#112-yr-2015

The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.



A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.



Baptists -
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.



Islam -
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.

But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.

Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.

So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.




Science -
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.


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Thomas Wentworth Higginson
During the Civil War, Thomas Wentworth Higginson served as colonel of the 1st South Carolina Volunteers, the first federally authorized black regiment, from 1862–1864. Following the war, Higginson devoted much of the rest of his life to fighting for the rights of freed slaves, women and other disfranchised peoples.
photo #118-yr-1863

Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield
Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield
photo #102-yr-1876

John Brown Song
John Brown Song
photo #119-yr-1863


Danny 'Slapjazz' Barber and Sekani Thomas: An Apprenticeship in Hambone (aka Patting Juba)



Army Life in a Black Regiment, by Thomas Wentworth Higginson


      Music in 1863

    Musical Happenings:
  • Bandsmen in the Confederate army are given a raise, and are now paid more than privates and field musicians.


  • The Southern music publishing industry suffers due to a paper shortage


  • With the war not going well for Confederate soldiers, popular sheet music and broadsides shifted from upbeat and prideful to encouraging soldiers to "remain resolute, (reminding and worrying) them that they were fighting to protect their loved ones at home".





  Popular Songs:
  • Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield dubbed "The Black Swan", was an African-American singer considered the best-known black concert artist of her time. She was noted by James M. Trotter for her "remarkably sweet tones and wide vocal compass". She toured and conducted a Philadelphia music studio. Among her voice pupils was Thomas Bowers, who became known as "The Colored Mario" and "The American Mario" for the similarity of his voice to Italian opera tenor Giovanni Mario.



  • Thomas Wentworth Higginson:
  • Thomas Wentworth Higginson leads the First South Carolina Colored Volunteers, the first group of authorized African American soldiers. Higginson is a notable author who helps popularize many aspects of African American music. He contributed to the preservation of Negro spirituals by copying dialect verses and music he heard sung around the regiment's campfires.


  • John Brown's Song:
  • is a United States marching song about the abolitionist John Brown. The song was popular in the Union during the American Civil War.


  • "Juba Juba", a popular song about the Juba:

    Juba dis and Juba dat,
    and Juba killed da yellow cat,
    You sift the meal and ya gimme the husk,
    you bake the bread and ya gimme the crust,
    you eat the meat and ya gimme the skin,
    and that's the way,
    my mama's troubles begin


    A song about the hambone from Step it Down (v.s.):

    Hambone Hambone pat him on the shoulder
    If you get a pretty girl, I'll show you how to hold her.
    Hambone, Hambone, where have you been?
    All 'round the world and back again.
    Hambone, Hambone, what did you do?
    I got a train and I fairly flew.
    Hambone, Hambone where did you go?
    I hopped up to Miss Lucy's door.
    I asked Miss Lucy would she marry me.
    (falsetto)"Well I don't care if Papa don't care!"
    First come in was Mister Snake,
    He crawled all over that wedding cake.
    Next walked in was Mister Tick,
    He ate so much it made him sick.
    Next walked in was Mister Coon,
    We asked him to sing us a wedding tune,
    Now Ham-....
    Now Ham....




  Popular Soul Dances:
  • The Juba or Hambone dance was originally from West Africa. It became an African-American plantation dance that was performed by slaves during their gatherings when no rhythm instruments were allowed due to fear of secret codes hidden in the drumming.





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African American man wearing long coat
African American man wearing long coat and gloves, standing, facing front.

African American man wearing long coat
Unidentified African American woman, standing beside a chair.

 African American men and  womens fashion in 1800s
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention
Illustration from Harper's Weekly The person who drew this Illustration was kind to black people. Usually during that time period they would portray the Negro with wild hair and humongous noses with exaggerated lips. They made us look normal. Thank you Harper's.

photo #101-yr-1869

 African American men and  womens fashion in 1800s
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention
Illustration from Harper's Weekly

photo #101-yr-1869

 African American men and  womens fashion in 1800s
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention
Illustration from Harper's Weekly

photo #101-yr-1869

      Fashions in 1863

  Popular Fashions:

    Women
  • By the early 1860s, skirts had reached their ultimate width. After about 1862 the silhouette of the crinoline changed and rather than being bell-shaped it was now flatter at the front and projected out more behind. This large area was largely occupied by all manner of decoration. Puffs and strips could cover much of the skirt.

    Men
  • In men's fashion, the three-piece ditto suit of sack coat, waistcoat, and trousers in the same fabric emerged as a novelty.






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Yeow!, Slavery is Finally Over!
It's smooth sailing ahead
We can't wait to get out in the workforce to make our own money

What type of employment awaits us in the 1800s?


90% of Negroes still lived in the South up until the late 1910s. Blacks looking for work in the South mainly worked on the land they lived. Most were tenant farmers that did contract work on a farm by farm basis. Some blacks were hired just for a particular job and once the job was over had to find employment elsewhere. They would work and harvest the field for the season and pay the owner out of their profits for room and board and use of farming tools.

Some but not many blacks also worked in manufacturing, and for the most part were paid comparable wages as their white counterparts. However, blacks were much less likely to hold better-paying skilled jobs, and they were more liable to work for lower-paying companies.

If blacks were not working on farms, they were engaged in unskilled labor and service jobs. They were unable to afford their homes. Because of the crazy events unfolding with voter intimidations and outright murders by the KKK, with total impunity and the total disregard for assistance from American presidents, and the end of Reconstruction help. Most black children had not attended school in the year before the Census was taken, and white children were much more likely to have attended.

african americans working the farms


Immediately after the emancipation blacks were very eager to learn, school attendance was sky high, but unfolding events that were perpetrated or voted on in approval by white citizens demoralized many blacks at this point in history before the turn of the century, and don't forget the effects of damaging Jim Crows laws which were about to formally get underway.

So a typical look at the African American family at the end of the 1800s Census lived and worked on a farm in the South and did not own their home, and children in these families were unlikely to be in school even at very young ages.

Blacks also found employment in the mining industry, which was very dangerous work. In 1883, thousands of European immigrants and a large number of African Americans migrated to southern West Virginia to work in coal mines. These coal miners worked in company mines with company tools and equipment, which they were required to lease. Along with these expenses, the miners have deducted pay for housing rent and items they purchased from company stores. Furthermore, the coal companies went as far as creating their monetary system so the miners could only shop at company-owned stores. In addition to the poor economic condition, safety in the mines was a great concern with many men either killed or permanently injured.

African-Americans also worked in the shipping business as stevedores or more commonly called, longshoreman which consisted of waterfront manual laborer involved in loading and unloading ships. In the 1800s, the word stevedore was usually applied to black laborers who loaded and unloaded bales of cotton and other freight on and off riverboats.


Pullman Porters


Work for Negroes in the Northern cties weren't much better. Many blacks probably thought that after the Civil War their streets were going to be paved golden with opportunity, but boy were they in for a surprise!

Blacks were denied at every level on the economic ladder. It has been observed that this was a period the black crime rate rose, with the white crime rate going down. Whites controlled every single aspect of gainful American employment.

Factories were going full steam ahead, but when blacks tried to enter, they were shut out, why? Mainly because the whites didn't want to work side by side with blacks, so as a result they were not hired.

The textiles and garment industries were also booming during this period, but there aren't records of blacks ever being hired.

It was possible for blacks to find work with the railroads as Pullman porters, track workers, or common laborers, but at the same time when their families and friends wanted to travel on the train, they were segregated. How demoralizing that had to be. White railroad unions blocked them out from making better pay which was in the maintenance and train building departments.

In the early 1800s, there were many black craftsmen such as carpenters, machinist, contractors, etc. who enjoyed a good reputation with their skilled art trade, but in the late 1800s that image changed due to the increase of separate but equal doctrine. It's not a dispute blacks couldn't do the work, the issue was the color of skin that kept them out of the workforce.

When a black would apply for employment at a retail store, they wouldn't hire them, saying whites did not want to be served by them. One black was fortunate enough to land a job as the cities only black clerk at a commercial bank. What was the catch? He never received a raise or promotion and dared not complained.


african americans in the coal mines


Businesses would hire newly arriving immigrants before hiring their American black brothers. Blacks were better educated, but just the wrong color in their eyes.

If a black person extended himself through higher learning going on to become a doctor or lawyer, one important question has to be answered. Who were going to be his paying clients? This problem persist in today's world and as long as America is around, it always will. It's a deeply entrenched belief in white people whether conscious or unconscious to avoid doing business with blacks. (generally speaking)

Whites rarely would patronize black professionals, even famous black sociologist of those days WEB Dubois made a comment "Education will get you nothing but disappointment and humiliation.'' which Dubois had to be frustrated when making that statement because he was at the forefront in African American achievement through education.

It has been noted that there were only two avenues open for blacks during this period in history which was strike-breaking and vice.

Different businesses such as the coal mines would hire blacks a strike-breakers when the whites would protest for more money. Of course, many blacks lost their lives with the violent outburst by the white workers fearing they were losing their jobs. Blacks had to take the chance along with the danger, what else could they do?

sexy african americans in 1863


They had to feed their families too. With the women, it was the same thing. When white dressmakers went on strike, the company hired black women to take their place. So basically, blacks were used as pawns in the game.

The other avenue open to blacks was the vice, and this clearly explains how and why this phenomenon has extended down to our day for a segment of our black community. It would seem these blacks are still demoralized and traumatized from these events in history. But we have every hope they will rise and soar like the eagles. There was a lot of gambling, prostitution, lottery, and bootlegging, going on in the cities, and maybe the police kept a blind eye to it because they ignored it for a while. - At this point in history, Philadelphia was estimated to have 10,000 prostitutes and 1,000 brothels in the 1890s. Most of the vise would find it's way into the black neighborhoods with black leaders unable to stop it.

We think it's important to note that old saying that "the more things change the more they stay the same" applies here. America has made some progress in racial relations but the attitude still exist for blacks entering the workplace which is mostly white. Many will keep quiet but may not want you there, but you have your family to feed just like they do and as long as everyone does his work and obey the rules is all that matters. We're not out to win a popularity contest. But if they sincerely want to work with you, that would be wonderful!


Sources:

http://articles.philly.com/1998-02-16/news

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_coal_mining_in_the_United_States

http://eh.net/encyclopedia/african-americans-in-the-twentieth-century/

Photos#122-123-yr-1863




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Robert Smalls in 1863
Robert Smalls
photo #116-yr-1863

Anderson Ruffin Abbott
Anderson Ruffin Abbott
photo #114-yr-1913

      News in Our Community - 1863
  • Robert Smalls of Charleston, South Carolina, is the first and only African American to be commissioned a captain in the U.S. Navy during the Civil War.

  • Fort Robert Smalls, was named in his honor; it was built by free blacks in 1863 on McGuire's Hill on the South Side of Pittsburgh during the American Civil War. It survived until the 1940s.

  • The United States War Department issued General Order Number 143 on May 22, 1863, establishing the Bureau of Colored Troops to facilitate the recruitment of African-American soldiers to fight for the Union Army.

  • The Raid at Combahee Ferry was a military operation during the American Civil War; it was conducted on June 1 and June 2, 1863, by elements of the Union Army along the Combahee River in Beaufort and Colleton counties in southeast South Carolina. Harriet Tubman, who had escaped from slavery in 1849 and guided many others to freedom, was working for the Union Army and conducted its forces in the area.

  • 1863 - Anderson Ruffin Abbott   applied for a commission as an assistant surgeon, in the Union Army, in February 1863. His offer was not accepted, so in April he applied to be a “medical cadet” in the United States Colored Troops, before finally entering service as a civilian surgeon under contract. He served in Washington, D.C., from June 1863 to August 1865, starting at the recently opened Freedmen's Hospital (or Contraband Hospital) before moving to a hospital in Arlington, Virginia. One of only thirteen black surgeons to serve in the American Civil War, Abbott received numerous commendations and becoming popular in Washington society. This fostered a friendly relationship between Abbott and President Lincoln. On the night of Lincoln's assassination, Abbott accompanied Elizabeth Keckley to attend the stricken president at Petersen House. After Lincoln's death, Mary Todd Lincoln presented Abbott with the plaid shawl that Lincoln had worn to his 1861 inauguration.





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RESOURCES:


Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License


#100 -   Public Domain image - Watch meeting, Dec. 31, 1862--Waiting for the hour 1 photographic print on carte de visite mount : albumen. | African American men, women, and children gathered around a man with a watch, waiting for the Emancipation Proclamation. Contributor: Heard & Moseley Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1863

#101 -   Public Domain image - The war in the southwest - Adjutant-General Thomas addressing the Negroes in Louisiana on the duties of freedom 1 print : wood engraving. | Print shows a large crowd of African American men, women, and children, some wearing military uniforms, listening to Adjutant-General Lorenzo Thomas speak "on the duties and responsibilities of freedom." Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1863

#102 -   Public Domain image - A Negro family coming into the Union lines 1 photographic print on stereo card : stereograph ; 4 x 7 in. | Photo shows African American men, women, and children seated in front of and inside a mule-drawn covered wagon. Artist Alfred Waud worked up a sketch from this photograph, probably made in his presence by David B. Woodbury on January 1, 1863. The drawing, called "An arrival in Camp--under the Proclamation ... Contributor: Woodbury, D. B. (David B.) - Woodbury, D. B. Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1863

#103 -   Public Domain image - Unidentified African American soldier in Union uniform with wife and two daughters, 1 photograph : quarter-plate ambrotype ; 13.9 x 16.4 cm (frame) | Photograph showing soldier in uniform, wife in dress and hat, and two daughters wearing matching coats and hats. In May 1863, U.S. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton issued General Order No. 143 creating the Bureau of U. S. Colored Troops. This image was found in Cecil County, Maryland, making it likely that ... Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1863

#104 -   Public Domain image - White and black slaves from New Orleans 1 photographic print on carte de visite mount : albumen ; 10 x 6 cm. | Photograph shows a group portrait of Isaac White and Augusta Broujey with a woman, possibly freed slave Mary Johnson. Contributor: Kimball, M. H., Active - Kimball, M. H. Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1863

#105 -   Public Domain image - An arrival in Camp--under the Proclamation of Emancipation 1 drawing on brown paper : pencil and Chinese white ; 22.6 x 33.1 cm. (sheet). Contributor: Waud, Alfred R. (Alfred Rudolph) - Waud, Alfred R. Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1863

#106 -   Public Domain image - Two African American boys facing front, 1 photographic print on carte de visite mount : albumen ; 10 x 6 cm. Contributor: Heywood, J. D. (John D.) - Heywood, J. D. Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1860

#107 -   Public Domain image - See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#108 -   Public Domain image - Alexander Gardner [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#109 -   See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#110 -   [Public domain], File:The Storming of Ft Wagner-lithograph by Kurz and Allison 1890.jpg

#111 -   By United States National Park Service (http://www.cr.nps.gov/) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#112 -   By Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963, collector. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#113 -   See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#114 -   By Southworth & Hawes (Metropolitan Museum of Art) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#115 -   See page for author [Public domain], By From the Boston Athenaeum (http://www.nga.gov/feature/shaw/s3203a.shtm) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#116 -   Mathew Brady [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#117 -  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_soul_foods_and_dishes

http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/browse-author.php?a=37639
http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=6905&picture=wheat-biscuits
http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=45307&picture=fish-on-display

http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/browse-author.php?a=296 #118 -  See page for author [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#119 -  By James E. Greenleaf, C. S. Hall, C. B. Marsh [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#120 -  By Rick Reeves ([1][2]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#121 -  By Gorrister at en.wikipedia (Transfered from en.wikipedia) [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons

#122 -  Jack Delano [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#123 -  By Lewis Wickes Hine (1874-1940) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

==== #124 -   By original: w:Second Continental Congress; reproduction: William Stone (numerous) [Public domain, Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#124 -   By Constitutional Convention (U.S. National Archives and Records Administration) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

===== #125 -  Public domain
https://pixabay.com/en/mathematics-formula-physics-school-757564/

#126 -  Public domain
By United States Navy - Naval Historical Center Online Library, Photo #: NH 103762,Public Domain, Link


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